PhD student, Paul Scherrer institute
Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC) is one of the essential technologies in a sustainable, hydrogen based energy system. These fuel cells can be used for having a green fuel economy. However,the fuel cells are not very efficient to commercialize its use. In the conference, we will present a new imaging method that can be used to understand the working of a Fuel cell which would lead to higher fuel cell efficiency
Abstract: X-ray dark-field imaging promises information on the small angle scattering properties even of large samples. However, the dark-field image is correlated with the object's attenuation and phase-shift if a polychromatic x-ray spectrum is used. A method to remove part of these correlations is proposed.The experimental setup for image acquisition was modeled in a wave-field simulation to quantify the dark-field signals originating solely from a material's attenuation and phase-shift. A calibration matrix was simulated for ICRU46 breast tissue. Using the simulated data, a dark-field image of a human mastectomy sample was corrected for the finger print of attenuation- and phase-image.Comparing the simulated, attenuation-based dark-field values to a phantom measurement, a good agreement was found. Applying the proposed method to mammographic dark-field data, a reduction of the dark-field background and anatomical noise was achieved. The contrast between microcalcifications and their surrounding background was increased.The authors show that the influence of and dispersion can be quantified by simulation and, thus, measured image data can be corrected. The simulation allows to determine the corresponding dark-field artifacts for a wide range of setup parameters, like tube-voltage and filtration. The application of the proposed method to mammographic dark-field data shows an increase in contrast compared to the original image, which might simplify a further image-based diagnosis.
Pub.: 10 Jun '16, Pinned: 24 Aug '17
Abstract: This paper describes an X-ray phase contrast imaging technique using analyzer-based optics called X-ray Dark-Field Imaging that has been under development for the past 10years. We describe the theory behind XDFI, the X-ray optics required for implementing it in practice, and algorithms used for 2D, 2.5D, and 3D image reconstruction. The XDFI optical chain consists of an asymmetrically cut, Bragg-type monochromator-collimator that provides a planar monochromatic X-ray beam, a positioning stage for the specimens, a Laue-case angle analyzer, and one or two cameras to capture the dark and bright field images. We demonstrate the soft-tissue discrimination capabilities of XDFI by reconstructing images with absorption and phase contrast. By using a variety of specimens such as breast tissue with cancer, joints with articular cartilage, ex-vivo human eye specimen, and others, we show that refraction-based contrast derived from XDFI is more effective in characterizing anatomical features, articular pathology, and neoplastic disease than conventional absorption-based images. For example, XDFI of breast tissue can discriminate between the normal and diseased terminal duct lobular unit, and between invasive and in-situ cancer. The final section of this paper is devoted to potential future developments to enable clinical and histo-pathological applications of this technique.
Pub.: 28 Dec '16, Pinned: 24 Aug '17
Abstract: The dissolution of different platinum-based nanoparticles deposited on a commercial high-surface area carbon (HSAC) support in thin catalyst films is investigated using a highly sensitive electrochemical flow cell (EFC) coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The previously reported particle-size-dependent dissolution of Pt is confirmed on selected industrial samples with a mean Pt particle size ranging from 1 to 4.8 nm. This trend is significantly altered when a catalyst is diluted by the addition of HSAC. This indicates that the intrinsic dissolution properties are masked by local oversaturation phenomena, the so-called confinement effect. Furthermore, by replacing the standard HSAC support with a support having an order of magnitude higher specific surface area (a micro- and mesoporous nitrogen-doped high surface area carbon, HSANDC), Pt dissolution is reduced even further. This is due to the so-called non-intrinsic confinement and entrapment effects of the (large amount of) micropores and small mesopores doped with N atoms. The observed more effective Pt re-deposition is presumably induced by local Pt oversaturation and the presence of nitrogen nucleation sites. Overall, our study demonstrates the high importance and beneficial effects of porosity, loading and N doping of the carbon support on the Pt stability in the catalyst layer.
Pub.: 02 Aug '17, Pinned: 24 Aug '17
Join Sparrho today to stay on top of science
Discover, organise and share research that matters to you