Lecturer/Postdoc applicant, University of Ibadan
This is about the role of trivalent chromium on experimental coilitis healing
My research area includes using trace elements and plant extracts on gastrointestinal diseases and inflammation.
Abstract: Chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular, and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) share common features in their pathology. Metabolic disorders exhibit strong inflammatory underpinnings and vice versa, inflammation is associated with metabolic alterations. Next to cytokines and cellular stress pathways, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), alterations in the enteroendocrine system are intersections of various pathologies. Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) have been studied extensively for their ability to regulate gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and insulin release by release of peptide hormones. In particular, the L-cell-derived incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has gained enormous attention due to its insulinotropic action and relevance in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Yet, accumulating data indicate a critical role for EEC and in particular for GLP-1 in metabolic adaptation and in orchestrating immune responses beyond blood glucose control. EEC sense the lamina propria and luminal environment, including the microbiota via receptors and transporters. Subsequently, mediating signals by secreting hormones and cytokines, EEC can be considered as integrators of metabolic and inflammatory signaling. This review focuses on L cell and GLP-1 functions in the context of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The effects of incretin-based therapies on metabolism and immune system are discussed and the interrelation and common features of metabolic and immune-mediated disorders are highlighted. Moreover, it presents data on the impact of inflammation, in particular of IBD on EEC and discusses the potential role of the microbiota as link between nutrients, metabolism, immunity, and disease.
Pub.: 06 May '16, Pinned: 02 Aug '17
Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by several distinct populations of neurons, whose cell bodies either reside within (intrinsic) or outside (extrinsic) the gastrointestinal wall. Normally, most individuals are unaware of the continuous, complicated functions of these neurons. However, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders, such as IBD and IBS, altered gastrointestinal motility, discomfort and pain are common, debilitating symptoms. Although bouts of intestinal inflammation underlie the symptoms associated with IBD, increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that infection and inflammation are also key risk factors for the development of other gastrointestinal disorders. Notably, a strong correlation exists between prior exposure to gut infection and symptom occurrence in IBS. This Review discusses the evidence for neuroplasticity (structural, synaptic or intrinsic changes that alter neuronal function) affecting gastrointestinal function. Such changes are evident during inflammation and, in many cases, long after healing of the damaged tissues, when the nervous system fails to reset back to normal. Neuroplasticity within distinct populations of neurons has a fundamental role in the aberrant motility, secretion and sensation associated with common clinical gastrointestinal disorders. To find appropriate therapeutic treatments for these disorders, the extent and time course of neuroplasticity must be fully appreciated.
Pub.: 09 Jul '14, Pinned: 02 Aug '17