I currently research pharmacological methods to treat atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases with emphasis in bioactive lipids. My academic backgrounds are in gut physiology and biomedical engineering.
In addition to scientific research, I enjoy art (painting) and distance running (marathons). I also love mentoring and participating in events that engage students and the community.
Mounting evidence points to a link between the make-up of the gut microbiome and multiple sclerosis.
Tweaking our bacterial mix can pave the way for new therapies.
In 10 seconds? The millions of diverse bacteria living in our guts can affect our susceptibility to diseases. There seems to be a link with MS too, with certain bacteria multiplying specifically in the guts of MS sufferers.
What do gut microbes do? Depending on which ones you have, you might be protected from or prone to inflammation. These tiny organisms normally work to block toxins that get into your body and support immune responses to keep you healthy. In fact, 70% of the body’s immune cells are found in the tissue lining the gut, so what goes on down there matters.
And what if we change their composition? It would impact our immune system. The types of bacteria present can affect how susceptible we are to autoimmune diseases like MS, which develops as an inflammatory reaction to false immune response signals in the body.
So is MS caused by a bacterial imbalance? Well, I didn’t exactly say that. The causes of MS are still being investigated, but some interesting links are being investigated for therapeutic applications. Researchers have discovered how the presence of some bacteria increases and reduces in MS patients’ guts.
How did they work this out? They transplanted gut bacteria from MS patients into mice with artificially induced brain inflammation: this bacterial ‘boost’ made the inflammation more severe. In another study, they injected mice with microbes from discordant twins. Mice that received bugs from the twin with MS were 3 times more likely to develop severe brain inflammation than mice receiving bacteria from the healthy twin.
Did they identify microbes that contribute to MS? Scientists found that the microbes that differ in abundance between healthy people and MS patients cause immune cells to trigger inflammation to fight off a false infection, and at the same time, deplete cells that could keep MS in check. They’ve also established how microbes influence the immune attack on nerve-protecting myelin — a key effect of MS.
Ultimately, will tweaking gut bacteria treat MS? This research alone doesn’t offer a breakthrough, as the microbiome is not the only trigger of MS. But the composition of the gut bugs can be modified, so the idea does have potential for therapy. Studying the role of these bacteria can also help us figure out what might be causing MS.
How to tweak your gut microbiome
Regulating the microbiome has a number of health benefits, but nutritionists advise against any sudden or radical hack.
Their suggestion is to ‘remodel’ the microbiome through a balanced diet, rather than loading it with supplements.
They emphasise the need to quit eating processed foods, lower your sugar intake, get your carbs from vegetables and eat more fermented foods. Also, only take antibiotics — which kill microbes in the gut — when it’s absolutely necessary.
Interestingly, learning to relax and reduce anxiety can contribute to a healthy gut microbiome.
Abstract: There is emerging evidence that the commensal microbiota has a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the CNS. Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 34 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS. While there were no major differences in the overall microbial profiles, we found a significant increase in some taxa such as Akkermansia in untreated MS twins. Furthermore, most notably, when transplanted to a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous brain autoimmunity, MS twin-derived microbiota induced a significantly higher incidence of autoimmunity than the healthy twin-derived microbiota. The microbial profiles of the colonized mice showed a high intraindividual and remarkable temporal stability with several differences, including Sutterella, an organism shown to induce a protective immunoregulatory profile in vitro. Immune cells from mouse recipients of MS-twin samples produced less IL-10 than immune cells from mice colonized with healthy-twin samples. IL-10 may have a regulatory role in spontaneous CNS autoimmunity, as neutralization of the cytokine in mice colonized with healthy-twin fecal samples increased disease incidence. These findings provide evidence that MS-derived microbiota contain factors that precipitate an MS-like autoimmune disease in a transgenic mouse model. They hence encourage the detailed search for protective and pathogenic microbial components in human MS.
Pub.: 13 Sep '17, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: The gut microbiota regulates T cell functions throughout the body. We hypothesized that intestinal bacteria impact the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disorder of the CNS and thus analyzed the microbiomes of 71 MS patients not undergoing treatment and 71 healthy controls. Although no major shifts in microbial community structure were found, we identified specific bacterial taxa that were significantly associated with MS. Akkermansia muciniphila and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, both increased in MS patients, induced proinflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in monocolonized mice. In contrast, Parabacteroides distasonis, which was reduced in MS patients, stimulated antiinflammatory IL-10-expressing human CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells and IL-10(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs in mice. Finally, microbiota transplants from MS patients into germ-free mice resulted in more severe symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and reduced proportions of IL-10(+) Tregs compared with mice "humanized" with microbiota from healthy controls. This study identifies specific human gut bacteria that regulate adaptive autoimmune responses, suggesting therapeutic targeting of the microbiota as a treatment for MS.
Pub.: 13 Sep '17, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS), leading to demyelination, axonal damage, and symptoms such as fatigue and disability. Although the cause of MS is not known, the infiltration of peripherally activated immune cells into the CNS has a key pathogenic role. Accumulating evidence supports an important role of diet and gut microbiota in immune-mediated diseases. Preclinical as well as clinical studies suggest a role for gut microbiota and dietary components in MS. Here, we review these recent studies on gut microbiota and dietary interventions in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We also propose directions for future research.
Pub.: 21 Sep '17, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system (CNS) mainly in young adults, and a breakage of immune tolerance to CNS self-antigens has been suggested to initiate CNS autoimmunity. Age and microbial infection are well-known factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases, including MS. Recent studies have suggested that alterations in the gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis, are associated with MS. However, it is still largely unknown how gut dysbiosis affects the onset and progression of CNS autoimmunity. In this study, we investigated the effects of age and gut dysbiosis on the development of CNS autoimmunity in humanized transgenic mice expressing the MS-associated MHC class II (MHC-II) gene, HLA-DR2a, and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes specific for MBP87-99/DR2a that were derived from an MS patient. We show here that the induction of gut dysbiosis triggers the development of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) during adolescence and early young adulthood, while an increase in immunological tolerance with aging suppresses disease onset after late young adulthood in mice. Furthermore, gut dysbiosis induces the expression of complement C3 and production of the anaphylatoxin C3a, and down-regulates the expression of the Foxp3 gene and anergy-related E3 ubiquitin ligase genes. Consequently, gut dysbiosis was able to trigger the development of encephalitogenic T cells and promote the induction of EAE during the age window of young adulthood.
Pub.: 16 Oct '17, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Although the effects of commensal bacteria on intestinal immune development seem to be profound, it remains speculative whether the gut microbiota influences extraintestinal biological functions. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune disease leading to progressive deterioration of neurological function. Although the cause of MS is unknown, microorganisms seem to be important for the onset and/or progression of disease. However, it is unclear how microbial colonization, either symbiotic or infectious, affects autoimmunity. Herein, we investigate a role for the microbiota during the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. Mice maintained under germ-free conditions develop significantly attenuated EAE compared with conventionally colonized mice. Germ-free animals, induced for EAE, produce lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17A in both the intestine and spinal cord but display a reciprocal increase in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Mechanistically, we show that gut dendritic cells from germ-free animals are reduced in the ability to stimulate proinflammatory T cell responses. Intestinal colonization with segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) is known to promote IL-17 production in the gut; here, we show that SFBs also induced IL-17A-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17) in the CNS. Remarkably, germ-free animals harboring SFBs alone developed EAE, showing that gut bacteria can affect neurologic inflammation. These findings reveal that the intestinal microbiota profoundly impacts the balance between pro- and antiinflammatory immune responses during EAE and suggest that modulation of gut bacteria may provide therapeutic targets for extraintestinal inflammatory diseases such as MS.
Pub.: 28 Jul '10, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: The mammalian gastrointestinal track harbors a highly heterogeneous population of microbial organisms that are essential for the complete development of the immune system. The gut microbes or "microbiota," coupled with host genetics, determine the development of both local microbial populations and the immune system to create a complex balance recently termed the "microbiome." Alterations of the gut microbiome may lead to dysregulation of immune responses both in the gut and in distal effector immune sites such as the central nervous system (CNS). Recent findings in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of human multiple sclerosis, suggest that altering certain bacterial populations present in the gut can lead to a proinflammatory condition that may result in the development of autoimmune diseases, in particular human multiple sclerosis. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products, when presented in the correct context, can protect against inflammation within the CNS.
Pub.: 10 Mar '11, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multifocal areas of demyelination, axonal damage, activation of glial cells, and immune cell infiltration. Despite intensive years of research, the etiology of this neurological disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, the abundance of immune cells such as T lymphocytes and their products in CNS lesions of MS patients supports the notion that MS is an immune-mediated disorder. An important body of evidence gathered from MS animal models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), points to the central contribution of CD4 T lymphocytes in disease pathogenesis. Both Th1 (producing interferon-γ) and Th17 (producing interleukin 17) CD4 T lymphocytes targeting CNS self-antigens have been implicated in MS and EAE pathobiology. Moreover, several publications suggest that CD8 T lymphocytes also participate in the development of MS lesions. The migration of activated T lymphocytes from the periphery into the CNS has been identified as a crucial step in the formation of MS lesions. Several factors promote such T cell extravasation including: molecules (e.g., cell adhesion molecules) implicated in the T cell-blood brain barrier interaction, and chemokines produced by neural cells. Finally, once in the CNS, T lymphocytes need to be reactivated by local antigen presenting cells prior to enter the parenchyma where they can initiate damage. Further investigations will be necessary to elucidate the impact of environmental factors (e.g., gut microbiota) and CNS intrinsic properties (e.g., microglial activation) on this inflammatory neurological disease.
Pub.: 08 May '15, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Astrocytes have important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) during health and disease. Through genome-wide analyses we detected a transcriptional response to type I interferons (IFN-Is) in astrocytes during experimental CNS autoimmunity and also in CNS lesions from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). IFN-I signaling in astrocytes reduces inflammation and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease scores via the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2). The anti-inflammatory effects of nasally administered interferon (IFN)-β are partly mediated by AHR. Dietary tryptophan is metabolized by the gut microbiota into AHR agonists that have an effect on astrocytes to limit CNS inflammation. EAE scores were increased following ampicillin treatment during the recovery phase, and CNS inflammation was reduced in antibiotic-treated mice by supplementation with the tryptophan metabolites indole, indoxyl-3-sulfate, indole-3-propionic acid and indole-3-aldehyde, or the bacterial enzyme tryptophanase. In individuals with MS, the circulating levels of AHR agonists were decreased. These findings suggest that IFN-Is produced in the CNS function in combination with metabolites derived from dietary tryptophan by the gut flora to activate AHR signaling in astrocytes and suppress CNS inflammation.
Pub.: 09 May '16, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been shown to be associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the pivotal role played by CD44 in the regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. In the current study, we determined whether these effects resulted from an alteration in gut microbiota and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in CD44KO mice. Fecal transfer from naïve CD44KO but not CD44WT mice, into EAE-induced CD44WT mice, led to significant amelioration of EAE. High-throughput bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, followed by clustering sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and biochemical analysis, revealed that EAE-induced CD44KO mice showed significant diversity, richness, and evenness when compared to EAE-induced CD44WT mice at the phylum level, with dominant Bacteroidetes (68.5%) and low Firmicutes (26.8%). Further, data showed a significant change in the abundance of SCFAs, propionic acid and i-butyric acid in EAE-CD44KO compared to EAE-CD44WT mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the attenuation of EAE seen following CD44 gene deletion in mice may result from alterations in the gut microbiota and SCFAs. Furthermore, our studies also demonstrate that the phenotype of gene knock-out animals may be shaped by gut microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pub.: 26 May '17, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: The commensal microbiota has emerged as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models have shown that the commensal microbiota is an essential player in triggering autoimmune demyelination. Likewise, the commensal microbiota modulates the host immune system, alters the integrity and function of biological barriers and has a direct effect on several types of central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Moreover, a characteristic gut dysbiosis has been recognized as a consistent feature during the clinical course of MS, and the MS-related microbiota is gradually being elucidated. This review highlights animal studies in which commensal microbiota modulation was tested in EAE, as well as the mechanisms of action and influence of the commensal microbiota not only in the local milieu but also in the innate and adaptive immune system and the CNS. Regarding human research, this review focuses on studies that show how the commensal microbiota might act as a pathogenic environmental risk factor by directing immune responses towards characteristic pathogenic profiles of MS. We speculate how specific microbiome signatures could be obtained and used as potential pathogenic events and biomarkers for the clinical course of MS. Finally, we review recently published and ongoing clinical trials in MS patients regarding the immunomodulatory properties exerted by some microorganisms. Because MS is a complex disease with a large variety of associated environmental risk factors, we suggest that current treatments combined with strategies that modulate the commensal microbiota would constitute a broader immunotherapeutic approach and improve the clinical outcome for MS patients.
Pub.: 02 Dec '17, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease affecting the brain and spinal cord, remains poorly understood. Patients with MS typically present with recurrent episodes of neurological dysfunctions such as blindness, paresis, and sensory disturbances. Studies on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal models have led to a number of testable hypotheses including a hypothetical role of altered gut microbiota in the development of MS. To investigate whether gut microbiota in patients with MS is altered, we compared the gut microbiota of 20 Japanese patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (MS20) with that of 40 healthy Japanese subjects (HC40) and an additional 18 healthy subjects (HC18). All the HC18 subjects repeatedly provided fecal samples over the course of months (158 samples in total). Analysis of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene by using a high-throughput culture-independent pyrosequencing method provided evidence of a moderate dysbiosis in the structure of gut microbiota in patients with MS. Furthermore, we found 21 species that showed significant differences in relative abundance between the MS20 and HC40 samples. On comparing MS samples to the 158 longitudinal HC18 samples, the differences were found to be reproducibly significant for most of the species. These taxa comprised primarily of clostridial species belonging to Clostridia clusters XIVa and IV and Bacteroidetes. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that none of the clostridial species that were significantly reduced in the gut microbiota of patients with MS overlapped with other spore-forming clostridial species capable of inducing colonic regulatory T cells (Treg), which prevent autoimmunity and allergies; this suggests that many of the clostridial species associated with MS might be distinct from those broadly associated with autoimmune conditions. Correcting the dysbiosis and altered gut microbiota might deserve consideration as a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of MS.
Pub.: 15 Sep '15, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Differences in gut bacteria have been described in several autoimmune disorders. In this exploratory pilot study, we compared gut bacteria in patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls and evaluated the influence of glatiramer acetate and vitamin D treatment on the microbiota.Subjects were otherwise healthy white women with or without relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who were vitamin D insufficient. Patients with multiple sclerosis were untreated or were receiving glatiramer acetate. Subjects collected stool at baseline and after 90 days of vitamin D3 (5000 IU/d) supplementation. The abundance of operational taxonomic units was evaluated by hybridization of 16S rRNA to a DNA microarray.While there was overlap of gut bacterial communities, the abundance of some operational taxonomic units, including Faecalibacterium, was lower in patients with multiple sclerosis. Glatiramer acetate-treated patients with multiple sclerosis showed differences in community composition compared with untreated subjects, including Bacteroidaceae, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillaceae, Clostridium, and other Clostridiales. Compared with the other groups, untreated patients with multiple sclerosis had an increase in the Akkermansia, Faecalibacterium, and Coprococcus genera after vitamin D supplementation.While overall bacterial communities were similar, specific operational taxonomic units differed between healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis. Glatiramer acetate and vitamin D supplementation were associated with differences or changes in the microbiota. This study was exploratory, and larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
Pub.: 17 Mar '15, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: To maintain intestinal health, the immune system must faithfully respond to antigens from pathogenic microbes while limiting reactions to self-molecules. The gastrointestinal tract represents a unique challenge to the immune system, as it is permanently colonized by a diverse amalgam of bacterial phylotypes producing multitudes of foreign microbial products. Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that inflammatory bowel disease results from uncontrolled inflammation to the intestinal microbiota. However, molecular mechanisms that actively promote mucosal tolerance to the microbiota remain unknown. We report herein that a prominent human commensal, Bacteroides fragilis, directs the development of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) with a unique "inducible" genetic signature. Monocolonization of germ-free animals with B. fragilis increases the suppressive capacity of Tregs and induces anti-inflammatory cytokine production exclusively from Foxp3(+) T cells in the gut. We show that the immunomodulatory molecule, polysaccharide A (PSA), of B. fragilis mediates the conversion of CD4(+) T cells into Foxp3(+) Treg cells that produce IL-10 during commensal colonization. Functional Foxp3(+) Treg cells are also produced by PSA during intestinal inflammation, and Toll-like receptor 2 signaling is required for both Treg induction and IL-10 expression. Most significantly, we show that PSA is not only able to prevent, but also cure experimental colitis in animals. Our results therefore demonstrate that B. fragilis co-opts the Treg lineage differentiation pathway in the gut to actively induce mucosal tolerance.
Pub.: 23 Jun '10, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a metabolically demanding disease involving immune-mediated destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated a significant alteration in disease course in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) preclinical model of MS due to diet. Based on the established crosstalk between metabolism and gut microbiota, we took an unbiased sampling of microbiota, in the stool, and metabolites, in the serum and stool, from mice (Mus musculus) on the two different diets, the Teklad global soy protein-free extruded rodent diet (irradiated diet) and the Teklad sterilisable rodent diet (autoclaved diet). Within the microbiota, the genus Lactobacillus was found to be inversely correlated with EAE severity. Therapeutic treatment with Lactobacillus paracasei resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of disease, clinical scores and the amount of weight loss in EAE mice. Within the metabolites, we identified shifts in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle that may explain the differences in disease severity between the different diets in EAE. This work begins to elucidate the relationship between diet, microbiota and metabolism in the EAE preclinical model of MS and identifies targets for further study with the goal to more specifically probe the complex metabolic interaction at play in EAE that may have translational relevance to MS patients.
Pub.: 31 Jan '18, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: The microbiome can be defined as the sum of the microbial and host's genome. Recent information regarding this complex organ suggests that in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS), the composition of the gut microbiome can be altered, giving rise to both the effector and regulatory phases of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Experimental findings during the past decade in animal models of MS have provided clear evidence for the significant role of gut microbes in both the effector and regulatory phase of this condition. There is mounting evidence in preliminary human studies suggesting that a dysbiotic MS gut microbiome could affect disease progression. We propose considering the gut microbiome as a key organ for the regulation of tolerance mechanisms and speculate that the gut microbiome is the major environmental risk factor for CNS demyelinating disease. Accordingly, we hypothesize that intervention of the gut microbiome could result in safer novel therapeutic strategies to treat MS.
Pub.: 10 Jan '18, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: The importance of the gut microbiome in the regulation of non-infectious diseases has earned recently an unprecedented interest from biomedical researchers. Widespread use of next generation sequencing techniques have prepared a foundation for further research by correlating the presence of specific bacterial species with an onset or severity of a disease state, heralded paradigm-shifting results. This review covers the mechanisms through which a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the pathological symptoms in an autoimmune neurodegenerative disorder, Multiple Sclerosis (MS). While the Central Nervous System (CNS) is protected by the Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB), it is unclear how gut dysbiosis can trigger potential immunological changes in the CNS in the presence of BBB. This review focuses on immuno-regulatory functionality of microbial metabolites, which can cross BBB and mediate their effects directly on immune cells within the CNS and/or indirectly through modulating the response of peripheral T cells to stimulate or inhibit pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, which in turn regulate the autoimmune response in the CNS. While more research is clearly needed to directly link the changes in gut microbiome with neuroinflammation, focusing research on microbiota that produce beneficial metabolites with the ability to attenuate chronic inflammation systemically as well as in the CNS, can offer novel preventive and therapeutic modalities against a wide array of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pub.: 03 Feb '18, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) only explains a fraction of the disease risk; lifestyle and environmental factors are key contributors to the risk of MS. Importantly, these nongenetic factors can influence pathogenetic pathways, and some of them can be modified. Besides established MS-associated risk factors - high latitude, female sex, smoking, low vitamin D levels caused by insufficient sun exposure and/or dietary intake, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection - strong evidence now supports obesity during adolescence as a factor increasing MS risk. Organic solvents and shift work have also been reported to confer increased risk of the disease, whereas factors such as use of nicotine or alcohol, cytomegalovirus infection and a high coffee consumption are associated with a reduced risk. Certain factors - smoking, EBV infection and obesity - interact with HLA risk genes, pointing at a pathogenetic pathway involving adaptive immunity. All of the described risk factors for MS can influence adaptive and/or innate immunity, which is thought to be the main pathway modulated by MS risk alleles. Unlike genetic risk factors, many environmental and lifestyle factors can be modified, with potential for prevention, particularly for people at the greatest risk, such as relatives of individuals with MS. Here, we review recent data on environmental and lifestyle factors, with a focus on gene-environment interactions.
Pub.: 10 Dec '16, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Autoimmune disorders of the CNS have complex pathogeneses that are not well understood. In multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, T cells destroy CNS tissue, resulting in severe disabilities. Mounting evidence suggests that reducing inflammation in the CNS may start with modulation of the gut microbiome. The lymphoid tissues of the gut are specialized for the induction of regulatory cells, which are directly responsible for the suppression of CNS-damaging autoreactive T cells. Whether cause or effect, the onset of dysbiosis in the gut of patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica provides evidence of communication along the gut-brain axis. Thus, current and future therapeutic interventions directed at microbiome modulation are of considerable appeal.
Pub.: 11 Jan '17, Pinned: 27 Feb '18
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects more than two million people worldwide. Several animal models resemble MS pathology; the most employed are experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and toxin- and/or virus-induced demyelination. In this review we will summarize our knowledge on the utility of different animal models in MS research. Although animal models cannot replicate the complexity and heterogeneity of the MS pathology, they have proved to be useful for the development of several drugs approved for treatment of MS patients. This review focuses on EAE because it represents both clinical and pathological features of MS. During the past decades, EAE has been effective in illuminating various pathological processes that occur during MS, including inflammation, CNS penetration, demyelination, axonopathy, and neuron loss mediated by immune cells.
Pub.: 15 Feb '18, Pinned: 27 Feb '18