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Research Paper

Numerical investigation on various heat exchanger performances to determine an optimum configuration for charge air cooler, oil and water radiators in F1 sidepods

Abstract: The present work focuses on a three-dimensional CFD approach to predict the performance of various heat exchangers in conjunction with non-isothermal transitional flows for motorsport applications. The objective of this study is to determine the heat transfer, pressure drop and inhomogeneous flow behaviour for distinct heat exchangers to identify an optimum configuration for the charge air cooler, water and oil radiators placed in the sidepods of a formula one (F1) car. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of various heat exchanger configurations has been carried out in this work. In order to assess the reliability of the obtained results, a mesh sensitivity study along with additional parametric investigations have been performed to provide numerical parameters predicting accurately (a) the heat transfer rate at the fluid-solid interface and (b) the sporadic separation. As a result of the performed validation procedure in this study, the aerodynamic- and thermal boundary layer development along with the convective characteristics of the air flow have been captured accurately near to the heated surface. The characterization of a heat exchanger core and a core configuration in a closed domain is also possible with this procedure. The presented three-dimensional CFD approach could overcome the difficulties of macroscopic heat exchanger and porous media methods for F1 applications, because it can be used to predict the heat transfer and pressure drop related to the mass flow rate correlation curves. The contribution of fins to the total heat transfer rate has been predicted theoretically, and application benchmark test cases have been presented to analyze five different heat exchanger configurations in accordance with the 2014 formula one technical regulations. The numerical data extracted directly from three-dimensional CFD simulations can be used in the sidepod design process of the external cooling system of F1 engines.

Pub.: 07 Feb '17, Pinned: 08 Apr '17

Research Paper

The development of a visualisation tool for acquired motorsport data

Abstract: Data acquisition and analysis are an intrinsic part of motorsport, helping a race team objectively evaluate the performance of both their car and driver. Over time, data acquisition has become almost universally employed through all levels of racing. While large teams in the sport’s highest ranks have many resources to derive answers from these data, users in more minor ‘stepping stone’ categories often find themselves unable to successfully exploit the full potential of the information gathered because of its volume and their limited resources. Further to issues associated with the volume of data, recent trends in racing have seen cuts to the time available for driver and car testing through all levels of the sport to reduce escalating competition costs. While users are faced with ever more data and less time in which to extract useful information, the tools provided by commercial analysis packages have shown little development. This article describes the investigation into a new three-dimensional graphical display method, which aims to help the user more rapidly assimilate acquired motorsport data to the race car producing it. The first two preliminary stages of development of this system are presented, demonstrating the ability of the system to operate with two levels of complexity, which might be considered to suitably represent different levels of user. Together, results from both demonstrate the system’s potential for further development as a useful tool for accelerating a race team’s analysis of acquired data.

Pub.: 29 Nov '16, Pinned: 09 Feb '17

Research Paper

Grille design for passenger car to improve aerodynamic and cooling performance using CFD technique

Abstract: Abstract Grille opening shape for small passenger car is designed numerically by using parametric study. Key geometric parameters to design a grille opening configuration are represented by vertical height, horizontal width, size, linear deformation, position, and blockage. Numerical study investigates the effects of those key parameters on the aerodynamic drag and the grille inlet flow rate, which are very important to the aerodynamic performance as well as the powertrain cooling performance of the car. Flow simulations are performed at the velocity of 110 km/h inflow condition. The outflow boundary condition is implemented by pressure outlet condition of atmospheric pressure. Moving wall condition of 110 km/h is set on the ground.AbstractGrille opening shape for small passenger car is designed numerically by using parametric study. Key geometric parameters to design a grille opening configuration are represented by vertical height, horizontal width, size, linear deformation, position, and blockage. Numerical study investigates the effects of those key parameters on the aerodynamic drag and the grille inlet flow rate, which are very important to the aerodynamic performance as well as the powertrain cooling performance of the car. Flow simulations are performed at the velocity of 110 km/h inflow condition. The outflow boundary condition is implemented by pressure outlet condition of atmospheric pressure. Moving wall condition of 110 km/h is set on the ground.

Pub.: 01 Dec '16, Pinned: 13 Sep '16

Research Paper

Drag reduction of a car model by linear genetic programming control

Abstract: We investigate open- and closed-loop active control for aerodynamic drag reduction of a car model. Turbulent flow around a blunt-edged Ahmed body is examined at $Re_{H}\approx3\times10^{5}$ based on body height. The actuation is performed with pulsed jets at all trailing edges combined with a Coanda deflection surface. The flow is monitored with pressure sensors distributed at the rear side. We apply a model-free control strategy building on Dracopoulos & Kent (Neural Comput. & Applic., vol. 6, 1997, pp. 214-228) and Gautier et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 770, 2015, pp. 442-457). The optimized control laws comprise periodic forcing, multi-frequency forcing and sensor-based feedback including also time-history information feedback and combination thereof. Key enabler is linear genetic programming as simple and efficient framework for multiple inputs (actuators) and multiple outputs (sensors). The proposed linear genetic programming control can select the best open- or closed-loop control in an unsupervised manner. Approximately 33% base pressure recovery associated with 22% drag reduction is achieved in all considered classes of control laws. Intriguingly, the feedback actuation emulates periodic high-frequency forcing by selecting one pressure sensor in the optimal control law. Our control strategy is, in principle, applicable to all multiple actuators and sensors experiments.

Pub.: 08 Sep '16, Pinned: 13 Sep '16

Research Paper

Design, build, and test a formula student racing car: An educational engineering exercise at Philadelphia University

Abstract: This current project is carried out at Philadelphia University and describes the work associated with the design, build, and test a Formula Student racing car in order to compete at Formula Student competition at UK 2014. Following the Formula Society of Automotive Engineers regulations 2014,1 this car must be a single seat car with an engine displacement not exceeding 610 cc. It is important to recognize that the design of a Formula Student racing car must involve the study of material structure, aerodynamics, suspension dynamics, internal combustion engine, selection of materials, and the requirements for manufacturing. All of these procedures must be followed to reach an optimum design. The challenge to teams is to develop a vehicle that can successfully compete in all the events (static and dynamic) described in the Formula Society of Automotive Engineers rules. This project is considered as an educational, practical, and training exercise on mechanical engineering principles for the undergraduate and graduate students. Also, it is a high performance engineering project for engineering students to acquire design concepts in automotive, engineering skills, and the freedom to express their creativity and imaginations. Finally, this project will develop experience, skills, and professionalism as ‘hands on engineers’, and hopefully to enhance automotive industry in Jordan.

Pub.: 09 Mar '16, Pinned: 13 Sep '16