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CURATOR
A pinboard by
Nureni Azeez
PINBOARD SUMMARY

Using wearable sensors for remote healthcare monitoring system

Recent technological advances in wireless communications and wireless sensor networks have enabled the design of low-cost, intelligent, tiny, and lightweight medical sensor nodes that can be strategically placed on human body, create a wireless body area network (WBAN) to monitor various physiological vital signs for a long period of time and providing real-time feedback to the user and medical staff. WBANs promise to re-volutionize health monitoring. In this paper, medical sensors were used to collect physiological data from ...

8 ITEMS PINNED

Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change.

Abstract: Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refugees based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refugees can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refugees. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have little thermal or hydrological buffering. Accordingly, conservation planning must focus on maintaining meta-population processes, especially through dynamic connectivity between aquatic habitats at a landscape scale.

Pub.: 26 Mar '13, Pinned: 28 Aug '17

Celecoxib for the Right Person at the Right Dose and Right Time: An Updated Overview

Abstract: Celecoxib is the only FDA selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor approved nowadays. Studies showed that its therapeutic efficacy and toxicity may be related to inter-individual variability in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. This review aims to give an updated overview on celecoxib pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in relation to genetics. For this purpose, a Medline search was performed to collect relevant literature between 2004 and 2014. Studies showed that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PTGS2-765G>C does not control COX-2 inhibitory effect of celecoxib. PGTS1 mutations may have an impact on the selectivity of celecoxib and as such on its gastrointestinal adverse events. Moreover, CYP2C9*2 and *3 allele were identified in bleeding patients taking celecoxib versus control patients. CYP2C9*2, CYP2C*3, two PTGS1 SNPs, and other variant genotypes have shown an association with acute coronary syndromes in patients taking celecoxib. As for the metabolism of celecoxib, in vitro and ex vivo studies showed a reduced clearance of celecoxib in individuals carrier of CYP2C9*3 allele and to a lower extent with CYP2C9*2 carriers. Studies also demonstrated that CYP2C8 does not have a major role in the metabolism of celecoxib. Non-conclusive data are found on the Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) which catalyze the second phase of the metabolism of celecoxib. As a conclusion, celecoxib should be used with caution in patients known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers. As for CYP2C8, UGTs and other genotypes further studies are still needed to confirm their role in the administration of celecoxib to the right person at the right dose and right time.

Pub.: 06 Oct '15, Pinned: 28 Aug '17

The Policy Role of Systematic Reviews: Past, Present and Future

Abstract: Abstract Decisions in policy and practice should always be based on the best available evidence, but synthesising the evidence is often considered an insurmountable task. Reviews aim to summarise (synthesise) the evidence in a form that is readily digestible by decision makers. Systematic reviews (SRs) are emerging as an important tool and industry standard in reviewing evidence across many disciplines. SRs are transparent, repeatable and objective, reducing bias and maximising reliability. SRs are typically much less susceptible to bias than traditional reviews, many meta-analyses and other syntheses as a result of strict guidelines and highly detailed a priori methods. SR began in medicine and revolutionised medical policy and practice by pooling disparate studies and identifying common trends that may be missed by individual studies. SRs are now also used in public health and in environmental and social sciences to aid in decision making. SR in environmental management was adapted in response to a need for answers to controversial questions, questions where doubt existed about the reliability of the evidence and where the evidence base appeared to lack consensus. SR is a valuable tool for any researcher provided they assemble the right team and have the necessary support available. They can complement longer postgraduate study and involve the development of valuable transferable skills including searching, critical appraisal, quantitative and qualitative analysis, scientific writing and science communication. Along with synthesising evidence to provide answers to questions, SRs can help in formulating hypotheses, identify knowledge gaps and highlight deficiencies in methodologies used in published research. AbstractDecisions in policy and practice should always be based on the best available evidence, but synthesising the evidence is often considered an insurmountable task. Reviews aim to summarise (synthesise) the evidence in a form that is readily digestible by decision makers. Systematic reviews (SRs) are emerging as an important tool and industry standard in reviewing evidence across many disciplines. SRs are transparent, repeatable and objective, reducing bias and maximising reliability. SRs are typically much less susceptible to bias than traditional reviews, many meta-analyses and other syntheses as a result of strict guidelines and highly detailed a priori methods. SR began in medicine and revolutionised medical policy and practice by pooling disparate studies and identifying common trends that may be missed by individual studies. SRs are now also used in public health and in environmental and social sciences to aid in decision making. SR in environmental management was adapted in response to a need for answers to controversial questions, questions where doubt existed about the reliability of the evidence and where the evidence base appeared to lack consensus. SR is a valuable tool for any researcher provided they assemble the right team and have the necessary support available. They can complement longer postgraduate study and involve the development of valuable transferable skills including searching, critical appraisal, quantitative and qualitative analysis, scientific writing and science communication. Along with synthesising evidence to provide answers to questions, SRs can help in formulating hypotheses, identify knowledge gaps and highlight deficiencies in methodologies used in published research.

Pub.: 29 Oct '14, Pinned: 28 Aug '17

Canola Interference for Weed Control

Abstract: Abstract The increased incidence of herbicide-resistant weed species, and the related biological repercussions, poses a major threat to sustainable crop production. Integrated weed management, which involves greater reliance on non-chemical weed management tactics such as crop interference, needs to be included in canola production systems. Crop interference comprises both competition and allelopathy which favour the growth of the crop. This review examines canola plant traits associated with competitiveness and allelopathy. Competitive ability is evaluated by the ability of plant morphological traits to improve access to scarce light, nutrients and water in a limited space. Allelopathy refers to the harmful or beneficial effect of crop biochemicals on neighbouring weed species. Allelochemicals are a subset of secondary metabolites produced from intact living roots and crop residues that differ between cultivars and have specific defensive functions in the rhizosphere. Elite allelopathic cultivars can be identified by screening canola germplasm. The identification of the allelochemicals involved and their effects in the field also need to be explored. The impact of genetic variation, the mechanisms of allelopathic action, the source and fate of allelochemicals and associated biota in the rhizosphere all need to be considered in new cultivar development. The breeding of weed-suppressive allelopathic canola cultivars needs to be in the context of good agronomic performance. Although allelopathic canola cultivars are unlikely to eliminate all weed pressures in the field, the extent to which they contribute in weed management is worthy of exploration. It remains to be known whether combined competitive and allelopathic cultivars can be developed to maximise overall interference. The integration of agronomic practises with canola interference also needs to be developed.AbstractThe increased incidence of herbicide-resistant weed species, and the related biological repercussions, poses a major threat to sustainable crop production. Integrated weed management, which involves greater reliance on non-chemical weed management tactics such as crop interference, needs to be included in canola production systems. Crop interference comprises both competition and allelopathy which favour the growth of the crop. This review examines canola plant traits associated with competitiveness and allelopathy. Competitive ability is evaluated by the ability of plant morphological traits to improve access to scarce light, nutrients and water in a limited space. Allelopathy refers to the harmful or beneficial effect of crop biochemicals on neighbouring weed species. Allelochemicals are a subset of secondary metabolites produced from intact living roots and crop residues that differ between cultivars and have specific defensive functions in the rhizosphere. Elite allelopathic cultivars can be identified by screening canola germplasm. The identification of the allelochemicals involved and their effects in the field also need to be explored. The impact of genetic variation, the mechanisms of allelopathic action, the source and fate of allelochemicals and associated biota in the rhizosphere all need to be considered in new cultivar development. The breeding of weed-suppressive allelopathic canola cultivars needs to be in the context of good agronomic performance. Although allelopathic canola cultivars are unlikely to eliminate all weed pressures in the field, the extent to which they contribute in weed management is worthy of exploration. It remains to be known whether combined competitive and allelopathic cultivars can be developed to maximise overall interference. The integration of agronomic practises with canola interference also needs to be developed.

Pub.: 09 Oct '14, Pinned: 28 Aug '17