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Dr Nadine Upton, Post-doctoral Scientist | Curation made possible by Deep Science Ventures

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8 ITEMS PINNED

The Solar Probe Plus Mission: Humanity’s First Visit to Our Star

Abstract: Solar Probe Plus (SPP) will be the first spacecraft to fly into the low solar corona. SPP’s main science goal is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun’s coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what processes accelerate energetic particles. Understanding these fundamental phenomena has been a top-priority science goal for over five decades, dating back to the 1958 Simpson Committee Report. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The mission design and the technology and engineering developments enable SPP to meet its science objectives to: (1) Trace the flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and solar wind; (2) Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind; and (3) Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles. The SPP mission was confirmed in March 2014 and is under development as a part of NASA’s Living with a Star (LWS) Program. SPP is scheduled for launch in mid-2018, and will perform 24 orbits over a 7-year nominal mission duration. Seven Venus gravity assists gradually reduce SPP’s perihelion from 35 solar radii ( \(R_{S}\) ) for the first orbit to \({<}10~R_{S}\) for the final three orbits. In this paper we present the science, mission concept and the baseline vehicle for SPP, and examine how the mission will address the key science questions Solar Probe Plus (SPP) will be the first spacecraft to fly into the low solar corona. SPP’s main science goal is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun’s coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what processes accelerate energetic particles. Understanding these fundamental phenomena has been a top-priority science goal for over five decades, dating back to the 1958 Simpson Committee Report. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The mission design and the technology and engineering developments enable SPP to meet its science objectives to: (1) Trace the flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and solar wind; (2) Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind; and (3) Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles. The SPP mission was confirmed in March 2014 and is under development as a part of NASA’s Living with a Star (LWS) Program. SPP is scheduled for launch in mid-2018, and will perform 24 orbits over a 7-year nominal mission duration. Seven Venus gravity assists gradually reduce SPP’s perihelion from 35 solar radii ( \(R_{S}\) ) for the first orbit to \({<}10~R_{S}\) for the final three orbits. In this paper we present the science, mission concept and the baseline vehicle for SPP, and examine how the mission will address the key science questions \(R_{S}\) \(R_{S}\) \({<}10~R_{S}\) \({<}10~R_{S}\)

Pub.: 01 Dec '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17

Agent-based modelling and mental simulation for resilience engineering in air transport

Abstract: Publication date: March 2017 Source:Safety Science, Volume 93 Author(s): Sybert H. Stroeve, Mariken H.C. Everdij Following a discussion of recent reviews, we argue that in resilience engineering (RE) there is a need for more structured modelling approaches for analysis of resilience in sociotechnical systems that can support both qualitative and quantitative studies. In this paper we present agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) as an approach towards this end. An agent-based model of a sociotechnical system describes the performance and interactions of its constituent human operators and technical systems in an operational context. In support of RE it can effectively be used to analyse the capability of a sociotechnical system to deal with disturbances and performance variability. We present an RE cycle, which uses qualitative and quantitative ABMS phases for analysis of the adaptive capacity of a sociotechnical system. The focus in this paper is on the qualitative ABMS phase, including the development of a qualitative model and mental simulation using the qualitative model. The model development is supported by a set of model constructs, which represent key aspects of evolution of agents’ states and agents’ interactions. The mental simulations use reasoning on the basis of the qualitative model to structurally analyse the interactions and dynamics of the performance in the agent-based model. Results of the qualitative ABMS phase can be used to improve the resilience of operations or they may be followed by quantitative ABMS. The approach is presented in detail for aircraft runway approach operations using conventional systems and an advanced aircraft surveillance application system.

Pub.: 21 Nov '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17

Electromagnetic Interference in Implantable Defibrillators in Single-Engine Fixed-Wing Aircraft.

Abstract: Little is known about the possible electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the single-engine fixed-wing aircraft environment with implantable cardio-defibrillators (ICDs). Our hypothesis is that EMI in the cockpit of a single-engine fixed-wing aircraft does not result in erroneous detection of arrhythmias and the subsequent delivery of an inappropriate device therapy.ICD devices of four different manufacturers, incorporated in a thorax phantom, were transported in a Piper Dakota Aircraft with ICAO type designator P28B during several flights. The devices under test were programmed to the most sensitive settings for detection of electromagnetic signals from their environment. After the final flight the devices under test were interrogated with the dedicated programmers in order to analyze the number of tachycardias detected.Cumulative registration time of the devices under test was 11,392 min, with a mean of 2848 min per device. The registration from each one of the devices did not show any detectable "tachycardia" or subsequent inappropriate device therapy. This indicates that no external signals, which could be originating from electromagnetic fields from the aircraft's avionics, were detected by the devices under test.During transport in the cockpit of a single-engine fixed-wing aircraft, the tested ICDs did not show any signs of being affected by electromagnetic fields originating from the avionics of the aircraft. This current study indicates that EMI is not a potential safety issue for transportation of passengers with an ICD implanted in a single-engine fixed-wing aircraft.de Rotte AAJ, van der Kemp P, Mundy PA, Rienks R, de Rotte AA. Electromagnetic interference in implantable defibrillators in single-engine fixed-wing aircraft. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):52-55.

Pub.: 08 Jan '17, Pinned: 02 Mar '17

Space: The Final Frontier-Research Relevant to Mars.

Abstract: A critically important gap in knowledge surrounds the health consequences of exposure to radiation received gradually over time. Much is known about the health effects of brief high-dose exposures, such as from the atomic bombings in Japan, but the concerns today focus on the frequent low-dose exposures received by members of the public, workers, and, as addressed in this paper, astronauts. Additional guidance is needed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for planning long-term missions where the rate of radiation exposure is gradual over years and the cumulative amounts high. The direct study of low doses and low-dose rates is of immeasurable value in understanding the possible range of health effects from gradual exposures and in providing guidance for radiation protection, not only of workers and the public but also astronauts. The ongoing Million Person Study (MPS) is 10 times larger than the study of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of 86,000 survivors with estimated doses. The number of workers with >100 mSv career dose is substantially greater. The large study size, broad range of doses, and long follow-up indicate substantial statistical ability to quantify the risk of exposures that are received gradually over time. The study consists of 360,000 U.S. Department of Energy workers from the Manhattan Project; 150,000 nuclear utility workers from the inception of the nuclear age; 115,000 atomic veterans who participated in above-ground atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site and the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and Johnston Island in the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG); 250,000 radiologists and medical workers; and 130,000 industrial radiographers. NASA uses an individual risk-based system for radiation protection in contrast to the system of dose limits for occupational exposures used by terrestrial-based organizations. The permissible career exposure limit set by NASA for each astronaut is a 3% risk of exposure-induced death (REID) from cancer at a 95% confidence level to account for uncertainties in risk projections. The large size of the MPS will reduce the uncertainty in the risk estimates, narrowing the 95% confidence interval, and thus allow more time in space for astronauts. Further differences between men and women in their response to radiation can be more fully examined, and non-cancer outcomes, such as neurological disorders and cardiovascular disease, can be evaluated in a way not hitherto possible.

Pub.: 25 Feb '17, Pinned: 02 Mar '17