Graduate student, University of Dhaka
Lung Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. Bangladesh is densely populated country which has one of the highest mortality rates due to lung cancer. An estimated 0.19 million people suffer from lung cancer and 0.03 million die from lung cancer each year in Bangladesh. Therefore, the elucidation of the association of 3 MDM2 SNPs and their relationship to lung cancer risk has become necessary. We have collected blood samples from lung cancer patients and cancer free controls. We have genotyped these patients for the detection of the SNPs. In a multivariate logistic regression, it was observed that one of the SNPs significantly increased the risk of lung cancer. Another MDM2 SNP was associated with a low risk of lung cancer after accounting for the confounding factor of several variables.
Abstract: Urinary tract cancer is a common cause of cancer-related death. The etiology and pathogenesis of urinary tract cancer remain unclear, with genetic and epigenetic factors playing an important role. Studies of the polymorphism of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) have shown inconclusive trends in the risk of urinary tract cancer.To clarify this inconsistency, we conducted updated meta-analyses to evaluate the role of MDM2 T309G polymorphism in urinary tract cancer susceptibility.Data sources were Pubmed (1966-May 2015), Chinese biomedicine literature database (1978-May 2015), and hand searching of the reference lists of included studies:(1) research categories case-control study or a nested case-control study; (2) information evaluating the association between the MDM2 SNP309 and urinary tract cancer risk; (3) studies with sufficient data to perform a meta-analysis.It included the use of odds ratios (ORs) to assess the strength of the association, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) give a sense of the precision of the estimate. We used I for the assessment of between-study heterogeneity, and publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot and the Egger test. Statistical analyses were performed by Review Manage, version 5.0 and Stata 11.0.A total of 18 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analyses. Overall, there was no statistical association between MDM2 SNP309 and prostate cancer risk for the allele contrast, the GG genotype, the recessive genetic model, the dominant genetic model, and prostate cancer risk in all subjects (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.05, P = 0.36; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.75-1.15, P = 0.50; OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.87-1.15, P = 0.99; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.07, P = 0.30), and between MDM2 SNP309 and bladder cancer risk (the allele contrast: OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27, P = 0.50; the GG genotype: OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.79-1.61, P = 0.52; the dominant genetic model: OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.83-1.28, P = 0.78; the recessive genetic model: OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.84-1.49, P = 0.45). However, there was positive association between MDM2 SNP309 and kidney cancer risk for the allele contrast (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.01), the GG genotype (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.20, P = 0.01), dominant model contrast (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.68, P = 0.05), the recessive genetic model (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.83, P = 0.04).First, only the data of published studies were included in this meta-analysis. Unpublished studies tend to show more negative results; therefore, publication bias may be present. Second, because of the lack of the original data, we did not perform stratification analysis by age, hormone levels, dietary habit, or other variables. This might have caused confounding bias. Third, because the number of studies was relatively small for kidney cancer, the results might not have enough statistical power for us to investigate the association of the polymorphism with kidney cancer susceptibility, and we could not perform subgroup analyses. Finally, there were no studies about Africans in this meta-analysis.In summary, the results of our meta-analysis suggest an increased risk role of the MDM2 SNP T309G in renal cancer. However, there was no association between the MDM2 SNP T309G and prostate cancer risk or between the MDM2 SNP T309G and bladder cancer risk. Moreover, well-designed studies should estimate different ethnicities, degree of malignancy and clinical progression on the association between MDM2 SNP309 and urinary cancer risk in the future.
Pub.: 26 Mar '16, Pinned: 08 Aug '17
Abstract: The 309G allele of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mouse double minute (MDM2) promoter locus is associated with a higher risk of cancer and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), but as to whether this SNP G309 contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR is to-date unknown. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) can be harnessed to manipulate a single or multiple nucleotides in mammalian cells. Here, we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs (SpGuides) using dual adeno-associated viral (AAV)-derived vectors to target the MDM2 genomic locus together with a homologous repair template for creating the mutation of MDM2 T309G in human primary retinal pigment epithelial (hPRPE) cells, whose genotype is MDM2 T309T. The next generation sequencing results indicated that there was 42.51% MDM2 G309 in the edited hPRPE cells using the AAV-CRISPR/Cas9. Our data showed that vitreous induced an increase in MDM2 and subsequent attenuation of p53 expression in the MDM2 T309G hPRPE cells. Furthermore, our experimental results demonstrated that the MDM2 T309G in the hPRPE cells enhanced vitreous-induced cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that this SNP contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR.
Pub.: 31 May '16, Pinned: 08 Aug '17
Abstract: The effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at MDM2 has been investigated in several cancer types. Three MDM2 SNPs(rs937283, rs2270744 and rs769412) have previously been suggested to be positively correlated with cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore the association of rs937283, rs2270744 and rs769412 polymorphisms with retinoblastoma (RB) risk, clinicopathological characteristics, and prognosis. Compared with wild-type genotype AA at rs937283, individuals carrying AG and GG genotype had a significantly increased risk for developing RB (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.13-3.08; OR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.10-5.62, respectively). RB patients with allele G at rs937283 were more susceptible to invasion and high tumor aggression (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.43-4.11; OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.27-3.64, respectively). Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank results revealed that RB patients harboring genotype GG and G allele at rs937283 had worse survival (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, the A to G substitution at rs937283 significantly enhanced the transcription activity of the MDM2 gene in vitro. In vivo, we found that MDM2 mRNA and protein were overexpressed in individuals who carried the G allele at rs937283. This study suggested that the MDM2 rs937283 polymorphism is a novel functional SNP both in vitro and in vivo as well as a biomarker for poor prognosis in RB.
Pub.: 11 Aug '16, Pinned: 08 Aug '17
Abstract: A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of MDM2 (SNP309T>G, rs2279744) has been shown to increase the expression of the MDM2 protein in various cancer types. However, only one study has analyzed the role of the MDM2 polymorphism in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The association of MDM2 SNP309 with classic KS risk was evaluated in 79 Iranian patients with classic KS and 123 healthy controls. The MDM2 SNP309 was genotyped using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. No significant correlation was found between the SNP309 polymorphism in MDM2 promoter and classic KS risk. There was no significant correlation between gender and disease stage. However, a significant association was found between SNP309 GG genotype and younger age (≤50 years) (odds ratio 9.5, 95% confidence intervals 1.5-60, p = 0.03). Our findings support no major role for the MDM2 SNP309 in KS development although it might influence the clinical outcome of KS in younger patients.
Pub.: 14 Jan '17, Pinned: 08 Aug '17