A pinboard by
Frederick Odun-Ayo

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of KwaZulu-Natal


The introduction of antiretroviral drugs (ARV) in the treatment of HIV infection has reduced drastically the morbidity and mortality of HIV infected patients. However the success of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has raised challenges with its side effects particularly on the cardiovascular system. There is a paucity of data on the vascular placental and foetal unit. The burden of HIV infection in South Africa with 31.5% of infected mothers needs to be addressed as regards the issues of foetal consequences of maternal ARV drugs. Hence, this study investigates the impact of ARVs on vascular endothelial cell in the placenta of normotensive HIV infected mothers with lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluron receptor-1 (LYVE-1) marker. Placental tissues obtained from normotensive HIV infected mothers on HAART regimen for at least 3 months were immunostained using LYVE-1 primary monoclonal antibody. The patient were divided into four groups; each given different regimen. The expression of LYVE-1 in the different regimen and normotensive HIV uninfected groups (control) were analyzed. In regimen 1, five were on dual therapy Zidovudine. In regimen 2, seven were on Nevarapine + lamivudine + stavudine. In regimen 3 (nevirapine + lamivudine + tenofovir) and 4 (full drug combination; FDC), five and thirteen patients were noted respectively. An up-regulation of LYVE-1 expression was observed in the HIV infected mothers with no statistical differences in the different regimens. The limitation of this study is small sample size hence, require large cohorts to assess further impact of other markers particularly those affecting the mitochondria and inflammatory factors in the placenta, foetus and neonate of HIV mothers,