Doctoral Candidate, University of Alberta
Development, validation and testing of models of early and involuntary retirement among RNs and AHPs
As Canadians we rely on Registered Nurses (RNs) and Allied Health Professionals (AHPs), including pharmacists, speech language pathologists, dietitians, occupational therapists and physiotherapists, to provide a diverse set of services across the continuum of care. North American populations (among others) are aging rapidly; unsurprisingly, the RN and AHP workforces are also aging. Based on current projections, there will be a shortage of RNs and AHPs in the not-so-distant future. Governments and health authorities, who are responsible for RN and AHP health workforce planning have little evidence to support projections or policy. Most research into the retirement decisions of health care personnel has been specific to nurses and physicians. In this study, I aim to identify and estimate the impact of factors (e.g. health status) on retirement decisions among Canadian RNs and AHPs. I will access data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), a database developed to provide an infrastructure for interdisciplinary, population-based research that enhances understanding of the factors shaping experiences of aging in Canada. Each RN/AHP participant (all between 45-85 years of age) will have completed a comprehensive survey with questions relating to health, finances, work and family. First, I will develop and validate conceptual models of early retirement and of involuntary retirement among RNs and AHPs. Models will be based on the literature and face validity will be evaluated by purposively sampled RNs and AHPs. In the second stage, using CLSA data, I will describe the workforce participation of AHPs in Canada (e.g. What is the average age of retirement among RNs and AHPs? Does it differ between the two groups?). In the final stage, I will conduct regression analyses (a type of statistical analysis) to determine whether an RNs/AHPs' health status, financial status, work characteristics, marital status or caregiving responsibility can be predictive of early or involuntary retirement. This study’s findings will be used to inform national and provincial workforce planning and the development of federal and provincial employment and social policy. Through a better understanding of the retirement decisions of RNs/AHPs, we can more successfully prolong the work-life of skilled RNs and AHPs, who enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the health system.
Abstract: The association of health and disability factors on the perception of involuntary retirement in Canada was investigated with a multivariate logistic regression analysis of the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey data. The study investigated the role that choice or control plays in the decision to retire. Study participants were adults, with disabilities, aged 45 to 74 and who retired during the period 2001-2006. The analysis revealed that health at the time of retirement was not significantly associated with the perception of involuntary retirement, whereas disability characteristics were strongly associated with the type of retirement when health and other characteristics were controlled. Further, persons with disabilities who had to permanently retire because of their condition were eight times more likely to retire involuntarily than those whose conditions did not force involuntary retirement, suggesting the importance that control over the retirement decision has on the perception of involuntary retirement.
Pub.: 21 Jun '13, Pinned: 25 Aug '17
Abstract: Several studies regarding the effect of retirement on physical as well as mental health have been performed, but the results thereof remain inconclusive. The aim of this review is to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of retirement, describing differences in terms of voluntary, involuntary and regulatory retirement and between blue-collar and white-collar workers.A search for longitudinal studies using keywords that referred to the exposure (retirement), outcome (health-related) and study design (longitudinal) was performed using several electronic databases. Articles were then selected for full text analysis and the reference lists of the selected studies were checked for relevant studies. The quality of the studies was rated based on predefined criteria. Data was analysed qualitatively by using a best evidence synthesis. When possible, pooled mean differences and effect sizes were calculated to estimate the effect of retirement on health.Twenty-two longitudinal studies were included, of which eleven were deemed to be of high quality. Strong evidence was found for retirement having a beneficial effect on mental health, and contradictory evidence was found for retirement having an effect on perceived general health and physical health. Few studies examined the differences between blue- and white-collar workers and between voluntary, involuntary and regulatory retirement with regards to the effect of retirement on health outcomes.More longitudinal research on the health effects of retirement is needed, including research into potentially influencing factors such as work characteristics and the characteristics of retirement.
Pub.: 18 Dec '13, Pinned: 25 Aug '17
Abstract: Pensionering wordt steeds meer gezien als een proces waarin ouderen ook na (vervroegde) uittreding nog actief kunnen worden op de arbeidsmarkt in zogenoemde doorstartbanen. In het hier gepresenteerde onderzoek is nagegaan wat de consequenties van dit doorstarten zijn voor hoe gepensioneerden hun leven ervaren. De verwachting was dat de invloed van doorstarten op het welbevinden afhangt van de vrijwilligheid van het uittredeproces. Bovendien werden verschillen in welbevinden verwacht voor de verschillende motieven om door te starten na uittreden. De gegevens zijn ontleend aan paneldata voor Nederlandse oudere werknemers. De resultaten van de conditionele veranderingsmodellen laten zien dat een onvrijwillige beëindiging van de carrière samenhangt met een afname in welbevinden ten opzichte van vrijwillig gepensioneerden. Doorstarten blijkt echter dit negatieve effect te kunnen compenseren. De resultaten bevestigen ook dat ouderen die graag door wilden starten na pensioen maar niet succesvol bleken in het vinden van werk, een afname in het welbevinden rapporteerden. Verder blijkt doorstarten om financiële redenen negatief te zijn voor het welbevinden, terwijl mensen die om intrinsieke redenen doorwerken een toename in welbevinden ervaren. De bevindingen van dit onderzoek dragen bij aan de kennis over hoe verschillende pensioentransities het leven na pensioen beïnvloeden. Dit artikel is een inkorting en bewerking van het artikel: Dingemans, E., & Henkens, K. Involuntary retirement, bridge employment, and satisfaction with life: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Organizational Behavior 2014; 35(4), 575-591. DOI: 10.1002/job.1914 .
Pub.: 17 Oct '14, Pinned: 25 Aug '17
Abstract: This study examined mechanisms of the effect of involuntary retirement on self-rated health and mental health among adults aged 50 or older. Using two waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2006 and 2010), we selected a sample of 1,195 individuals working for pay at baseline who responded to a lifestyle questionnaire in both waves. Regression-based path analyses were conducted to test the mediating effects of financial control, positive and negative family relationships, and social integration on the relationship between involuntary retirement and self-rated health and mental health. Results of mediation analyses indicated that transition to involuntary retirement was directly negatively associated with subsequent self-rated health and indirectly negatively associated with mental health via perception of less financial control. Voluntary retirement was indirectly positively associated with both self-rated and mental health via perception of more financial control. No significant direct or indirect effects of retirement were found when retirement was measured with an aggregate measure without specifying its voluntariness. Findings emphasize the importance of specifying the voluntariness of retirement and recognizing the heterogeneity in the mechanisms of involuntary and voluntary retirement.
Pub.: 15 Dec '15, Pinned: 25 Aug '17