Harris Chisangano is a Zambian based philosopher, International researcher, educator and speaker
I like using science as an instrument to explain life and existence. I am a book writer and motivational speak
In the crisis of T.B/poverty in our world, this paper assesses the value of science and agriculture
Although disputed by some observers, the international consensus on the issue of urban poverty and TB alleviation points to the importance of creating a broad set of programs to address urban poverty through strengthening the asset base of the poor. Key initiatives are required to expand the asset base of the poor in terms of improving human capital, augmenting social capital, and strengthening productive assets and household relations. Potential threats to these assets, such as violence and crime, should be addressed (Moser and Holland, 1997; Moser et al, 1998). Lastly, and of greatest importance, are the imperative for programs that will assist the poor in terms of expanding and improving the use of their labor. Urban agriculture offers one such policy opportunity for strengthening the asset base of the urban poor, not least in South Africa.
Officially sanctioned and promoted, urban agriculture could become an important component of urban development and make more food available to the urban poor. The primary purpose of such promotion should be to improve the nutritional and health standards of the poor, help their family budgets (50-70 per cent of which is usually spent on food), enable them to earn some additional income, and provide employment (WCED, 1987: 254).
In the face of a vibrant TB strategy, a new research on alleviating poverty in cities of the developing world points to the potentially important role that might be played by urban agriculture in alleviating the pressures of urban poverty (Smite & Nasr, 1992; Stren, 1992; UNDP, 1996; Rogerson, 1997; and Mougeot, 1998). World Bank research points to the need for municipal action to facilitate urban agriculture (Wegelin & Borgman, 1995; Vanderschueren et al., 1996). In studies conducted for the International Labor Organization the fostering of subsistence food production on the urban margins was described as an "unconventional proposal" for addressing issues of poverty and unemployment in developing world cities (Singh, 1989: 37).
In the international context of urban poverty analysis, the South African case is distinguished by the country's dismal history of denial of access of opportunities to the majority of its citizens (South Africa, 1997a). In many respects, apartheid planning served to displace geographically the problem of poverty. Under apartheid social engineering the poor were shifted to the margins, both of urban areas and more importantly to the margins of the country as a whole.
Abstract: The difference in Tb(3+) green luminescence intensities in doped perovskite(ABO3)-type alkaline earth stannates, AeSnO3 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba), and the Mg codoping effect on the luminescence intensities in doped CaMO3 (M = Sn, Zr) were investigated utilizing the X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) of the Tb LIII absorption edge. It is considered that the local symmetry at A sites is responsible for the different Tb(3+) luminescence intensities in AeSnO3 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) doped with Tb ions at A sites. However, it was found from the XAFS spectra that some Tb ions are unintentionally stabilized at B sites as Tb(4+), especially in BaSnO3. Not only the central symmetry for Tb(3+) at A sites but also the presence of Tb(4+) at B sites were considered to bring about the absence of Tb(3+) luminescence in doped cubic BaSnO3. No obvious changes in the Tb(3+) local structure at A sites were detected between Tb single doped and Tb-Mg codoped CaMO3 (M = Sn, Zr) from the extended XAFS oscillation, but the trace of Tb(4+) at B sites in the Tb single doped sample was observed in the X-ray absorption near edge structures. It is, therefore, considered that the Tb(3+) luminescence enhancement by Mg codoping is primarily attributed to the charge compensation rather than the changes in the local structure around Tb(3+) at A sites.
Pub.: 04 Oct '17, Pinned: 13 Oct '17