Assistant Lecturer of Transplant Surgery, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Egypt


The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk factors that influence the post-transplant outcomes

Background: Since there is no cadaveric organ donation scheme is legislated in Egypt yet, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is the only curative option for children with liver failure. The complexity of pediatric LDLT arises from the anatomical and technical challenges in both donor and recipient operation. These challenges are reflected on recipient early postoperative morbidity and long-term survival. Methods: Retrospective hospital based study was conducted to evaluate surgical challenges and difficulties toward better outcomes in 52 pediatric LDLT recipients in National Liver Institute, Menoufia University from Apr 2003 to Dec 2016. Results: The mean age of recipients was 4.9 years (0.66-17). The indication for LDLT was biliary atresia (38.5%), PFIC (15.4%), cryptogenic cirrhosis (13.4), Crigler-Najjar type I (7.7%), Budd-Chiari Syndrome (5.8%), HCV cirrhosis (5.8%) and hepatoblastoma (1.9%). Early surgical 90-days morbidity were observed in 27% of cases; consisting of vascular complications (9%), biliary complications (8%) and graft size issues (10%). Acute rejection, infections, and other medical 90-days morbidity were observed 31% of cases. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients who did not experience 90-days morbidity had a 1-year survival of 95%, 5-years survival of 89% and 10-years survival of 74%, while patients who had 90-days morbidity showed a 1-year survival of 40%, 5-years survival of 19% and 10-years survival of 19%. These results are statistically significant as Log Rank test probability was P = <0.005. Conclusions: Early postoperative 90-days morbidity significantly reduces patients’ long-term survival. Stringent measures should be taken to improve the perioperative care would have a positive impact on overall survival of children who have living donor liver transplantation.


Effect of repeat Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy on pediatric live-donor liver graft for biliary atresia.

Abstract: Treatment for patients with biliary atresia is a Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy; however, the efficacy of repeat Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy is unclear. This study sought to examine the effect of a prior Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy, especially a repeat Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy, on the outcomes of living-donor liver transplant.One hundred twenty-six of 170 children that underwent a living-donor liver transplant between May 2001, and March 2010, received a living-donor liver transplant for biliary atresia. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the number of previous portoenterostomies: 1 (group A, n=100) or 2 or more Kasai hepatic portoenterostomies (group B, n=26). Portoenterostomy was performed twice in 24 patients in group B, 3 times in 1, and 4 times in 1. Preoperative, operative factors, mortality, morbidity, and survival rates were examined and compared between groups.The surgical factors such as operative time, blood loss per weight, cold ischemia time, and weight of the native liver were significantly greater in group B than they were in group A. The patient survival rates were comparable in the 2 groups (94.5% in group A and 93.3% in group B), and the difference was not statistically significant. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to vascular complications, biliary complications, and other factors including postoperative variables. Bowel perforation requiring surgical repair was more frequent in group B than it was in group A.Repeat Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy might have a negative effect on patients who undergo living-donor liver transplant for biliary atresia patients with potential lethal complications such as bowel perforation. More biliary atresia patients could have a liver transplant, with improved survival and better life expectancy, if they have inadequate biliary drainage after the initial Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy.

Pub.: 28 Mar '13, Pinned: 28 Jul '17

Hepatic arterial complications in adult living donor liver transplant recipients: a single-center experience of 673 cases.

Abstract: Hepatic arterial reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very delicate and technically complicated procedure. Post-LDLT hepatic arterial complications are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.We retrospectively analyzed the details of post-operative hepatic arterial complications in 673 consecutive adult LDLT recipients between January 1996 and September 2009.Hepatic arterial complications occurred in 43 of 673 adult recipients (6.4%) within a median of 13 post-transplant days (range, 1-63). These included hepatic artery thrombosis (including anastomotic stenosis) in 33 cases, anastomotic bleeding in seven cases, and rupture of anastomotic aneurysm in three cases. To treat these complications, surgical re-anastomosis was performed in 26 cases, while the other 17 cases underwent conservative therapies, including four angioplasties by interventional radiology. Biliary complications after hepatic arterial complications occurred in 17 cases. The overall survival rate after LDLT was significantly lower in the hepatic arterial complication group compared with that in the non-complication group (60.7% vs. 80.1% at one yr, 44.3% vs. 74.2% at five yr, respectively; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the extra-anatomical anastomosis (p = 0.011) was the only independent risk factor for hepatic arterial complications.Because hepatic arterial complications after LDLT are associated with poor patient survival, early diagnosis and immediate treatment are crucial. The anatomical anastomosis may be the first choice for the hepatic arterial reconstruction to the extent possible.

Pub.: 01 Jul '14, Pinned: 28 Jul '17

Percutaneous treatment of biliary complications in pediatric patients after liver transplantation.

Abstract: Evaluation of the efficiency and safety of the percutaneous treatment of biliary complications in pediatric liver transplant recipients.We conducted a retrospective analysis of children who underwent biliary percutaneous interventions after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT) over a 4-year period. Kind of biliary complication, interval between liver transplantation and intervention, status of the vessels, procedural interventional management, technical and clinical success, course of cholestasis, PTBD-related complications and patient survival were analyzed.23 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages (PTBD) were placed in 16 children due to 18 biliary complications. The drains were customized individually by shortening and cutting additional holes. PTBD placement was performed with technical and clinical success in all children. 4 children received PTBD to bridge the time to retransplantation and surgical revision. One child received PTBD for successful treatment of anastomotic leakage. Long-term dilation of biliary stenoses was performed in 13 children using PTBD. One of these 13 patients showed recurrent stenosis during a median follow-up of 295 days. Bilirubin values decreased significantly after PTBD placement for biliary stenosis. One patient suffered from bacteremia after PTBD replacement.PTBD treatment for biliary complications after PLT is effective and safe.

Pub.: 21 Aug '14, Pinned: 28 Jul '17

Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

Abstract: Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations.

Pub.: 03 Sep '14, Pinned: 28 Jul '17

Long-term outcomes and predictors in pediatric liver retransplantation.

Abstract: Historically, 9-29% of pediatric liver transplant recipients have required retransplantation. Although outcomes have improved over the last decade, currently published patient and graft survival remain lower after retransplant than after primary transplant. Data from liver retransplantation recipients at our institution between 1991 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to depict patient and graft survival. Predictors of survival were analyzed using a series of Cox proportional hazards models. Predictors were analyzed separately for patients who had "early" (≤30 days after primary transplant) and "late" retransplants. Eighty-four patients underwent retransplant at a median time of 241 days. Sixty percent had late retransplants. At one, five, and 10 yr, actuarial patient and graft survival were 73%/71%, 66%/63%, and 58%/53%, respectively. Since 2002, patient and graft survival improved to 86%/86% at one yr and 93%/87% at five yr. While operative complications were a common cause of death after earlier retransplants, since 2002, infection has been the only cause of death. Significant morbidities at five-yr follow-up include renal dysfunction (15%), diabetes (13%), hypertension (26%), chronic rejection (7%), and PTLD (2%). Current survival after pediatric liver retransplantation has improved significantly, but long-term immunosuppressant morbidity remains an opportunity for improvement.

Pub.: 13 Sep '15, Pinned: 28 Jul '17

Liver Transplantation Using Grafts From Donors After Circulatory Death: A Propensity Score–Matched Study From a Single Center

Abstract: The use of livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD) is increasing, but concerns exist regarding outcomes following use of grafts from “marginal” donors. To compare outcomes in transplants using DCD and donation after brain death (DBD), propensity score matching was performed for 973 patients with chronic liver disease and/or malignancy who underwent primary whole‐liver transplant between 2004 and 2014 at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust. Primary end points were overall graft and patient survival. Secondary end points included postoperative, biliary and vascular complications. Over 10 years, 234 transplants were carried out using DCD grafts. Of the 187 matched DCDs, 82.9% were classified as marginal per British Transplantation Society guidelines. Kaplan–Meier analysis of graft and patient survival found no significant differences for either outcome between the paired DCD and DBD patients (p = 0.162 and p = 0.519, respectively). Aspartate aminotransferase was significantly higher in DCD recipients until 48 h after transplant (p < 0.001). The incidences of acute kidney injury and ischemic cholangiopathy were greater in DCD recipients (32.6% vs. 15% [p < 0.001] and 9.1% vs. 1.1% [p < 0.001], respectively). With appropriate recipient selection, the use of DCDs, including those deemed marginal, can be safe and can produce outcomes comparable to those seen using DBD grafts in similar recipients.

Pub.: 03 Mar '16, Pinned: 28 Jul '17

Analysis of Factors Associated With Biliary Complications in Children After Liver Transplantation.

Abstract: Biliary complications (BCs) remain an important cause of morbidity after pediatric liver transplantation. Technical factors have already been implicated in the development of BCs. Previous reports have associated the use of partial grafts, particularly living donor grafts, with a higher incidence of BCs. Our aim is to study the factors associated with the development of BCs in a large cohort of pediatric liver transplant recipients.Retrospective cohort study of 670 children (<18 years of age) who underwent a primary liver transplant between March 2000 and January 2015. Patients who did and did not develop BCs were compared with identify associated factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.A total of 115 patients (17.2%) developed BCs (83 strictures and 44 leaks). Of the study participants, 594 had living donor liver transplants. Multiple arterial anastomoses was a protective factor for BCs, and a ductoplasty was a risk factor. Living donor grafts and multiple biliary anastomoses were more frequently associated with leaks. Patients with BCs had a higher reoperation rate and longer hospital stays. There was no difference in patient or graft survival.Technical factors play a major role in the development of BCs, particularly leaks. Strictures are more frequently associated with an inadequate arterial supply to the bile duct, and multiple arterial anastomoses may protect children from this complication. The use of partial grafts was not an independent factor for BCs in high-volume centers that are experienced with this technique.

Pub.: 01 Jul '16, Pinned: 28 Jul '17