PhD student, VIT University
Structural and inhibition studies of LpxC
I am currently pursuing PhD at Centre for Bio-separation technology, Vellore Institute of technology, Tamil Nadu, India. The focus of my work is on structural and functional studies of UDP-3-O-acyl-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) enzyme from Acinetobacter baumannii. This study will also incorporate the use of various biophysical techniques like DLS, CD, X-ray crystallography, and Cryo-EM, etc.
During my masters in Bioinformatics, I have been introduced and trained in molecular dynamics and various techniques in structural biology. I have done my master thesis on modelling of three dimensional structures of potent enzymes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their interaction with various drug candidates via molecular docking studies with the use of Phyre2, Docking Server and other concerned tools.
After completion of my Masters, I got an opportunity to work with Dr. Vijay Nema and gained better insight in Molecular Dynamics and Simulations of Proteins and Protein-ligand complexes using Gromacs and Charmm-gui.
During my research work at Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic under the supervision of Dr. Jozef Hritz, I gained detailed knowledge about molecular dynamics simulations and high-end techniques like SAXS and Cryo-Electron Microscopy. The main focus of my work was to elucidate three dimensional structure of Tyrosine Hydroxylase, mechanism of its activity and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.
Furthermore, my research work at University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic under the guidance of Prof. Rudiger Ettrich helped me to gain better understanding of CryoEM generated model fitting and 3D structure generation of bio-molecules and protein X-rays crystallography.
Thus, I believe that training at HERCULES European School will provide me ample opportunities to learn advanced techniques and deepen up my knowledge in the field of structural biology. It is certain that experiences gained from this school will prove to be invaluable to me and my future endeavors to develop into a full-fledged independent researcher to give my best for the benefit of Science and mankind.
Besides getting enlightened from the theory, practicals and tutorials, the training will also open doors for close interaction with respective scientists which is very valuable in receiving great ideas and suggestions related to my queries about the subject.
Abstract: Multiple strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have developed multidrug resistance (MDR), leaving colistin as the only effective treatment. The cecropin-α-melittin hybrid BP100 (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2) and its analogs have previously shown activity against a wide array of plant and human pathogens. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 BP100 analogs (four known and 14 new) against the MDR A. baumannii strain ATCC BAA-1605, as well as against a number of other clinically relevant human pathogens. Selected peptides were further evaluated against strains of A. baumannii that acquired resistance to colistin due to mutations of the lpxC, lpxD, pmrA, and pmrB genes. The novel analogue BP214 showed antimicrobial activity at 1 to 2 μM and a hemolytic 50% effective concentration (EC50) of >150 μM. The lower activity of its enantiomer suggests a dual, specific and nonspecific mode of action. Interestingly, colistin behaved antagonistically to BP214 when pmrAB and lpxC mutants were challenged.
Pub.: 18 Nov '15, Pinned: 18 Jan '18
Abstract: This invention pertains generally to compounds of Formula I as described herein and compositions containing such compounds, as well as methods of using such compounds to treat bacterial infections. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods and compositions comprising these compounds for treating infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
Pub.: 24 Jan '17, Pinned: 05 Jan '18
Abstract: Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Members of related genera are pathogens of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Despite the diversity of Chlamydia, all species contain an outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is comprised of a genus-conserved, and genus-defining, trisaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid Kdo region. Recent studies with lipopolysaccharide inhibitors demonstrate that LOS is important for the C. trachomatis developmental cycle during RB- > EB differentiation. Here, we explore the effects of one of these inhibitors, LPC-011, on the developmental cycle of five chlamydial species.Sensitivity to the drug varied in some of the species and was conserved between others. We observed that inhibition of LOS biosynthesis in some chlamydial species induced formation of aberrant reticulate bodies, while in other species, no change was observed to the reticulate body. However, loss of LOS production prevented completion of the chlamydial reproductive cycle in all species tested. In previous studies we found that C. trachomatis and C. caviae infection enhances MHC class I antigen presentation of a model self-peptide. We find that treatment with LPC-011 prevents enhanced host-peptide presentation induced by infection with all chlamydial-species tested.The data demonstrate that LOS synthesis is necessary for production of infectious progeny and inhibition of LOS synthesis induces aberrancy in certain chlamydial species, which has important implications for the use of LOS synthesis inhibitors as potential antibiotics.
Pub.: 26 Apr '17, Pinned: 05 Jan '18
Abstract: With the rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative pathogens, biofilms-associated infections are increasingly harder to treat and combination therapy with colistin has become one of the most efficient therapeutic strategies. Our study aimed to evaluate the potential for synergy of colistin combined with CHIR-090, a potent LpxC inhibitor, against in-vitro and in-vivoPseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Four P. aeruginosa isolates with varying colistin susceptibility were chosen for evaluation. Tested isolates of P. aeruginosa exhibited MIC values ranging from 1 to 64 and 0.0625 to 0.5 μg/ml for colistin and CHIR-090, respectively. Against 24h static biofilms, MBEC values ranged from 256 to 512 and 8 to >128 μg/ml for colistin and CHIR-090, respectively. Interestingly, sub-inhibitory concentrations of CHIR-090 contributed to eradicate subpopulations of P. aeruginosa with highest colistin MIC values. Combination of colistin and CHIR-090 at sub-inhibitory concentrations demonstrated synergistic activity, both in-vivo and in-vitro, and prevented the formation of colistin tolerant sub-populations in in-vitro biofilms. In summary, our study highlights the in-vivo and in-vitro synergistic activity of colistin and CHIR-090 combination against both colistin-susceptible and non-susceptible P. aeruginosa biofilms. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical relevance of the combination of these two antimicrobials and outline the underlying mechanism for their synergistic action.
Pub.: 04 May '17, Pinned: 05 Jan '18
Abstract: Traditionally, crystallographic analysis of macromolecules has depended on large, well-ordered crystals, which often require significant effort to obtain. Even sizable crystals sometimes suffer from pathologies that render them inappropriate for high-resolution structure determination. Here we show that fragmentation of large, imperfect crystals into microcrystals or nanocrystals can provide a simple path for high-resolution structure determination by the cryoEM method MicroED and potentially by serial femtosecond crystallography.
Pub.: 14 Feb '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: The resolution of electron-potential maps in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) is approaching atomic or near- atomic resolution. However, no program currently exists for de novo cryoEM model building at resolutions exceeding beyond 3.5 Å. Here, we present a program, EMBuilder, based on template matching, to generate cryoEM models at high resolution. The program identifies features in both secondary-structure and Cα stages. In the secondary structure stage, helices and strands are identified with pre-computed templates, and the voxel size of the entire map is then refined to account for microscopic magnification errors. The identified secondary structures are then extended from both ends in the Cα stage via a log-likelihood (LLK) target function, and if possible, the side chains are also assigned. This program can build models of large proteins (~1 MDa) in a reasonable amount of time (~1 day) and thus has the potential to greatly decrease the manual workload required for model building of high-resolution cryoEM maps.
Pub.: 03 Jun '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: It is now possible to routinely determine atomic resolution structures by electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM), facilitated in part by the method known as micro electron-diffraction (MicroED). Since its initial demonstration in 2013, MicroED has helped determine a variety of protein structures ranging in molecular weight from a few hundred Daltons to several hundred thousand Daltons. Some of these structures were novel while others were previously known. The resolutions of structures obtained thus far by MicroED range from 3.2Å to 1.0Å, with most better than 2.5Å. Crystals of various sizes and shapes, with different space group symmetries, and with a range of solvent content have all been studied by MicroED. The wide range of crystals explored to date presents the community with a landscape of opportunity for structure determination from nano crystals. Here we summarize the lessons we have learned during the first few years of MicroED, and from our attempts at the first ab initio structure determined by the method. We re-evaluate theoretical considerations in choosing the appropriate crystals for MicroED and for extracting the most meaning out of measured data. With more laboratories worldwide adopting the technique, we speculate what the first decade might hold for MicroED.
Pub.: 27 Jun '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: Antibiotic resistant hospital acquired infections are on the rise, creating an urgent need for novel bactericidal drugs. Enzymes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis are attractive antibacterial targets since LPS is the major structural component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A is an essential hydrophobic anchor of LPS and the first committed step in lipid A biosynthesis is catalyzed by a unique zinc dependent metalloamidase, UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC). LpxC is an attractive Gram-negative only target that has been chemically validated by potent bactericidal hydroxamate inhibitors that work by coordination of the enzyme's catalytic zinc ion. An exploratory chemistry effort focused on expanding the SAR around hydroxamic acid zinc-binding 'warheads' lead to the identification of novel compounds with enzyme potency and antibacterial activity similar to CHIR-090.
Pub.: 29 Jan '11, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: The enzyme LpxC (UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase) is broadly conserved across Gram-negative bacteria and is essential for synthesis of lipid A, the membrane anchor of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), which are a major component of the outer membrane in nearly all Gram-negative bacteria. LpxC has been the focus of target-directed antibiotic discovery projects in numerous pharmaceutical and academic groups for more than 20 years. Despite intense effort, no LpxC inhibitor has been approved for therapeutic use, and only one has yet reached human studies. This article will summarize the history of LpxC as a drug target and the parallel history of research on LpxC biology. Both academic and industrial researchers have used LpxC inhibitors as tool compounds, leading to increased understanding of the differing mechanisms for regulation of LPS synthesis in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Pub.: 29 May '16, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria is an increasing threat to global health that underscores an urgent need for an expanded antibacterial armamentarium. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, have become increasingly important clinical pathogens with limited treatment options. This is due in part to their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane components, which dually serve as endotoxins while also protecting Gram-negative bacteria from antibiotic entry. The LpxC enzyme catalyzes the committed step of LPS biosynthesis, making LpxC a promising target for new antibacterials. Here, we present the first structure of an LpxC enzyme in complex with the deacetylation reaction product, UDP-(3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl))-glucosamine. These studies provide valuable insight into recognition of substrates and products by LpxC and a platform for structure-guided drug discovery of broad spectrum Gram-negative antibiotics.
Pub.: 11 Oct '13, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: LpxC is an essential enzyme in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in gram-negative bacteria. Several promising antimicrobial lead compounds targeting LpxC have been reported, though they typically display a large variation in potency against different gram-negative pathogens. We report that inhibitors with a diacetylene scaffold effectively overcome the resistance caused by sequence variation in the LpxC substrate-binding passage. Compound binding is captured in complex with representative LpxC orthologs, and structural analysis reveals large conformational differences that mostly reflect inherent molecular features of distinct LpxC orthologs, whereas ligand-induced structural adaptations occur at a smaller scale. These observations highlight the need for a molecular understanding of inherent structural features and conformational plasticity of LpxC enzymes for optimizing LpxC inhibitors as broad-spectrum antibiotics against gram-negative infections.
Pub.: 21 Dec '10, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: This paper describes the current update on macromolecular model validation services that are provided at the MolProbity website, emphasizing changes and additions since the previous review in 2010. There have been many infrastructure improvements, including rewrite of previous Java utilities to now use existing or newly written Python utilities in the open-source CCTBX portion of the Phenix software system. This improves long-term maintainability and enhances the thorough integration of MolProbity-style validation within Phenix. There is now a complete MolProbity mirror site at http://molprobity.manchester.ac.uk. GitHub serves our open-source code, reference datasets, and the resulting multi-dimensional distributions that define most validation criteria. Coordinate output after Asn/Gln/His "flip" correction is now more idealized, since the post-refinement step has apparently often been skipped in the past. Two distinct sets of heavy-atom-to-hydrogen distances and accompanying van der Waals radii have been researched and improved in accuracy, one for the electron-cloud-center positions suitable for X-ray crystallography and one for nuclear positions. New validations include messages at input about problem-causing format irregularities, updates of Ramachandran and rotamer criteria from the million quality-filtered residues in a new reference dataset, the CaBLAM Cα-CO virtual-angle analysis of backbone and secondary structure for cryoEM or low-resolution X-ray, and flagging of the very rare cis-nonProline and twisted peptides which have recently been greatly overused. Due to wide application of MolProbity validation and corrections by the research community, in Phenix, and at the worldwide Protein Data Bank, newly deposited structures have continued to improve greatly as measured by MolProbity's unique all-atom clashscore. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pub.: 27 Oct '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2014 Source:International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine Author(s): Saul Chemonges Current studies continue to show that UDP-3-O-((R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetyl glucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) inhibitors such as pyridone methylsulfone hydroxymate 1 and 2a (LpxC-2) downregulate the lethal effects of sepsis initiated by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) by curtailing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis in murine models. Sepsis initiated by MDRGNB is a leading cause of shock and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. To date however, the biological effects of LpxC-2 and related molecules in companion and production animals remain largely unexplored in vivo and are therefore unknown. Such studies would be greatly informative in the expectation of LpxC-2 progressing to human clinical trials. Mechanistic studies to interrogate this novel antibiotic candidate in realistic and clinically applicable large animal models of veterinary importance are sorely lacking. To be relevant, the physiology of the chosen animal models should closely match that of humans such as ovine or porcine, or even better, non-human primate based studies, as they are more genetically similar to humans than murine models. If discovered to have subtle or negligible side effects, LpxC-2 could have a future role in the treatment and management of MDRGNB-induced infections that lead to sepsis in both animals and humans. More research is indicated on LpxC-2 use in many veterinary species, as data remains scarce.
Pub.: 08 Dec '14, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: We attempted to optimize sulfonamide-based non-alkyne LpxC inhibitors by focusing on improvements in enzyme inhibitory and antibacterial activity. It was discovered that inhibitors possessing 2-aryl benzofuran as a hydrophobe exhibited good activity. In particular, compound 21 displayed impressive antibacterial activity (E. coli MIC=0.063μg/mL, K. pneumoniae MIC=0.5μg/mL, and P. aeruginosa MIC=0.5μg/mL), and is a promising lead for further exploration as an antibacterial agent.
Pub.: 14 Jan '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacteria presents a serious threat for public health. Novel antimicrobials that could overcome the resistance problems are urgently needed. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristol)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is a cytosolic zinc-based deacetylase that catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of lipid A, which is essential for the survival of Gram-negative bacteria. Our efforts toward the discovery of novel LpxC inhibitors are presented herein.
Pub.: 06 Mar '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: As an important target for the development of novel antibiotics, UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) has been widely studied. Pyridone methylsulfone hydroxamate (PMH) compounds can effectively inhibit the catalytic activity of LpxC. In this work, the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of PMH inhibitors were explored and models with good predictive ability were established using comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity index analysis methods. The effect of PMH inhibitors' electrostatic potential on the inhibitory ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LpxC (PaLpxC) is revealed at the molecular level via molecular electrostatic potential analyses. Then, two molecular dynamics simulations for the PaLpxC and PaLpxC-inhibitor systems were also performed respectively to investigate the key residues of PaLpxC hydrolase binding to water molecules. The results indicate that orderly alternative water molecules can form stable hydrogen bonds with M62, E77, T190, and H264 in the catalytic center, and tetracoordinate to zinc ion along with H78, H237, and D241. It was found that the conformational transition space of PaLpxC changes after association with PMH inhibitors through free energy landscape and cluster analyses. Finally, a possible inhibitory mechanism of PMH inhibitors was proposed, based on our molecular simulation. This paper will provide a theoretical basis for the molecular design of LpxC-targeting antibiotics.
Pub.: 10 May '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: The Zn(2+)-dependent deacetylase LpxC is an essential enzyme of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria and a promising target for the development of antibiotics selectively combating Gram-negative pathogens. Researchers from industry and academia have synthesized structurally diverse LpxC inhibitors, exhibiting different LpxC inhibitory and antibacterial activities. Areas covered: A brief introduction into the structure and function of LpxC, showing its suitability as antibacterial target, along with the structures of several reported LpxC inhibitors, is given. The article reviews patents (reported between 2010 and 2016) and related research publications on novel small-molecule LpxC inhibitors. Emphasis is placed on structure-activity relationships within the reported series of LpxC inhibitors. Expert opinion: The performed analysis of patents revealed that the current search for novel LpxC inhibitors is focused on small molecules, sharing common structural features like a Zn(2+)-chelating group as well as a highly lipophilic side-chain. However, despite the promising preclinical data of many of the reported compounds, besides the recently withdrawn clinical candidate ACHN-975, no other LpxC inhibitor has entered clinical trials. The lack of clinical candidates might be related with undesired effects caused by the common structural elements of the LpxC inhibitors.
Pub.: 26 Jul '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: The infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria pose serious threats to humankind. It has been suggested that an antibiotic targeting LpxC of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria is a promising strategy for curing Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, experimental proof of this concept is lacking. Here, we describe our discovery and characterization of a biphenylacetylene-based inhibitor of LpxC, an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of the lipid A component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The compound LPC-069 has no known adverse effects in mice and is effective in vitro against a broad panel of Gram-negative clinical isolates, including several multiresistant and extremely drug-resistant strains involved in nosocomial infections. Furthermore, LPC-069 is curative in a murine model of one of the most severe human diseases, bubonic plague, which is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis Our results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of LpxC inhibitors as a new class of antibiotic against fatal infections caused by extremely virulent pathogens. The present findings also highlight the potential of LpxC inhibitors for clinical development as therapeutics for infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.IMPORTANCE The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacilli highlights the urgent need for new antibiotics. Here, we describe a new class of antibiotics lacking cross-resistance with conventional antibiotics. The compounds inhibit LpxC, a key enzyme in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria, and are active in vitro against a broad panel of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli involved in nosocomial and community infections. The present study also constitutes the first demonstration of the curative treatment of bubonic plague by a novel, broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LpxC. Hence, the data highlight the therapeutic potential of LpxC inhibitors against a wide variety of Gram-negative bacterial infections, including the most severe ones caused by Y. pestis and by multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant carbapenemase-producing strains.
Pub.: 27 Jul '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: LpxC inhibitors are new-type antibacterial agents developed in the last twenty years, mainly against Gram-negative bacteria infections. To develop novel LpxC inhibitors with good antibacterial activities and biological metabolism, we summarized the basic skeleton of reported LpxC inhibitors, designed and synthesized several series of compounds and tested their antibacterial activities against Escherichial coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. Structure-activity relationships have been discussed in this article. The metabolism stability of YDL-2, YDL-5, YDL-8, YDL-14, YDL-20-YDL-23 have been evaluated in liver microsomes, which indicated that the 2-amino isopropyl group may be a preferred structure than the 2-hydroxy ethyl group in the design of LpxC inhibitors.
Pub.: 14 Dec '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: The scope and complexity of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) data has greatly increased, and will continue to do so, due to recent and ongoing technical breakthroughs that have led to much improved resolutions for macromolecular structures solved using this method. This big data explosion includes single particle data as well as tomographic tilt series, both generally acquired as direct detector movies of ∼10-100 frames per image or per tilt-series. We provide a brief survey of the developments leading to the current status, and describe existing cryoEM pipelines, with an emphasis on the scope of data acquisition, methods for automation, and use of cloud storage and computing.
Pub.: 04 Nov '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) have dramatically improved the resolutions at which vitrified biological specimens can be studied, revealing new structural and mechanistic insights over a broad range of spatial scales. Bolstered by these advances, much effort has been directed toward the development of hybrid modeling methodologies for the construction and refinement of high-fidelity atomistic models from cryoEM data. In this brief review, we will survey the key elements of cryoEM-based hybrid modeling, providing an overview of available computational tools and strategies as well as several recent applications.
Pub.: 07 Nov '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) protein kinase B (PknB) which is now proved to be essential for the growth and survival of M.tb, is a transmembrane protein with a potential to be a good drug target. However it is not known if this target remains conserved in otherwise resistant isolates from clinical origin. The present study describes the conservation analysis of sequences covering the inhibitor binding domain of PknB to assess if it remains conserved in susceptible and resistant clinical strains of mycobacteria picked from three different geographical areas of India.A total of 116 isolates from North, South and West India were used in the study with a variable profile of their susceptibilities towards streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and ofloxacin. Isolates were also spoligotyped in order to find if the conservation pattern of pknB gene remain consistent or differ with different spoligotypes. The impact of variation as found in the study was analyzed using Molecular dynamics simulations.The sequencing results with 115/116 isolates revealed the conserved nature of pknB sequences irrespective of their susceptibility status and spoligotypes. The only variation found was in one strains wherein pnkB sequence had G to A mutation at 664 position translating into a change of amino acid, Valine to Isoleucine. After analyzing the impact of this sequence variation using Molecular dynamics simulations, it was observed that the variation is causing no significant change in protein structure or the inhibitor binding.Hence, the study endorses that PknB is an ideal target for drug development and there is no pre-existing or induced resistance with respect to the sequences involved in inhibitor binding. Also if the mutation that we are reporting for the first time is found again in subsequent work, it should be checked with phenotypic profile before drawing the conclusion that it would affect the activity in any way. Bioinformatics analysis in our study says that it has no significant effect on the binding and hence the activity of the protein.
Pub.: 20 Aug '17, Pinned: 02 Jan '18
Abstract: This study was conducted to find the best suited freely available software for modelling of proteins by taking a few sample proteins. The proteins used were small to big in size with available crystal structures for the purpose of benchmarking. Key players like Phyre2, Swiss-Model, CPHmodels-3.0, Homer, (PS)2, (PS)(2)-V(2), Modweb were used for the comparison and model generation.Benchmarking process was done for four proteins, Icl, InhA, and KatG of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and RpoB of Thermus Thermophilus to get the most suited software. Parameters compared during analysis gave relatively better values for Phyre2 and Swiss-Model.This comparative study gave the information that Phyre2 and Swiss-Model make good models of small and large proteins as compared to other screened software. Other software was also good but is often not very efficient in providing full-length and properly folded structure.
Pub.: 12 Sep '13, Pinned: 02 Jan '18