Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Kansas Medical Center
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability globally. Mortality and hospitalization rates following TBI are disproportionately higher in patients over 65 years of age. However, this age group is highly underrepresented in drug development efforts for TBI. This study is focused on evaluating the effects of taurine, a common nutritional supplement and energy drink additive, on cellular and behavioral outcomes following TBI in brains of aged rats.We found that taurine reduced TBI-mediated brain tissue damage. However, it did not improve sensorimotor behavioral outcomes in our aged rats. This suggests that while taurine promotes tissue sparing in aged male rats following TBI, this may not be sufficient to rescue gross function of the remaining tissue. Further studies are warranted to test different methods of administration and treatment regimens for taurine as well as to detrmine whether taurine exerts differential effects in males and females following TBI.
Abstract: The annual incidence of traumatic brain injury far exceeds the rates of any other disease in the United States, yet progress toward age-relevant therapies, attention to patients needs, and research funding have all been minimal. Cerebral metabolism of glucose has been shown to be altered after head injury, and increasing cerebral metabolism of alternative substrates (ketones) has been shown to be neuroprotective in several models of traumatic brain injury. This altered dietary approach may have tremendous therapeutic potential for both the pediatric and adult head-injured populations.
Pub.: 17 Dec '08, Pinned: 27 Jun '17
Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as an impact, penetration or rapid movement of the brain within the skull that results in altered mental state. TBI occurs more than any other disease, including breast cancer, AIDS, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, and affects all age groups and both genders. In the US and Europe, the magnitude of this epidemic has drawn national attention owing to the publicity received by injured athletes and military personnel. This increased public awareness has uncovered a number of unanswered questions concerning TBI, and we are increasingly aware of the lack of treatment options for a crisis that affects millions. Although each case of TBI is unique and affected individuals display different degrees of injury, different regional patterns of injury and different recovery profiles, this review and accompanying poster aim to illustrate some of the common underlying neurochemical and metabolic responses to TBI. Recognition of these recurrent features could allow elucidation of potential therapeutic targets for early intervention.
Pub.: 21 Sep '13, Pinned: 27 Jun '17
Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children and can lead to a wide range of impairments. Brain imaging methods such as DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) are uniquely sensitive to the white matter (WM) damage that is common in TBI. However, higher-level analyses using tractography are complicated by the damage and decreased FA (fractional anisotropy) characteristic of TBI, which can result in premature tract endings. We used the newly developed autoMATE (automated multi-atlas tract extraction) method to identify differences in WM integrity. 63 pediatric patients aged 8-19 years with moderate/severe TBI were examined with cross sectional scanning at one or two time points after injury: a post-acute assessment 1-5 months post-injury and a chronic assessment 13-19 months post-injury. A battery of cognitive function tests was performed in the same time periods. 56 children were examined in the first phase, 28 TBI patients and 28 healthy controls. In the second phase 34 children were studied, 17 TBI patients and 17 controls (27 participants completed both post-acute and chronic phases). We did not find any significant group differences in the post-acute phase. Chronically, we found extensive group differences, mainly for mean and radial diffusivity (MD and RD). In the chronic phase, we found higher MD and RD across a wide range of WM. Additionally, we found correlations between these WM integrity measures and cognitive deficits. This suggests a distributed pattern of WM disruption that continues over the first year following a TBI in children.
Pub.: 05 Mar '15, Pinned: 27 Jun '17