Assistant Professor, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, India
Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae and their management
Fruit flies are widely distributed throughout the temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Direct fruit damage, fruit drop, and loss of export markets through quarantine restrictions are all means by which fruit fly infestation causes economic loss. Fruit flies are well-documented invaders and rank high on quarantine target lists. The fruit flies are very difficult to manage due to the fact that they attack many different types of fruit, have rapid reproduction; adults have high mobility and all the developmental stages are protected from contact insecticides either within the fruit or beneath the soil. Adults are the only life stage that is exposed to contact treatments on the fruit or plant. Application of insecticides disrupts the ecosystem and causes numerous hazards, and this has encouraged the search for safe and effective non-toxic methods for fruit fly management. Among the various alternate strategies available for the management of fruit flies, the use of essential oils acts amongst the most outstanding.