A pinboard by
Line Barnkob

PhD student, Technical University of Denmark


Increasing the content in pork

Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency is a well recognised problem in Europe. The problem can be alleviated by fortifying a broader range of foods. The traditional way of fortifying is to add vitamin D directly to the food product e.g. margerine and milk. Just like humans, livestock will produce vitamin D in the skin when exposed to UVB-ligth and adding more vitamin D to the feed will consequently result in a final food product with increased vitamin D content; using these natural pathways to increase the vitamin D content is known as bio-fortification. In Europe there is limits to how much vitamin D can be added to feed, thereby limiting the posibilty to increase the vitamin D content through feed. Our aim was to investigate the effect on the content of vitamin D in pork when exposing pigs to UVB-light for a period just before slaughter. The results will be presented at the conference.


Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.

Abstract: Mushrooms exposed to sunlight or UV radiation are an excellent source of dietary vitamin D2 because they contain high concentrations of the vitamin D precursor, provitamin D2. When mushrooms are exposed to UV radiation, provitamin D2 is converted to previtamin D2. Once formed, previtamin D2 rapidly isomerizes to vitamin D2 in a similar manner that previtamin D3 isomerizes to vitamin D3 in human skin. Continued exposure of mushrooms to UV radiation results in the production of lumisterol2 and tachysterol2. It was observed that the concentration of lumisterol2 remained constant in white button mushrooms for up to 24 h after being produced. However, in the same mushroom tachysterol2 concentrations rapidly declined and were undetectable after 24 h. Shiitake mushrooms not only produce vitamin D2 but also produce vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. A study of the bioavailability of vitamin D2 in mushrooms compared with the bioavailability of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement revealed that ingestion of 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 in mushrooms is as effective as ingesting 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement in raising and maintaining blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a marker for a person's vitamin D status. Therefore, mushrooms are a rich source of vitamin D2 that when consumed can increase and maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a healthy range. Ingestion of mushrooms may also provide the consumer with a source of vitamin D3 and vitamin D4.

Pub.: 05 Feb '14, Pinned: 21 Jul '17

Increase of vitamin D(2) by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

Abstract: Mushrooms are the only non-animal food source of vitamin D. Wild mushrooms have naturally high vitamin D(2) content, and cultivated mushrooms produce vitamin D(2) from ergosterol when exposed to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase.This study investigated the effects of providing supplementary UV-B during the growth phase on vitamin D(2) formation and the interactions with growth of mushrooms, as compared to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase or exposure to sunlight for both cultivated and wild mushrooms.Experiments were carried out with exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest in the range of 0-2,400 mJ cm(-2). Mushrooms grew for 2 days with or without repeated UV-B exposure each day. Vitamin D(2) and growth rate were determined. In addition, some mushrooms were post-harvest treated by exposure at 200 mJ cm(-2) supplementary UV-B or natural sunlight, prior to vitamin D(2) determination.The content of vitamin D(2) was 0.2-164 µg 100 g(-1) fresh weight, and there was a linear relationship between UV-dose up to 1,000 mJ cm(-2) and vitamin D(2) content. The fast growth rate of the mushrooms diluted the vitamin D(2) from 24 to 3 µg 100 g(-1) within 2 days of exposure at 200 mJ cm(-2). Following repeated UV-B exposure, vitamin D(2) increased to 33 µg vitamin D(2) 100 g(-1). Growth was unaffected by UV-B. Post-harvest exposure to supplementary UV-B resulted in a higher vitamin D(2) content of 32 µg 100 g(-1) compared to the 24 µg 100 g(-1) obtained from exposure to UV-B during the growth phase. In contrast, wild and cultivated mushrooms with and without exposure to sunlight had vitamin D(2) content in the range of 0.2-1.5 µg vitamin D(2) 100 g(-1).This study showed that mushrooms with a well-defined content of vitamin D(2) can be obtained by exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest.

Pub.: 11 Apr '12, Pinned: 03 Jul '17

Vitamin D2 formation from post-harvest UV-B treatment of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and retention during storage.

Abstract: The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm (2)), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm (2)), and postharvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D 2 formation in Portabella mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D 2 degradation in treated mushrooms during storage. Within each intensity application, dose had the largest effect where more exposure converted more vitamin D 2 from ergosterol. Similar dose across each intensity application resulted in similar vitamin D 2 concentration. Practical commercial production requires as short a treatment time as possible, and intensity was a major factor from this standpoint where the time it took to achieve a similar vitamin D 2 concentration for similar dose exposure was significantly reduced as intensity increased. By using an intensity of 1.0 mW/cm (2) at a dose of 0.5 J/cm (2), the concentration of vitamin D 2 produced was 3.83 microg/g dry solids of mushrooms in 8 min, whereas using an intensity of 0.5 mW/cm (2) at a dose of 0.5 J/cm (2), the concentration of vitamin D 2 produced was 3.75microg/g dry solids of mushrooms in 18 min. Also, postharvest time did not have a significant effect on vitamin D 2 formation in mushrooms that were treated 1 and 4 days after harvest. Vitamin D 2 degraded in treated mushrooms during storage by apparent first-order kinetics, where the degradation rate constant was 0.025 h (-1). The information provided in this study will help mushroom producers develop commercial-scale UV treatment processes to add value to their crop while improving consumer health.

Pub.: 05 Jun '08, Pinned: 03 Jul '17

Impact on Vitamin D2, Vitamin D4 and Agaritine in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms after Artificial and Natural Solar UV Light Exposure.

Abstract: Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central Europe and to investigate vitamin D2 and vitamin D4 production in sliced Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) and to analyse and compare the agaritine content of naturally and artificially UV-irradiated mushrooms. Agaritine was measured for safety aspects even though there is no rationale for a link between UV light exposure and agaritine content. The artificial UV-B dose of 0.53 J/cm(2) raised the vitamin D2 content to significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of 67.1 ± 9.9 μg/g dry weight (DW) than sun exposure (3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry DW). We observed a positive correlation between vitamin D4 and vitamin D2 production (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.001) after artificial UV irradiation, with vitamin D4 levels ranging from 0 to 20.9 μg/g DW. The agaritine content varied widely but remained within normal ranges in all samples. Irrespective of the irradiation source, agaritine dropped dramatically in conjunction with all UV-B doses both artificial and natural solar, probably due to its known instability. The biological action of vitamin D from UV-exposed mushrooms reflects the activity of these two major vitamin D analogues (D2, D4). Vitamin D4 should be analysed and agaritine disregarded in future studies of UV-exposed mushrooms.

Pub.: 22 Jun '16, Pinned: 03 Jul '17

Vitamin D: can fish food-based solutions be used for reduction of vitamin D deficiency in Poland?

Abstract: The multitude of diseases promoted by vitamin D deficiency makes providing the human organism with a constant and sufficiently high supply of this compound a high priority. The aim of this study was to verify the extent to which fish present in the Polish diet can satisfy the body's requirement for this compound. The obtained data would help to evaluate whether a diet rich in fish may be a solution for vitamin D deficiency.Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol in muscle tissues of fish species popular in the Polish market were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on these updated data, and on data regarding fish consumption, it was possible to assess the level of vitamin D intake provided by fish consumption.This study proved that some of the investigated species of fish are a good source of vitamin D3. Among wild fish, Baltic salmon and herring contained the highest amount of cholecalciferol. Surprisingly, the highest content of this compound was observed in lean tilapia, farmed in China. Ergocalciferol also was found in the studied fish samples.Analysis of vitamin D content in various fish species indicated that the disproportion between requirement and supply seems too vast to enable eradication of vitamin D deficiency by fish food-based solutions. Still, increasing fish consumption or changing consumption patterns could be beneficial and result in noticeable improvements in vitamin D status.

Pub.: 04 Dec '14, Pinned: 15 Jun '17

Vitamin D: dietary requirements and food fortification as a means of helping achieve adequate vitamin D status.

Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is evident in many parts of the globe, even in the sunnier regions, for a variety of reasons. Such deficiency contributes to risk of metabolic bone disease as well as potentially other non-skeletal chronic diseases in both early-life and later-life, and thus strategies for its prevention are of major public health importance. Dietary Reference Intervals (called Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) in North America and Europe, respectively) for vitamin D have a key role in protecting against vitamin D deficiency in the population, and these have been re-evaluated in recent years on both sides of the Atlantic. The current DRI and DRVs for vitamin D and their basis will be overviewed in this review as well as some limitations that existed within the evidence-base and which contribute some degree of uncertainty to these new requirement estimates for vitamin D. The review will also compare current population intake estimates for children and adults in North America and Europe against the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin D, as a benchmark of nutritional adequacy. While vitamin D supplementation has been suggested as a method of bridging the gap between current vitamin D intakes and new recommendations, the level of usage of vitamin D supplements in many countries as well as the vitamin D content of available supplements in these countries, appears to be low. The fortification of food with vitamin D has been suggested as a strategy for increasing intake with potentially the widest reach and impact in the population. The present review will highlight the need to re-evaluate current food fortification practices as well as consider new additional food-based approaches, such as biofortification of food with vitamin D, as a means of collectively tackling the low intakes of vitamin D within populations and the consequent high prevalence of low vitamin D status that are observed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

Pub.: 01 Feb '15, Pinned: 15 Jun '17