Assistant Lecturer, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria
To reduces the latency and packet lost as a result of change in point of attachments
My area of research is in distributed systems with specifications on fog computing and IoT (Internet of Things) resource management. Fog computing is a distributed computing infrastructure that aimed towards providing supports for IoT devices and analytics. With the rapid increase in number of ubiquitous network devices often referred to as IoT devices, new form of mobility, resources allocation and management is imminent in fog infrastructure since different applications have different requirements especially in terms of response time. Moreover, for some IoT devices application execution requests are forwarded to cloud data centres that are geographically distributed, through the fog layer that leads to the increase in response time. On the other hand, data generation, processing and distribution can be handled at the network edges by fog layer which reduces the network traffic that leads to low delay and less battery consumption. However, fog computing is not a substitute of cloud computing, rather these two technologies complement one another. The complementary functions of cloud and fog enable the users to experience a new breed of computing technology that serves the requirements of the real time, low latency IoT applications running at the network edges, and also support complex analysis and long term storage of data at the core of the network. The optimisation of computing resources utilisation depends on the kind of application requirement and the nature of the terminal nodes in conjunction with the type of Scheduling policies adopted or used. Resources allocation in fog computing depends on the kind of application service request, that could either be delay tolerant or latency sensitive.
Abstract: In mobile IPv6 networks, the ping-pong type of movement brings about frequent handovers and thus increases signaling burden. This letter proposes a fast seamless handover scheme where the access router keeps the mobile node’s old reservation till the offline Count Down Timer (CDT) expires in order to reduce handover signaling and delay while the mobile node returns in a very short period of time. Based upon a poisson mobility model, an simple expression for CDT optimization is given out for the scheme to achieve the best cost performance of resource reservation.
Pub.: 01 Mar '06, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: This paper proposes an integrated mobility scheme that combines the procedures of fast handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and session initiation protocol (SIP) mobility for realtime communications. This integrated approach is based on the context of the applications utilized. Furthermore, to reduce system redundancies and signaling loads, several functionalities of FMIPv6 and SIP have been integrated to optimize the integrated mobility scheme. The proposed scheme aims at reducing the handover latency and packet loss for an ongoing realtime traffic. Using ns-2 simulation, we analyze the performance of the proposed integrated scheme and compare it with the existing protocols for a VoIP and for a video stream traffic. This mobility architecture achieves lower handover delay and less packet loss than using either FMIPv6 or SIP and hence presents a powerful handover mobility scheme for next generation IP-based wireless systems.
Pub.: 18 Jun '07, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: With the rapid development of wireless technologies and numerous types of mobile devices, the need to support seamless multimedia services in Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing (MUC) is growing. To support the seamless handover, several mobility protocols such as Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) (Johnson et al., Mobility Support in IPv6, IETF, RFC 3775, 2004) and fast handover for the MIPv6 (FMIPv6) (Koodli et al. Past handovers for mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6), IETF, RFC 4068, 2005) were developed. However, MIPv6 depreciates the Quality-of-Service (QoS) especially in multimedia service applications because of the long handover latency and packet loss problem. To solve these problems in the MIPv6, FMIPv6 is proposed in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). However, FMIPv6 is not robust for the multimedia services in heterogeneous emerging wireless networks when the MN may move to another visited network in contrast with its anticipation. In MUC, the possibility of service failure is more increased because mobile users can frequently change the access networks according to their mobility in heterogeneous wireless access networks such as 3Generation (3G), Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) and Bluetooth co-existed. In this paper, we propose a robust seamless handover scheme for the multimedia services in heterogeneous emerging wireless networks. The proposed scheme reduces the handover latency and handover initiation time when handover may fail through the management of tentative Care-of Addresses (CoAs) that does not require Duplicate Address Detection (DAD). Through performance evaluation, we show that our scheme provides more robust handover mechanism than other scheme such as FMIPv6 for the multimedia services in heterogeneous emerging wireless networks.
Pub.: 30 Dec '08, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: Excellent handover performance is essential for deploying real time applications over wireless Internets. In this paper, this study present a novel handover scheme for Mobile IPv6. The proposed scheme is based on an infrastructure, which is called Cross-layer Address Resolution (CAR). A smart message interaction for the Binding Update procedure is also introduced. The prototype is illustrated first and a buffering approach adopted to achieve zero packet loss.The proposed scheme, which is called Seamless Handover for Mobile IPv6 (S-MIPv6), evolved from Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6 (F-MIPv6). The problems in F-MIPv6, such as triangle route and sequence disorder, are solved by the proposed scheme. The S-MIPv6 avoids building tunnels and reduces registration delay. It is capable of cooperating with a Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) to take advantage from hierarchical networks. The S-MIPv6 is modeled and simulated. In a practical case, the disruption duration is close to the Data Link layer handover latency (50–100 ms). We believe that the proposed S-MIPv6 is capable of providing seamless handover for time critical services.
Pub.: 29 Jul '09, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: As the rapid development of wireless technologies and increasing communication need of people in ubiquitous environment, some handover schemes and improvements were proposed by the IETF in order to support mobility effectively. In addition, mobile Stream Control Transmission Protocol (mSCTP) proposed by the IETF is a new transport protocol supporting mobility and with a built-in feature called Multi-homing has attracted much attention from the research communities. Multi-homing is convenient to introduce IP diversity in mobility management. A seamless handover architecture called SIGMA based on mSCTP has better performance than Mobile IPv6 enhancements. However, the handover performance in SIGMA remains low if the mobile host moves at a fast speed. Aiming at this problem, we propose SHSBM, a Smooth Handover Scheme based-on mSCTP. SHSBM adopts the advantage of SIGMA, and utilize Buffer and Tunnel to better serve fast-moving users. Additionally, we propose two strategies to solve the problem caused by Buffer-scheme—sequence Out of Order. Criteria for performance evaluation including the packets’ loss rate, throughput and handover latency compared with SIGMA and Mobile IPv6 enhancements.
Pub.: 26 Mar '10, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: The IEEE 802.16e standard enhances the IEEE 802.16 for the mobility support. Mobile stations can move while receiving services, thus ongoing IP sessions may be maintained during a handover in the IEEE 802.16e. To reduce handover latency, the idea of cross-layer handover which incorporates layer 2 handover with IP layer has been devised. Various cross-layer handover schemes supporting fast handover in the IEEE 802.16e networks have been proposed. However, the problem of the conventional cross-layer fast handover schemes is that they are heavily influenced by the new address confirmation latency which is the most time-consuming procedure. In this paper, we propose an enhanced cross-layer fast handover scheme which is not susceptible to the new address confirmation latency. Detailed performance analysis is performed in terms of the signaling costs and the handover latencies to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional ones. The results of the performance evaluation confirm the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Pub.: 15 Oct '10, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.
Pub.: 24 Jan '15, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: This paper proposes a handover scheme supporting Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) in a Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) domain that improves the mobility and gives Quality of Service (QoS) and Traffic Engineering (TE) capabilities in wireless access networks. The proposed scheme takes advantages of both PMIPv6 and MPLS. PMIPv6 was designed to provide NETwork-based Localized Mobility Management (NETLMM) support to a Mobile Node (MN); therefore, the MN does not perform any mobility related signaling, while MPLS is used as an alternative tunneling technology between the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) replacing the IP-in-IP tunnels with Label Switched Path (LSP) tunnels. It can also be integrated with other QoS architectures such as Differentiated Services (DiffServ) and/or Integrated Services (IntServ). In this study, we used MATLAB to perform an analysis to evaluate the impact of introducing MPLS technology in PMIPv6 domain based on handover latency, operational overhead and packet loss during the handover. This was compared with PMIPv6, and a PMIPv6/MPLS integration. We proved that the proposed scheme can give better performance than other schemes.
Pub.: 20 Jul '11, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: The paper proposes a mobility handover scheme MHVA for IPv6-based vehicular ad hoc networks. In MHVA, a vehicle is uniquely identified by its home IPv6 address, and it can keep the communication with other nodes without a care-of address during the mobility process. In addition, MHVA adopts an advanced mobility handover mechanism where the mobility handover operation in the network layer is completed before the one in the link layer is performed. As a result, during the advanced mobility handover process, a vehicle can keep the connection with its current associated AP in the link layer, so it can receive the data forwarded by the AP. Therefore, the packet loss rate is reduced, the mobility handover cost is decreased, and the mobility handover delay is shortened. From both the theoretical perspective and simulative perspective, the performance parameters of MHVA are evaluated, and the data results show that the mobility handover cost of MHVA is lower and the mobility handover delay is shorter.
Pub.: 09 Aug '12, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is a networked-based handover protocol for the IP layer, i.e., the layer 3 mobility management protocol. In this work, we integrate fast handover and IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover (MIH) Services with PMIPv6 to improve the handover performance over the heterogeneous wireless network environment. Since it may have multiple candidate destination networks to which a Mobile Node can select for handover, it needs to consider not only the signal strength but also the corresponding networking situation for the proper selection of the next network. To reduce the packet loss situation, the multicast mechanism is adopted to forward packets to these candidate destination networks during the handover processing period. In this work, a Forward Fast Media Independent Handover Control Scheme for Proxy Mobile IPv6 (FFMIH-PMIPv6) is proposed based on the aforementioned concerns. Through the simulations for performance analysis, it shows that the proposed FFMIH-PMIPv6 can have better handover performance in terms of handover latency, packet loss rate and throughput. Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is a networked-based handover protocol for the IP layer, i.e., the layer 3 mobility management protocol. In this work, we integrate fast handover and IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover (MIH) Services with PMIPv6 to improve the handover performance over the heterogeneous wireless network environment. Since it may have multiple candidate destination networks to which a Mobile Node can select for handover, it needs to consider not only the signal strength but also the corresponding networking situation for the proper selection of the next network. To reduce the packet loss situation, the multicast mechanism is adopted to forward packets to these candidate destination networks during the handover processing period. In this work, a Forward Fast Media Independent Handover Control Scheme for Proxy Mobile IPv6 (FFMIH-PMIPv6) is proposed based on the aforementioned concerns. Through the simulations for performance analysis, it shows that the proposed FFMIH-PMIPv6 can have better handover performance in terms of handover latency, packet loss rate and throughput.
Pub.: 27 Dec '16, Pinned: 10 Oct '17
Abstract: This paper proposes a seamless mobility handover scheme (SMH) for IPv6 over low power wireless personal area networks wireless sensor networks. In SMH, the routing of the control messages for the mobility handover is performed in the link layer and is automatically achieved through the IPv6-access-node trees, so the mobility handover cost is reduced and the delay is shortened. SMH proposes the hierarchical IPv6 address structure for sensor nodes which effectively shortens the length of an IPv6 address and reduces the transmission cost. In SMH, a mobile sensor node does not need a care-of address during the mobility handover process, so it does not need to perform the binding operation between its home address and care-of address. As a result, the mobility handover cost is reduced and the delay is shortened. The paper analyzes the performance parameters of SMH, and the data results show that SMH reduces the mobility handover cost and shortens the delay.
Pub.: 30 Apr '15, Pinned: 10 Oct '17