I'm a Academic scientist I've been on Sparrho since 19 Apr '17 My Sparrho username is ljuba
Purpose, effects and current opinions associated with neutering of stray dogs.
Elective gonadectomy, castration in males and either ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy in females, is the most common small animal surgery performed in some countries and is unethical or illegal in other countries. Advantages of gonadectomy include decrease in reproductive tract disease, including pyometra and mammary neoplasia in bitches, and testicular neoplasia and prostate disease in male dogs. Other advantages include: decrease in pregnancy and parturition-related disorders including metritis, mastitis and dystocia; decrease in hormone-associated disorders such as vaginal prolapse in bitches; and decrease in undesirable sexual behaviours. Disadvantages of gonadectomy include surgical and anaesthetic complications, increased risk of neoplasia of various organ systems, increased incidence of some musculoskeletal and endocrinologic disorders, obesity and urinary incontinence in bitches. Today, though society shows high level of interest for animal welfare, there is no adequate chemical or other (non surgical) approach for resolving problem with overpopulation in stray dogs. On the other hand, utilization of proven anesthetic protocols and multimodal approach for pain management after surgery can reduce animal suffering to a lowest possible level.
Abstract: In contrast to European countries, the overwhelming majority of dogs in the U.S. are neutered (including spaying), usually done before one year of age. Given the importance of gonadal hormones in growth and development, this cultural contrast invites an analysis of the multiple organ systems that may be adversely affected by neutering. Using a single breed-specific dataset, the objective was to examine the variables of gender and age at the time of neutering versus leaving dogs gonadally intact, on all diseases occurring with sufficient frequency for statistical analyses. Given its popularity and vulnerability to various cancers and joint disorders, the Golden Retriever was chosen for this study. Veterinary hospital records of 759 client-owned, intact and neutered female and male dogs, 1-8 years old, were examined for diagnoses of hip dysplasia (HD), cranial cruciate ligament tear (CCL), lymphosarcoma (LSA), hemangiosarcoma (HSA), and mast cell tumor (MCT). Patients were classified as intact, or neutered early (<12 mo) or late (≥12 mo). Statistical analyses involved survival analyses and incidence rate comparisons. Outcomes at the 5 percent level of significance are reported. Of early-neutered males, 10 percent were diagnosed with HD, double the occurrence in intact males. There were no cases of CCL diagnosed in intact males or females, but in early-neutered males and females the occurrences were 5 percent and 8 percent, respectively. Almost 10 percent of early-neutered males were diagnosed with LSA, 3 times more than intact males. The percentage of HSA cases in late-neutered females (about 8 percent) was 4 times more than intact and early-neutered females. There were no cases of MCT in intact females, but the occurrence was nearly 6 percent in late-neutered females. The results have health implications for Golden Retriever companion and service dogs, and for oncologists using dogs as models of cancers that occur in humans.
Pub.: 19 Feb '13, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: Pediatric gonadectomy is most commonly performed by humane organizations as a means of population control. Benefits and detriments of gonadectomy are reviewed, with special attention to literature describing effects specific to age at gonadectomy. Techniques for pediatric anesthesia and surgery are reviewed.
Pub.: 04 Mar '14, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: Practicing veterinarians in small-animal or mixed-animal practice in New York state were surveyed about their beliefs and practices regarding the age at which dogs and cats should be neutered and their attitudes toward early neutering (at 4 months of age or younger). The majority of veterinarians routinely recommended neutering for all client animals (70.6%) and supported the routine neutering of shelter animals before adoption (90.3%). More veterinarians in this study reported at least one perceived benefit (91.3%) for early neutering than reported at least one perceived risk (84.4%). Veterinarians with experience neutering early were less likely to believe that the procedure was associated with one or more risks.
Pub.: 11 Sep '02, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: Surgical sterilization of dogs and cats is a well-accepted measure for population control in some countries, but is considered unethical as an elective surgery in other countries. This is a review of what is known regarding positive and negative effects of gonadectomy surgery on individual animals and on societal management of unowned dog and cat populations.
Pub.: 01 Aug '12, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: Gonadectomy is one of the most common procedures performed on dogs in the United States. Neutering has been shown to reduce the risk for some diseases although recent reports suggest increased prevalence for structural disorders and some neoplasias. The relation between neuter status and autoimmune diseases has not been explored. This study evaluated the prevalence and risk of atopic dermatitis (ATOP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), canine myasthenia gravis (CMG), colitis (COL), hypoadrenocorticism (ADD), hypothyroidism (HYPO), immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), lupus erythematosus (LUP), and pemphigus complex (PEMC), for intact females, intact males, neutered females, and neutered males. Pyometra (PYO) was evaluated as a control condition.Patient records (90,090) from the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis from 1995 to 2010 were analyzed in order to determine the risk of immune-mediated disease relative to neuter status in dogs. Neutered dogs had a significantly greater risk of ATOP, AIHA, ADD, HYPO, ITP, and IBD than intact dogs with neutered females being at greater risk than neutered males for all but AIHA and ADD. Neutered females, but not males, had a significantly greater risk of LUP than intact females. Pyometra was a greater risk for intact females.The data underscore the importance of sex steroids on immune function emphasizing a role of these hormones on tissue self-recognition. Neutering is critically important for population control, reduction of reproductive disorders, and offers convenience for owners. Despite these advantages, the analyses of the present study suggest that neutering is associated with increased risk for certain autoimmune disorders and underscore the need for owners to consult with their veterinary practitioner prior to neutering to evaluate possible benefits and risks associated with such a procedure.
Pub.: 10 Dec '16, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of gabapentin as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in dogs. Twenty dogs undergoing mastectomy were randomized to receive perioperative oral placebo or gabapentin (10 mg/kg). All dogs were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.03 mg/kg) and morphine (0.3 mg/ kg). Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane. Intravenous meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) was administered preoperatively. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated for 72 hr. Rescue analgesia was provided with intramuscular morphine (0.5 mg/kg). Dogs in the Placebo group received significantly more morphine doses than the Gabapentin group (P=0.021), despite no significant differences in pain scores. Perioperative gabapentin reduced the postoperative morphine requirements in dogs after mastectomy.
Pub.: 31 Mar '15, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: Pain management in dogs and cats has undergone a dramatic evolution in the past decade. Current approaches focus on anticipation and prevention of pain, as well as both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management techniques. The veterinary team plays an essential role in educating pet owners about recognizing and managing pain in their pets.
Pub.: 13 Nov '07, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: To compare the efficacy of preoperative administration of buprenorphine (via oral transmucosal [OTM] and IV routes) for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.Prospective, randomized, blinded study.18 dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy.Dogs were allocated to 3 groups (6 dogs/group) and were assigned to receive buprenorphine (20 μg/kg [9.09 μg/lb], IV; a low dose [20 μg/kg] via OTM administration [LOTM]; or a high dose [120 μg/kg [54.54 μg/lb] via OTM administration [HOTM]) immediately before anesthetic induction with propofol and maintenance with isoflurane for ovariohysterectomy. Postoperative pain was assessed by use of a dynamic interactive pain scale. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia when postoperative pain exceeded a predetermined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma concentrations of buprenorphine and its metabolites. Data were analyzed with an ANOVA.Body weight, surgical duration, propofol dose, isoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Number of dogs requiring rescue analgesia did not differ significantly for the HOTM (1/6), IV (3/6), and LOTM (5/6) treatments. Similarly, mean ± SEM duration of analgesia did not differ significantly for the HOTM (20.3 ± 3.7 hours), IV (16.0 ± 3.8 hours), and LOTM (7.3 ± 3.3 hours) treatments. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was ≤ 0.60 ng/mL in 7 of 9 dogs requiring rescue analgesia.Buprenorphine (HOTM) given immediately before anesthetic induction can be an alternative for postoperative pain management in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
Pub.: 02 Feb '11, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: This study investigated the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine to relieve postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOVH) in dogs. Sixteen sexually intact female dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. The sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine (SIB) group received 4.4 mg/kg of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine diluted to 0.25% with an equivalent volume of saline after pneumoperitoneum. The control group received 1.76 mL/kg of saline in a similar fashion. Both groups received preoperative periportal 5% bupivacaine (1 mL) before incision. Postoperative pain was measured using the short form of the Glasgow composite measures pain scale (CMPS-SF, 0-24). Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were measured preoperatively and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h postoperatively. The SIB group had significantly lower CMPS-SF compared to the control group 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12h after the operation. Cortisol concentrations were significantly increased from preoperative concentrations in the control group at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4h post operation and at 0.5 and 1h post operation in the SIB group. No significant differences were seen in serum glucose within each group. This report suggests that the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine can be used as part of a multimodal approach for pain management after LOVH in dogs.
Pub.: 15 Mar '11, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: Stray dogs are a significant problem in large cities. Contraception is an important and useful solution to control the growing population of these dogs. Early-age neutering is an effective technique for canine population control; however, surgical neutering may not be possible in various situations. GnRH-agonist implantation has been successful for long-term reversible contraception in dogs. The efficacy of GnRH-agonist implantation on long-term suppression of reproductive performance was observed in male dogs. Eleven 4-month-old dogs were implanted with 4.7, 9.4 mg deslorelin or placebo. Sexual behaviour and testicular size were monitored every 2 months. Ejaculates were collected and evaluated at 8, 12, 15, 18, 24, 30, 32, 34 and 36 months of age. Dogs implanted with placebo were found to be healthy and in normal reproductive status. Most dogs (3/4) implanted with 4.7 mg deslorelin showed male sexual behaviour at age of 34 months old. From this group, two dogs had normal semen quality, while semen could not be collected from the other dog, and after castration, no sperm were obtained following epididymal flushing. One dog implanted 4.7 mg deslorelin and four dogs implanted with 9.4 mg deslorelin remained in the non-pubertal reproductive status at 30-34 months. The delay to puberty was longer in dogs implanted with higher dose of GnRH agonist. Implantation of pre-pubertal dogs with high doses of GnRH agonist will delay the onset of puberty and may be an effective strategy to reduce the number of unwanted breedings.
Pub.: 04 Jan '13, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: To estimate the prevalence of dog bites to primary school children between the ages of 8-12 years using a semi-structured interview process. With the increase in the pet population and popularity of dangerous breeds of dog and a high stray dog population combined with a dearth of information on the risk of dog attacks to children in Trinidad, a semi-structured interview process was used to determine risk factors associated with dog attacks.A questionnaire survey of 1109 primary school children between the ages of 8-12 years was conducted in Trinidad from November 2002 to September 2003. The survey was conducted to determine the risk factors such as age, gender, size of dog and relationship of dog and victim, in dog bite incidents. The chi-square statistic and odds ratios were used to estimate risk factors for a bite incident.Twenty-eight percent of children were bitten at least once by a dog. Gender (male) and owning a dog were statistically significant risk factors (p = 0.003 and 0.008 respectively, chi2 df, 95% confidence). Most attacks occurred outside of the home (58.0%) followed by the victims' home (42.0%) and were by a dog known but not owned (54.6%) by the victim. Many victims (33.0%) were bitten without having any interaction with the dog and the majority (61.9%) of victims did not receive professional medical assistance. Overall, the lower leg or foot was most often injured (39.3%).A public educational campaign is needed on responsible pet ownership. In addition, children must be taught effective ways of avoiding attacks or reducing injury in the event of a dog attack. The Dangerous dogs Act 2000 must be proclaimed in parliament by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to exert more pressure on pet owners to safeguard the public from the menace of dog attacks.
Pub.: 07 Mar '08, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present.
Pub.: 12 Jun '09, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: To determine if ovariectomy (OVE) is a safe alternative to ovariohysterectomy (OVH) for canine gonadectomy.Literature review.An on-line bibliographic search in MEDLINE and PubMed was performed in December 2004, covering the period 1969-2004. Relevant studies were compared and evaluated with regard to study design, surgical technique, and both short-term and long-term follow-up.OVH is technically more complicated, time consuming, and is probably associated with greater morbidity (larger incision, more intraoperative trauma, increased discomfort) compared with OVE. No significant differences between techniques were observed for incidence of long-term urogenital problems, including endometritis/pyometra and urinary incontinence, making OVE the preferred method of gonadectomy in the healthy bitch.Canine OVE can replace OVH as the procedure of choice for routine neutering of healthy female dogs.
Pub.: 14 Feb '06, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: A longitudinal study was carried out to describe the size and spatial distribution of the stray dog population in the University of São Paulo campus, Brazil from November 2010 to November 2011. The campus is located within the urban area of São Paulo, the largest city of Brazil, with a population over 11 million. The 4.2 km(2) that comprise the university grounds are walled, with 10 access gates, allowing stray dogs to move in and out freely. Over 100,000 people and 50,000 vehicles circulate in the campus daily. Five observations were made during the study period, using a mark-resight method. The same route was performed in all observations, being traveled twice on each observation day. Observed animals were photographed and the sight coordinates were obtained using a GPS device. The estimated size of the stray dog population varied from 32 (CI 95% 23-56) to 56 (CI 95% 45-77) individuals. Differences between in- and outward dog movements influenced dog population estimates. Overlapping home ranges of docile dogs were observed in areas where most people circulate. An elusive group was observed close to a protected rain forest area and the estimated home range for this group did not overlap with the home ranges for other dogs within the campus. A kernel density map showed that higher densities of stray dog sighting is associated with large organic matter generators, such as university restaurants. We conclude that the preferred source of food of the stray dogs on the University of São Paulo campus was leftover food deliberately offered by restaurant users. The population was stable during the study period and the constant source of food was the main reason to retain this population within the campus.
Pub.: 01 Jan '13, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: This is a recent study conducted during 15th September 2013 to 15th December 2013 at the community health centre (CHC), Muradnagar, distt Ghaziabad, among the victims of dog/animal bite attending the daily OPD services of CHC. To identify the level of general awareness and knowledge of wound management and rabies among the cases of dog bite and to study the awareness of people about antirabies vaccines and health service utilization.The study population composed of 250 victims of dog or animal bite, Patients were selected and approached after proper briefing, with well-prepared two page structured questionnaire designed in local language to assess their knowledge about the wound management, information about the epidemiology of dog bite.The result of the study reflect the very low level of awareness about the postdog bite management of wounds as well as about the disease rabies group of people questioned and also reveals serious gaps in understanding of wound severity, classification and correct application of PEP with ARV vaccine and RIG. There is definitely a gap in people's knowledge, attitude, and practices about dog bite and its management and there is need of taking serious measures for the control of stray dog population at the block level.
Pub.: 07 Feb '15, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: Previously free of rabies, Bali experienced an outbreak in 2008, which has since caused a large number of human fatalities. In response, both mass dog culling and vaccination have been implemented. In order to assess potential community-driven interventions for optimizing rabies control, we conducted a study exploring the relationship between dogs, rabies, and the Balinese community. The objectives of this study were to: i) understand the human-dog relationship in Bali; ii) explore local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) relating to rabies; and iii) assess potential community-driven activities to optimize rabies control and surveillance.Conducted between February and June 2011, the study combined a questionnaire (n = 300; CI = 95 %; error margin = 5 %) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in 10 villages in the Denpasar, Gianyar, and Karangasem regencies. The questionnaire included a Likert scale to assess community knowledge and attitudes. For the knowledge assessment, three points were given for a correct answer, while wrong answers and uncertain answers were given zero points. For the attitudes assessment, three points were given for a positive answer, two points for a neutral answer, and one point for a negative answer. Respondent knowledge was categorized as good (score >40), fair (score 20-40), or poor (score <20), based on a maximum total score 60. Respondent attitudes were categorized as positive (score >26), neutral (score 13-26), or negative (score <13), based on a maximum total score of 39. Mixed-gender FGDs in each sub-village (banjar) were conducted, each involving 7-15 participants to complement the questionnaire results. On a follow-up research trip in mid-2013, the data analysis was triangulated and validated using semi-structured interviews. Questionnaire data were analyzed descriptively using SPSS 17.0, while qualitative data from interviews and FGDs were analyzed manually according to accepted methods of coding and memo writing. The chi-square test was then used to analyze the statistical relationships between knowledge and attitudes of the respondents.Out of the total 300 respondents, most were predominantly male (82 %), Hindu (99 %), married (96 %), older than 30 years of age (9 %), and owned dogs (72 %). Dog ownership was motivated by culture, personal taste, and function, with dogs was being used as guards (85 %) and companion animals (27 %), and was sometimes related to religious or traditional obligations (2 %). Relating to their culture and local beliefs, and eventually becoming their way of life, 79 % of respondents kept free-roaming dogs. With the rabies outbreak in Bali and Western breeds becoming more popular, more responsible dog ownership (leashing, confining, regular feeding) became more acceptable and changed community perceptions on keeping dogs, even though the sustainability of this practice cannot be gauged. In addition, the economic situation posed major problems in rural areas. The level of community knowledge about rabies and its associated control programs were generally fair and community attitudes were positive. However, community KAPs still need to be improved. A total of 74 % respondents reported to have vaccinated their dogs in 2011, but only few were found to report rabid animals to livestock officers (12 %) and a significant number believed that washing a bite wound was not important (62 %). Moreover, free-roaming dog practices and discarding of unwanted female puppies still continue and possibly create difficulties for rabies elimination as these practices potentially increase the stray dog population. We identified three major sociocultural aspects with potential for community-driven interventions to optimize current rabies elimination efforts: integrating local notions of ahimsa (non-violence) into education campaigns, engaging communities through the local banjar sociopolitical system, and working with traditional legal structures to increase local compliance with rabies control.The human-dog relationship in Bali is multifaceted. Due to the uniqueness of the culture and the local beliefs, and encouraged by a socioeconomic aspect, a number of local practices were found to be constituting risk factors for continued rabies spread. Community knowledge and attitudes, which can consequently result in behavioral changes, needs to be improved across different genders, ages, educational backgrounds, and roles in the community, regardless of the individual village's experiences with rabies. Furthermore, community-driven activities based on sociocultural conditioning and community capacity at the banjar and village levels, such as public awareness activities, vaccination, dog registration, dog population management, and rapid response to dog bites, were identified as being able to complement the rabies control program in Bali. The program also needs recognition or acknowledgement from governments, especially local government as well as regular mentoring to improve and sustain community participation.
Pub.: 03 Jul '15, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which will be useful for planning and monitoring dog population management and rabies control program in the country.
Pub.: 03 Feb '16, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: A 16-year-old, spayed, female poodle dog was presented for evaluation of tenesmus, with the ability to attract male dogs and a willingness to mate. The dog had undergone an ovariohysterectomy when it was 7 years old. Haematological and serum biochemistry analyses demonstrated leucocytosis and a mild uraemia. A vaginal smear was predominantly made up of superficial cells, accounting for at least 80% of the cells. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneous multicystic mass at the caudal abdomen and two masses with anechoic areas adjacent to the caudal pole of each kidney. A midline exploratory laparotomy identified a uterine mass and residual ovaries that were surgically excised. Histopathological examination of the mass demonstrated that it was a leiomyoma. The left ovary had a cystic structure and the right ovary had a papillary cystic adenoma. Seven months after the surgery, the owner reported that the dog was clinically normal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a uterine leiomyoma after an incomplete ovariohysterectomy in the dog.
Pub.: 27 Nov '08, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
Abstract: An 11 yr old female mixed-breed Siberian husky was presented with a history of sanguineous vaginal discharge, swelling of the perineal area, decreased appetite, and lethargy. A single, large vaginal leiomyoma and multiple mammary tumors were diagnosed. Mastectomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. The vaginal leiomyoma regressed completely after ovariohysterectomy. This is the first reported case of spontaneous regression of a vaginal leiomyoma after ovariohysterectomy in a dog.
Pub.: 25 Sep '14, Pinned: 19 Apr '17
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