Quantcast


CURATOR

I am scientist specialized on genetics and metabolism.

PINBOARD SUMMARY

Lack of sleep emerges as an important cause of obesity and diabetes, specially in teenagers.

In 10 seconds? Lack of sleep is one of the causes of obesity and diabetes in our modern society, specially in children and teenagers, because it impairs our internal physiological clock, or circadian rhythms, disrupting our metabolism.

Don’t believe it? It has been shown that short sleep duration increases the risk of overweight and obesity, along with other metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Mainly, because it has an adverse impact on food choices, hunger and appetite, and affects the secretion of some hormones, such as melatonin. This can lead to lifelong deleterious metabolic consequences, specially when it occurs during childhood.

And what are circadian rhythms? Biological processes have been synchronized to match our metabolism to the environment, mainly sunlight, through a complex interplay of genetic, metabolic, hormonal and environmental factors. This tells our body when to eat and when to sleep, when to be active and when to take a rest, maintaining metabolic homeostasis in our organism.

Why does it concern teenagers? Insufficient sleep is common at this age because of the normal shift of the internal clock that occurs at puberty, but it is deepened today because of external factors, including excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media and early school start times. On top of obesity and diabetes, this can lead to poor academic performance, mood disturbances and increased suicidal ideation.

And what treatments are there? The hormone melatonin is believed to be a potential treatment because it promotes sleep and stimulates the coordination of biochemical oscillations, by targeting the internal clock.

But most importantly, just close the computer and go to sleep.

14 ITEMS PINNED

Association between light at night, melatonin secretion, sleep deprivation, and the internal clock: Health impacts and mechanisms of circadian disruption.

Abstract: Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer.The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption. Shift and/or night work generally decreases the time spent sleeping, and it disrupts the circadian time structure. In the long run, this desynchronization is detrimental to health, as underscored by a large number of epidemiological studies that have uncovered elevated rates of several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular risks, obesity, mood disorders and age-related macular degeneration. It amounts to a public health issue in the light of the very substantial number of individuals involved. The IARC has classified shift work in group 2A of "probable carcinogens to humans" since "they involve a circadian disorganization". Countermeasures to the effects of ALAN, such as melatonin, bright light, or psychotropic drugs, have been proposed as a means to combat circadian clock disruption and improve adaptation to shift and night work. We review the evidence for the ALAN impacts on health. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of an in-depth mechanistic understanding to combat the detrimental properties of exposure to ALAN and develop strategies of prevention.

Pub.: 20 Feb '17, Pinned: 25 Apr '17

Insufficient sleep in adolescents: causes and consequences.

Abstract: Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times. Consequences range from inattentiveness, reduction in executive functioning and poor academic performance to increased risk of obesity and cardio-metabolic dysfunction, mood disturbances which include increased suicidal ideation, a higher risk of engaging in health risk behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, and increased rates of car crashes, occupational injuries and sports-related injuries. In response to these concerns, a number of promising measures have been proposed to reduce the burden of adolescent sleep loss, including healthy sleep education for students and families, and later school start times to allow adolescents to obtain sufficient and appropriately-timed sleep.

Pub.: 18 Feb '17, Pinned: 25 Apr '17

Role of sleep and circadian disruption on energy expenditure and in metabolic predisposition to human obesity and metabolic disease.

Abstract: Weight gain, obesity and diabetes have reached alarming levels in the developed world. Traditional risk factors such as over-eating, poor nutritional choices and lack of exercise cannot fully account for the high prevalence of metabolic disease. This review paper examines the scientific evidence on two novel risk factors that contribute to dys-regulated metabolic physiology: sleep disruption and circadian misalignment. Specifically, fundamental relationships between energy metabolism and sleep and circadian rhythms and the impact of sleep and circadian disruption on metabolic physiology are examined. Millions of individuals worldwide do not obtain sufficient sleep for healthy metabolic function, and many participate in shift work and social activities at times when the internal physiological clock is promoting sleep. These behaviours predispose an individual for poor metabolic health by promoting excess caloric intake in response to reduced sleep, food intake at internal biological times when metabolic physiology is not prepared, decreased energy expenditure when wakefulness and sleep are initiated at incorrect internal biological times, and disrupted glucose metabolism during short sleep and circadian misalignment. In addition to the traditional risk factors of poor diet and exercise, disturbed sleep and circadian rhythms represent modifiable risk factors for prevention and treatment of metabolic disease and for promotion of healthy metabolism.

Pub.: 07 Feb '17, Pinned: 25 Apr '17

Chronomedicine and type 2 diabetes: shining some light on melatonin.

Abstract: In mammals, the circadian timing system drives rhythms of physiology and behaviour, including the daily rhythms of feeding and activity. The timing system coordinates temporal variation in the biochemical landscape with changes in nutrient intake in order to optimise energy balance and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Circadian disruption (e.g. as a result of shift work or jet lag) can disturb this continuity and increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Obesity and metabolic disease can also disturb the timing and amplitude of the clock in multiple organ systems, further exacerbating disease progression. As our understanding of the synergy between the timing system and metabolism has grown, an interest has emerged in the development of novel clock-targeting pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction. Recently, the pineal hormone melatonin has received some attention as a potential chronotherapeutic drug for metabolic disease. Melatonin is well known for its sleep-promoting effects and putative activity as a chronobiotic drug, stimulating coordination of biochemical oscillations through targeting the internal timing system. Melatonin affects the insulin secretory activity of the pancreatic beta cell, hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have lower night-time serum melatonin levels and increased risk of comorbid sleep disturbances compared with healthy individuals. Further, reduced melatonin levels, and mutations and/or genetic polymorphisms of the melatonin receptors are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Herein we review our understanding of molecular clock control of glucose homeostasis, detail the influence of circadian disruption on glucose metabolism in critical peripheral tissues, explore the contribution of melatonin signalling to the aetiology of type 2 diabetes, and discuss the pros and cons of melatonin chronopharmacotherapy in disease management.

Pub.: 17 Dec '16, Pinned: 25 Apr '17

Chronic Sleep Disruption Alters Gut Microbiota, Induces Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice.

Abstract: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and inflammation, as well as circulating measures of inflammation, were assayed. Effect of fecal water on colonic epithelial permeability was also examined. Chronic SF-induced increased food intake and reversible gut microbiota changes characterized by the preferential growth of highly fermentative members of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and a decrease of Lactobacillaceae families. These lead to systemic and visceral white adipose tissue inflammation in addition to altered insulin sensitivity in mice, most likely via enhanced colonic epithelium barrier disruption. Conventionalization of germ-free mice with SF-derived microbiota confirmed these findings. Thus, SF-induced metabolic alterations may be mediated, in part, by concurrent changes in gut microbiota, thereby opening the way for gut microbiome-targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing the major end-organ morbidities of chronic SF.

Pub.: 16 Oct '16, Pinned: 25 Apr '17

Disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms: novel risk factors for obesity.

Abstract: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent developments linking disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms to an increased risk for obesity, and to review novel research on potential countermeasures.Effective treatments for obesity are limited, with long-term adherence to lifestyle changes proving difficult to maintain. Identifying new preventive strategies based on modifiable risk factors is therefore imperative in the fight against obesity. Disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms have an adverse impact on food choices, hunger and appetite, and have lifelong deleterious metabolic consequences when they occur during childhood and early adulthood. The upregulation of the endocannabinoid system and abnormalities in the temporal distribution of caloric intake were recently implicated in the link between sleep loss and obesity risk. In addition, alterations in circadian variation in the composition and functionality of the gut microbiome have been identified as potential contributors to metabolic dysfunction during jet lag and shift work. Insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment are thus new modifiable risk factors for obesity. Emerging evidence suggests that novel countermeasures, such as manipulations of the timing of food intake, may be effective strategies in the prevention of obesity.Four important findings are briefly reviewed: disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms in children and young adults are risk factors for the development of lifelong obesity; circadian misalignment, as occurs in shift work, has an adverse impact on energy balance and increases the risk of weight gain; the endocannabinoid system, an important regulator of hedonic feeding, could be a potential link between sleep, circadian rhythms, and feeding behavior; and disturbances of the circadian variation in composition of the gut microbiome may be involved in the increased risk of obesity associated with insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment.

Pub.: 02 Sep '16, Pinned: 25 Apr '17

Morning Circadian Misalignment during Short Sleep Duration Impacts Insulin Sensitivity.

Abstract: Short sleep duration and circadian misalignment are hypothesized to causally contribute to health problems including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, and accidents. Here, we investigated the influence of morning circadian misalignment induced by an imposed short nighttime sleep schedule on impaired insulin sensitivity, a precursor to diabetes. Imposed short sleep duration resulted in morning wakefulness occurring during the biological night (i.e., circadian misalignment)-a time when endogenous melatonin levels were still high indicating the internal circadian clock was still promoting sleep and related functions. We show the longer melatonin levels remained high after wake time, insulin sensitivity worsened. Overall, we find a simulated 5-day work week of 5-hr-per-night sleep opportunities and ad libitum food intake resulted in ∼20% reduced oral and intravenous insulin sensitivity in otherwise healthy men and women. Reduced insulin sensitivity was compensated by an increased insulin response to glucose, which may reflect an initial physiological adaptation to maintain normal blood sugar levels during sleep loss. Furthermore, we find that transitioning from the imposed short sleep schedule to 9-hr sleep opportunities for 3 days restored oral insulin sensitivity to baseline, but 5 days with 9-hr sleep opportunities was insufficient to restore intravenous insulin sensitivity to baseline. These findings indicate morning wakefulness and eating during the biological night is a novel mechanism by which short sleep duration contributes to metabolic dysregulation and suggests food intake during the biological night may contribute to other health problems associated with short sleep duration.

Pub.: 10 Nov '15, Pinned: 25 Apr '17