I am postdoc focused on microtubules. I work on building principles of centriole in eukaryotic cell.
Centriole is under interest for many years, however still enigmatic. Let´s find out how it works!!!
Centriole is a tiny organelle placed in the centre of the cell that looks like a little barrel. When missing or damaged, centriole causes severe inherited diseases in humans. Centriole play a key role in segregation of chromosomes during cell division and organizing the inner space of the cell. It is composed from various proteins and my research is focused on one of the most important, tubulin. Tubulin polymerizes into a typical microtubule tubes. Each three tubes form a triplet, nine of them form a cylindrical wall providing centriole its barrel shape.
Microtubules in centriole triplet are bound together by the unique connection and make centriole incredibly stable and resistant to mechanical stress. First microtubule in triplet supports the formation of second microtubule from its own wall. Second microtubule does the same for third microtubule with help of some other protein. This connection is unusual in overall cell as microtubules in cytoplasm are only single tubes. Moreover, centriole triplets continue as doublets into typical extensions, such as cilia and flagella. Both organelles represent a cellular antenna necessary for communication with neighbouring cells, for cell movement or movement of fluid around the cell. Their improper function results in ciliopathies or inability of sperm to move and fertilize the egg cell.
We do not know so far how two microtubules bind each other in such stable connection. The electrostatic repulsion of highly negatively charged tails of tubulins in microtubule wall principally do not allow it. I am looking for the mechanism and for this I use microtubules prepared in a test tube. Such model is pretty easy and allow me to elegantly study polymerization capabilities under various conditions and reveal their regulation. Microtubules are only 25 nm in diameter and for seeing them I use cryo-electron microscopy. This allow me to even see subnanometer resolution in detail of the exact connection between two microtubules. I also see how fast microtubules polymerize on each other in a real time due to red and green fluorescent tubulin used for their formation. The outcome will help us to understand deeply the tubulin interacting capabilities. Revealing the mechanism of microtubule triplet formation will shed more light onto the rules applied for generation of the centriole wall. One day after puzzling all unknown mechanisms together, we might be able to generate whole artificial centriole in a test tube.
Abstract: Neuronal cilia that are formed at the dendritic endings of sensory neurons are essential for sensory perception. However, it remains unclear how the centriole-derived basal body is positioned to form a template for cilium formation. Using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, we show that the centriole translocates from the cell body to the dendrite tip in the Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons. The centriolar protein SAS-5 interacts with the dynein light-chain LC8 and conditional mutations of cytoplasmic dynein-1 block centriole translocation and ciliogenesis. The components of the central tube are essential for the biogenesis of centrioles, which later drive ciliogenesis in the dendrite; however, the centriole loses these components at the late stage of centriole translocation and subsequently recruits transition zone and intraflagellar transport proteins. Together, our results provide a comprehensive model of ciliogenesis in sensory neurons and reveal the importance of the dynein-dependent centriole translocation in this process.
Pub.: 25 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Abnormal development of multiciliated cells is a hallmark of a variety of human conditions associated with chronic airway diseases, hydrocephalus and infertility. Multiciliogenesis requires both activation of a specialized transcriptional program and assembly of cytoplasmic structures for large-scale centriole amplification that generates basal bodies. It remains unclear, however, what mechanism initiates formation of these multiprotein complexes in epithelial progenitors. Here we show that this is triggered by nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the transcription factor E2f4. After inducing a transcriptional program of centriole biogenesis, E2f4 forms apical cytoplasmic organizing centres for assembly and nucleation of deuterosomes. Using genetically altered mice and E2F4 mutant proteins we demonstrate that centriole amplification is crucially dependent on these organizing centres and that, without cytoplasmic E2f4, deuterosomes are not assembled, halting multiciliogenesis. Thus, E2f4 integrates nuclear and previously unsuspected cytoplasmic events of centriole amplification, providing new perspectives for the understanding of normal ciliogenesis, ciliopathies and cancer.
Pub.: 05 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles necessary for efficient transduction of extracellular cues. To initiate cilia formation, ciliary vesicles (CVs) are transported to the vicinity of the centrosome where they dock to the distal end of the mother centriole and fuse to initiate cilium assembly. However, to this date, the early steps in cilia formation remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate functional interplay between CEP19, FOP and CEP350 in ciliogenesis. Using three-dimensional structured-illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) imaging, we mapped the relative spatial distribution of these proteins at the distal end of the mother centriole and show that CEP350/FOP act upstream of CEP19 in their recruitment hierarchy. We demonstrate that CEP19 CRISPR KO cells are severely impaired in their ability to form cilia, analogous to the loss of function of CEP19 binding partners FOP and CEP350. Notably, in the absence of CEP19 microtubule anchoring at centromes is similar in manner to its interaction partners FOP and CEP350. Using GFP-tagged deletion constructs of CEP19, we show that the C-terminus of CEP19 is required for both its localization to centrioles and for its function in ciliogenesis. Critically, this region also mediates the interaction between CEP19 and FOP/CEP350. Interestingly, a morbid-obesity-associated R82* truncated mutant of CEP19 cannot ciliate nor interact with FOP and CEP350, indicative of a putative role for CEP19 in ciliopathies. Finally, analysis of CEP19 KO cells using thin-section electron microscopy revealed marked defects in the docking of CVs to the distal end of the mother centrioles. Together, these data demonstrate a role for the CEP19, FOP and CEP350 module in ciliogenesis and the possible effect of disrupting their functions in ciliopathies.
Pub.: 01 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Centrioles are microtubule-based cylinders essential for the formation of centrosomes and cilia. A recent study provides a new cell-free assay that reconstitutes the initial structure formed during centriole assembly - the cartwheel - and proposes a new model for its formation and growth.
Pub.: 21 Jun '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Axial determination occurs during early stages of embryogenesis. Flaws in laterality patterning result in abnormal positioning of visceral organs, as manifested in heterotaxy syndrome, or complete left-right inversion as in situs inversus totalis. These malformations are often associated with ciliopathies, as seen in primary ciliary dyskinesia. We have recently described a novel mutation in the Coiled-Coil Domain-Containing 11 (CCDC11) gene associated with laterality disorders in a consanguineous family of Arab-Muslim origin with two affected siblings presenting with diverse phenotypes, one with heterotaxy syndrome and the other with non-primary ciliary dyskinesia situs inversus totalis. This study further characterizes the roles of CCDC11 and the implications of the identified mutation on left-right axial patterning in patient-derived cells and in the frog embryo as a model organism. We analyzed patient-derived cells and manipulated Ccdc11 levels in Xenopus laevis frog embryos. Cilia length in patient cells was longer than in controls, and CCDC11 was localized to the centriole and the actin cytoskeleton. Mutated truncated protein accumulated and was also localized to the centriole and actin cytoskeleton. In frog embryos, Ccdc11 was regulated downstream of FoxJ1, and overexpression of the full-length or truncated protein, or downregulation of the gene resulted in severe disruption of embryonic left-right axial patterning. Taken together, our initial description of the deleterious mutation in CCDC11 in patients, the current results and more recent supportive studies highlight the important role of CCDC11 in axial patterning.
Pub.: 18 Jun '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays mitotic progression until all sister chromatid pairs achieve bi-orientation, and while the SAC can maintain mitotic arrest for extended periods, moderate delays in mitotic progression have significant effects on the resulting daughter cells. Here we show that when retinal-pigmented epithelial (RPE1) cells experience mitotic delay, there is a time-dependent increase in centrosome fragmentation and centriole disengagement. While most cells with disengaged centrioles maintain spindle bipolarity, clustering of disengaged centrioles requires the kinesin-14, HSET. Centrosome fragmentation and precocious centriole disengagement depend on separase and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activity, which also triggers the acquisition of distal appendage markers on daughter centrioles and the loss of procentriolar markers. Together, these results suggest that moderate delays in mitotic progression trigger the initiation of centriole licensing through centriole disengagement, at which point the ability to maintain spindle bipolarity becomes a function of HSET-mediated spindle pole clustering.
Pub.: 14 Jun '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Centrioles are assembled during S phase and segregated into two daughter cells at the end of mitosis. The initiation of centriole assembly is regulated by polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), the major serine/threonine kinase in centrioles. Despite its importance in centriole duplication, only a few substrates have been identified, and the detailed mechanism of PLK4 has not been fully elucidated. CP110 is a coiled-coil protein that plays roles in centriolar length control and ciliogenesis in mammals. Here, we revealed that PLK4 specifically phosphorylates CP110 at the S98 position. The phospho-resistant CP110 mutant inhibited centriole assembly, whereas the phospho-mimetic CP110 mutant induced centriole assembly, even in PLK4-limited conditions. This finding implies that PLK4 phosphorylation of CP110 is an essential step for centriole assembly. The phospho-mimetic form of CP110 augmented the centrosomal SAS6 level. Based on these results, we propose that the phosphorylated CP110 may be involved in the stabilization of cartwheel SAS6 during centriole assembly.
Pub.: 01 Jun '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: The decision to commit to the cell cycle is made during G1 through the concerted action of various cyclin-CDK complexes. Not only DNA replication, but also centriole duplication is initiated as cells enter the S phase. The NIMA-related kinase NEK7 is one of the many factors that are required for proper centriole duplication, as well as timely cell cycle progression. However, its specific roles in these events remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that the depletion of NEK7 inhibited progression through the G1 phase in human U2OS cells by the downregulation of various cyclins and CDKs, and also inhibited the earliest stages of procentriole formation. We found that the depletion of NEK7 also induced the formation of primary cilia in human RPE1 cells, suggesting that NEK7 acts at least before the restriction point during G1. G1-arrested cells in the absence of NEK7 exhibited abnormal accumulation of the APC/C cofactor Cdh1 at the vicinity of centrioles. Furthermore, the ubiquitin ligase APC/C(Cdh1) was found to continuously degrade the centriolar protein STIL in these cells, thus inhibiting centriole assembly. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NEK7 is involved in the timely regulation of G1 progression, S phase entry, and procentriole formation.
Pub.: 26 May '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Ciliopathies form a group of inherited disorders sharing several clinical manifestations due to abnormal cilia formation or function, and few treatments have been successful against these disorders. Here, we report a mouse model with mutated Sclt1 gene, which encodes a centriole distal appendage protein important for ciliogenesis. SCLT1 mutations were associated with the oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD), an autosomal recessive ciliopathy. The Sclt1-/- mice exhibit typical ciliopathy phenotypes, including cystic kidney, cleft palate, and polydactyly. Sclt1-loss decreases number of cilia in kidney, increases proliferation and apoptosis of renal tubule epithelial cells, elevates PKA, ERK, SMAD, and STAT3 pathways, and enhances pro-inflammation and pro-fibrosis pathways with disease progression. Embryonic kidney cyst formation of Sclt1-/- mice was effectively reduced by an anti-STAT3 treatment using pyrimethamine. Overall, we reported a new mouse model for the OFD; and our data suggest that STAT3 inhibition may be a promising treatment for SCLT1-associated cystic kidney.
Pub.: 10 May '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Centrioles play a key role in the development of the fly. They are needed for the correct formation of centrosomes, the organelles at the poles of the spindle that can persist as microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) into interphase. The ability to nucleate cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) is a property of the surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM). The centriole has a dual life, existing not only as the core of the centrosome but also as the basal body, the structure that templates the formation of cilia and flagellae. Thus the structure and functions of the centriole, the centrosome, and the basal body have an impact upon many aspects of development and physiology that can readily be modeled in Drosophila Centrosomes are essential to give organization to the rapidly increasing numbers of nuclei in the syncytial embryo and for the spatially precise execution of cell division in numerous tissues, particularly during male meiosis. Although mitotic cell cycles can take place in the absence of centrosomes, this is an error-prone process that opens up the fly to developmental defects and the potential of tumor formation. Here, we review the structure and functions of the centriole, the centrosome, and the basal body in different tissues and cultured cells of Drosophila melanogaster, highlighting their contributions to different aspects of development and cell division.
Pub.: 10 May '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Centrosome number is tightly controlled during the cell cycle to ensure proper spindle assembly and cell division. However, the underlying mechanism that controls centrosome number remains largely unclear. We show herein that the DNA replication licensing factor Cdc6 is recruited to the proximal side of the centrioles via cyclin A to negatively regulate centrosome duplication by binding and inhibiting the cartwheel protein Sas-6 from forming a stable complex with another centriole duplication core protein, STIL. We further demonstrate that Cdc6 colocalizes with Plk4 at the centrosome, and interacts with Plk4 during S phase. Plk4 disrupts the interaction between Sas-6 and Cdc6, and suppresses the inhibitory role of Cdc6 on Sas-6 by phosphorylating Cdc6. Overexpressing wild-type Cdc6 or Plk4-unphosphorylatable Cdc6 mutant 2A reduces centrosome over-duplication caused by Plk4 overexpression or hydroxyurea treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Cdc6 and Plk4 antagonistically control proper centrosome duplication during the cell cycle.
Pub.: 28 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Proteins localized to the basal body and the centrosome play crucial roles in ciliary assembly and functions. Although RABL2 and CEP19 are conserved in ciliated organisms and have been implicated in ciliary/flagellar functions, their roles were poorly understood. We here showed that RABL2 interacts with CEP19 and is recruited to the mother centriole and basal body in a CEP19-dependent manner, and that CEP19 is recruited to the centriole probably via its binding to the centrosomal protein FGFR1OP. Disruption of the RABL2 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resulted in the non-flagellated phenotype, suggesting a crucial role of RABL2 in ciliary/flagellar assembly. We then demonstrated that RABL2 interacts, in its GTP-bound state, with the intraflagellar transport (IFT)-B complex via the IFT74-IFT81 heterodimer, and that the interaction is disrupted by a mutation found in male infertile mice (Mot mice) with a sperm flagella motility defect. Intriguingly, RABL2 binds to CEP19 and the IFT74-IFT81 heterodimer in a mutually exclusive manner. Furthermore, exogenous expression of the GDP-locked or Mot-type RABL2 mutant in human cells resulted in mild defects in ciliary assembly. These results indicate that RABL2 localized to the basal body plays crucial roles in ciliary/flagellar assembly via its interaction with the IFT-B complex.
Pub.: 22 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: In animal cells, the centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing centre where microtubules are nucleated and anchored. The centriole subdistal appendages (SDAs) are the key structures that anchor microtubules in interphase cells, but the composition and assembly mechanisms of SDAs are not well understood. Here, we reveal that centrosome-binding proteins, coiled-coil domain containing (CCDC) 120 and CCDC68 are two novel SDA components required for hierarchical SDA assembly in human cells. CCDC120 is anchored to SDAs by ODF2 and recruits CEP170 and Ninein to the centrosome through different coiled-coil domains at its N terminus. CCDC68 is a CEP170-interacting protein that competes with CCDC120 in recruiting CEP170 to SDAs. Furthermore, CCDC120 and CCDC68 are required for centrosome microtubule anchoring. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis for centriole SDA hierarchical assembly and microtubule anchoring in human interphase cells.
Pub.: 20 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: The primary cilium is nucleated by the mother centriole-derived basal body (BB) via as yet poorly characterized mechanisms. BBs have been reported to degenerate following ciliogenesis in the C. elegans embryo, although neither BB architecture nor early ciliogenesis steps have been described in this organism. In a previous study (Doroquez et al., 2014), we described the three-dimensional morphologies of sensory neuron cilia in adult C. elegans hermaphrodites at high resolution. Here, we use serial section electron microscopy and tomography of staged C. elegans embryos to demonstrate that BBs remodel to support ciliogenesis in a subset of sensory neurons. We show that centriolar singlet microtubules are converted into BB doublets which subsequently grow asynchronously to template the ciliary axoneme, visualize degeneration of the centriole core, and define the developmental stage at which the transition zone is established. Our work provides a framework for future investigations into the mechanisms underlying BB remodeling.
Pub.: 16 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Cilia are cellular projections that assemble on centriole-derived basal bodies. While cilia assembly is absolutely dependent on centrioles, it is not known to what extent they contribute to downstream events. The nematode C. elegans provides a unique opportunity to address this question, as centrioles do not persist at the base of mature cilia. Using fluorescence microscopy and electron tomography, we find that centrioles degenerate early during ciliogenesis. The transition zone and axoneme are not completely formed at this time, indicating that cilia maturation does not depend on intact centrioles. The hydrolethalus syndrome protein HYLS-1 is the only centriolar protein known to remain at the base of mature cilia and is required for intraflagellar transport trafficking. Surprisingly, targeted degradation of HYLS-1 after initiation of ciliogenesis does not affect ciliary structures. Taken together, our results indicate that while centrioles are essential to initiate cilia formation, they are dispensable for cilia maturation and maintenance.
Pub.: 16 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: The current gold standard for sperm preservation is storage at cryogenic temperatures. Dry preservation is an attractive alternative, eliminating the need for ultralow temperatures, reducing storage maintenance costs, and providing logistical flexibility for shipping. Many seeds and anhydrobiotic organisms are able to survive extended periods in a dry state through the accumulation of intracellular sugars and other osmolytes and are capable of returning to normal physiology postrehydration. Using techniques inspired by nature's adaptations, attempts have been made to dehydrate and dry preserve spermatozoa from a variety of species. Most of the anhydrous preservation research performed to date has focused on mouse spermatozoa, with only a small number of studies in nonrodent mammalian species. There is a significant difference between sperm function in rodent and nonrodent mammalian species with respect to centrosomal inheritance. Studies focused on reproductive technologies have demonstrated that in nonrodent species, the centrosome must be preserved to maintain sperm function as the spermatozoon centrosome contributes the dominant nucleating seed, consisting of the proximal centriole surrounded by pericentriolar components, onto which the oocyte's centrosomal material is assembled. Preservation techniques used for mouse sperm may therefore not necessarily be applicable to nonrodent spermatozoa. The range of technologies used to dehydrate sperm and the effect of processing and storage conditions on fertilization and embryogenesis using dried sperm are reviewed in the context of reproductive physiology and cellular morphology in different species.
Pub.: 12 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Centrosomes together with the mitotic spindle ensure the faithful distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells, and spindle orientation is a major determinant of cell fate during tissue regeneration. Spindle defects are not only an impetus of chromosome instability but are also a cause of developmental disorders involving defective asymmetric cell division. In this work, we demonstrate BCCIP, especially BCCIPα, as a previously unidentified component of the mitotic spindle pole and the centrosome. We demonstrate that BCCIP localizes proximal to the mother centriole and participates in microtubule organization and then redistributes to the spindle pole to ensure faithful spindle architecture. We find that BCCIP depletion leads to morphological defects, disoriented mitotic spindles, chromosome congression defects and delayed mitotic progression. Our study identifies BCCIP as a novel factor critical for microtubule regulation and explicates a mechanism utilized by BCCIP in tumor suppression.Oncogene advance online publication, 10 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.92.
Pub.: 11 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Oxidative stress is a major determinant of mammalian sperm function stimulating lipid peroxidation cascades that culminate in the generation of potentially cytotoxic aldehydes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of such aldehydes on the functionality of stallion spermatozoa. The impact of exposure to exogenous acrolein (ACR) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) was manifested in a highly significant dose- and time-dependent increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), total cellular ROS, a decrease in sperm motility, and a time-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation. Notably, low doses of ACR and 4HNE also caused a significant decrease in zona binding. In contrast, exogenous malondialdehyde, a commonly used marker of oxidative stress, had little impact on the various sperm parameters assessed. In accounting for the negative physiological impact of ACR and 4HNE, it was noted that both aldehydes readily adducted to sperm proteins located predominantly within the head, proximal centriole, and tail. The detoxifying activity of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 appeared responsible for a lack of adduction in the midpiece; however, this activity was overwhelmed by 24 h of electrophilic aldehyde exposure. Sequencing of the dominant proteins targeted for ACR and 4HNE covalent modification identified heat shock protein 90 alpha (cytosolic) class A member 1 and arylsulfatase A, respectively. These collective findings may prove useful in the identification of diagnostic biomarkers of stallion fertility and resolving the mechanistic basis of sperm dysfunction in this species.
Pub.: 11 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: The two centrioles of the centrosome differ in age and function. Although the mother centriole mediates most centrosome-dependent processes, the role of the daughter remains poorly understood. A recent study has implicated the daughter centriole in centriole amplification in multiciliated cells, but its contribution to primary ciliogenesis is unclear. We found that manipulations that prevent daughter centriole formation or induce its separation from the mother abolish ciliogenesis. This defect was caused by stabilization of the negative ciliogenesis regulator CP110 and was corrected by CP110 depletion. CP110 dysregulation may be caused by effects on Neurl-4, a daughter centriole-associated ubiquitin ligase cofactor, which was required for ciliogenesis. Centrosome-targeted Neurl-4 was sufficient to restore ciliogenesis in cells with manipulated daughter centrioles. Interestingly, early during ciliogenesis, Neurl-4 transiently associated with the mother centriole in a process that required mother-daughter centriole proximity. Our data support a model in which the daughter centriole promotes ciliogenesis through Neurl-4-dependent regulation of CP110 levels at the mother centriole.
Pub.: 08 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Testicular samples were collected from African sideneck turtles (Pelusios castaneus) at the peak of spermiogenesis in order to describe spermatid acrosomal vesicle formation and nuclear morphogenesis. Acrosomal vesicle formation commences with a Golgi transport vesicle attaching to a round spermatid, followed by the emergence of an acrosome granule. This is followed by the development of the sub-acrosomal space, which becomes enlarged as nuclear elongation and condensation continue. The round spermatid elongates and the emerging elongating spermatid successively becomes surrounded by circular, longitudinal and slanting microtubules of the manchette. The acrosomal vesicle becomes visible with an acrosome granule resting on the base of the electron dense material. Acrosomal vesicle morphogenesis in the African sideneck turtle results in a highly compartmentalized acrosome divisible into the acrosomal cortex and medulla. The future position of the flagellum starts to develop, being encircled by mitochondria while the distal centriole becomes obvious and the emerging flagellum grossly divisible into the connecting piece, midpiece, principal piece and endpiece. Although acrosomal vesicle formation and nuclear morphogenesis during spermiogenesis in the turtle are consistent with other reptilian species, a few differences were observed. The major difference observed was the formation of a single acrosome granule, which manifests prior to the attachment of the acrosomal vesicle to spermatid nucleus. The other differences observed were the emergence of two endonuclear canals in the elongating spermatid and the presence of slanting microtubules of the manchette. The observed developmental variations are expected to be valuable in future phylogenetic studies and potentially serve to test certain hypotheses concerning the reproductive status of turtle species. Findings from this study add to the growing database of spermatid morphology in turtles, thereby providing insights into variations in mature sperm morphology in the species.
Pub.: 27 Feb '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: We performed an exome-wide association study (EWAS) to identify genetic variants - in particular, low‑frequency or rare variants with a moderate to large effect size - that confer susceptibility to aortic aneurysm with 8,782 Japanese subjects (456 patients with aortic aneurysm, 8,326 control individuals) and with the use of Illumina HumanExome-12 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 BeadChip arrays. The correlation of allele frequencies for 41,432 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control to aortic aneurysm was examined with Fisher's exact test. Based on Bonferroni's correction, a P-value of <1.21x10-6 was considered statistically significant. The EWAS revealed 59 SNPs that were significantly associated with aortic aneurysm. None of these SNPs was significantly (P<2.12x10-4) associated with aortic aneurysm by multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender and hypertension, although 8 SNPs were related (P<0.05) to this condition. Examination of the correlation of these latter 8 SNPs to true or dissecting aortic aneurysm separately showed that rs1465567 [T/C (W229R)] of the EGF-like, fibronectin type III, and laminin G domains gene (EGFLAM) (dominant model; P=0.0014; odds ratio, 1.63) was significantly (P<0.0016) associated with true aortic aneurysm. We next performed EWASs for true or dissecting aortic aneurysm separately and found that 45 and 19 SNPs were significantly associated with these conditions, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates revealed that rs113710653 [C/T (E231K)] of the spermatogenesis- and centriole associated 1-like gene (SPATC1L) (dominant model; P=0.0002; odds ratio, 5.32) and rs143881017 [C/T (R140H)] of the ribonuclease A family member 13 gene (RNASE13) (dominant model; P=0.0006; odds ratio, 5.77) were significantly (P<2.78x10-4 or P<6.58x10-4, respectively) associated with true or dissecting aortic aneurysm, respectively. EGFLAM and SPATC1L may thus be susceptibility loci for true aortic aneurysm and RNASE13 may be such a locus for dissecting aneurysm in Japanese individuals.
Pub.: 25 Mar '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: How cellular organelles assemble is a fundamental question in biology. The centriole organelle organizes around a nine-fold symmetrical cartwheel structure typically ∼100 nm high comprising a stack of rings that each accommodates nine homodimers of SAS-6 proteins. Whether nine-fold symmetrical ring-like assemblies of SAS-6 proteins harbour more peripheral cartwheel elements is unclear. Furthermore, the mechanisms governing ring stacking are not known. Here we develop a cell-free reconstitution system for core cartwheel assembly. Using cryo-electron tomography, we uncover that the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii proteins CrSAS-6 and Bld10p together drive assembly of the core cartwheel. Moreover, we discover that CrSAS-6 possesses autonomous properties that ensure self-organized ring stacking. Mathematical fitting of reconstituted cartwheel height distribution suggests a mechanism whereby preferential addition of pairs of SAS-6 rings governs cartwheel growth. In conclusion, we have developed a cell-free reconstitution system that reveals fundamental assembly principles at the root of centriole biogenesis.
Pub.: 24 Mar '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Typical centrioles are made of microtubules organized in ninefold symmetry. Most animal somatic cells have two centrioles for normal cell division and function. These centrioles originate from the zygote, but because the oocyte does not provide any centrioles, it is surprising that the zygotes of many animals are thought to inherit only one centriole from the sperm. Recently, in the sperm of Drosophila melanogaster, we discovered a second centriolar structure, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL), which functions in the zygote. Whether the sperm of other insects has a second centriolar structure is unknown. Here, we characterized spermiogenesis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Electron microscopy suggests that Tribolium has one microtubule-based centriole at the tip of the axoneme and a structure similar to the PCL, which lacks microtubules and lies in a cytoplasmic invagination of the nucleus. Immunostaining against the orthologue of the centriole/PCL protein, Ana1, also recognizes two centrioles near the nucleus during spermiogenesis: one that is microtubule-based at the tip of the axoneme, suggesting it is the centriole; and another that is more proximal and appears during early spermiogenesis, suggesting it is the PCL. Together, these findings suggest that Tribolium sperm has one microtubule-based centriole and one microtubule-lacking centriole.
Pub.: 17 Mar '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole-exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 cases with OFDS. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753 and IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231 and WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterising three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the Meckel-Gruber syndrome module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these three main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype.
Pub.: 16 Mar '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
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