Postdoctoral Researcher at Vanderbilt University
Risk of heart disease depends more on HDL function rather than HDL-C. Learn more here!
High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is commonly used to assess the risk of heart disease. You may have heard of HDL being called the “good cholesterol” because high blood levels of HDL-C are associated with reduced risk for heart disease while low blood levels are associated with increased risk.
How does HDL relate to cardiovascular disease? Atherosclerosis is the hallmark of cardiovascular disease, which is described as a chronic inflammation of the arterial wall and characterized by a buildup of cholesterol-laden plaques that narrow arteries and disturb blood flow. A blockage of the arteries can disrupt blood flow leading to death of heart muscle cells (infarction), and can rupture the atherosclerotic plaque leading to blood clots (thrombosis).
HDL functions to prevent these atherogenic processes in a number of ways including removing excess cholesterol from cells and tissues, acting as an antioxidant, inhibiting inflammation, and more. Despite an inverse relationship between HDL-C levels and cardiovascular risk, several pharmacological trials that raise HDL-C levels have failed at reducing risk. This brings to question whether raising HDL-C levels can truly prevent atherosclerotic processes. Current research investigates an alternative hypothesis in that risk depends on HDL particle quality and function, rather than levels alone.
In inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, oxidative stress in the body is elevated, which results in the generation of very reactive oxidized molecules. These molecules can react with proteins and lipids of our cells and cause deleterious disturbances in function. Likewise, HDL can be oxidized, resulting in dysfunctional particles that no longer protect against atherosclerosis. Researchers at Vanderbilt (including myself) as well as at other universities are investigating the role of oxidized products in modifying HDL and its contribution to disease. Furthermore, we at Vanderbilt have developed small-molecule scavengers that can prevent these oxidized products from attacking proteins or cells. Currently my research involves understanding the role of isolevuglandins (a very reactive lipid!) in modifying HDL and investigating the use of scavengers to prevent HDL dysfunction.
This pinboard is designed to keep you informed on current research on HDL dysfunction and ongoing development of pharmacologic scavengers.
Abstract: Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in pathological processes. Isoketals are highly reactive gamma-ketoaldehydes of the isoprostanes pathway of free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid that are analogous to cyclooxygenase-derived levuglandins. Because aldehydes, that are much less reactive than isoketals, have been shown to trigger platelet activation, we investigated the effect of one isoketal (E(2)-IsoK) on platelet aggregation. Isoketal potentiated aggregation and the formation of thromboxane B(2) in platelets challenged with collagen at a concentration as low as 1 nM. Moreover, the potentiating effect of 1 nM isoketal on collagen-induced platelet aggregation was prevented by pyridoxamine, an effective scavenger of gamma-ketoaldehydes. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in isoketal-mediated platelet priming, suggesting that isoketals may act upstream the activation of collagen-induced cytosolic phospholipase A(2). Additionally, the incubation of platelets with 1 nM isoketal led to the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2). The cytosolic phopholipase A(2) inhibitors AACOCF3 and MAFP both fully prevented the increase in isoketal-mediated platelet aggregation challenged with collagen. These results indicate that isoketals could play an important role in platelet hyperfunction observed in pathological states such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis through the activation of the endogenous arachidonic acid cascade.
Pub.: 24 Feb '09, Pinned: 17 Jul '17
Abstract: Increased protein glycation in people with diabetes may promote atherosclerosis. This study examined the effects of non-enzymatic glycation on the association of lipid-free apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) with phospholipid, and cholesterol efflux from lipid-loaded macrophages to lipid-free and lipid-associated apoA-I. Glycation of lipid-free apoA-I by methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde resulted in Arg, Lys and Trp loss, advanced glycation end-product formation and protein cross-linking. The association of apoA-I glycated by glucose, methylglyoxal or glycolaldehyde with phospholipid multilamellar vesicles was impaired in a glycating agent dose-dependent manner, with exposure of apoA-I to both 30 mM glucose (42% decrease in kslow) and 3 mM glycolaldehyde (50% decrease in kfast, 60% decrease in kslow) resulting is significantly reduced affinity. Cholesterol efflux to control or glycated lipid-free apoA-I, or discoidal reconstituted HDL containing glycated apoA-I (drHDL), was examined using cholesterol-loaded murine (J774A.1) macrophages treated to increase expression of ATP binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1) or G1 (ABCG1). Cholesterol efflux from J774A.1 macrophages to glycated lipid-free apoA-I via ABCA1 or glycated drHDL via an ABCG1-dependent mechanism was unaltered, as was efflux to minimally modified apoA-I from people with Type 1 diabetes, or controls. Changes to protein structure and function were prevented by the reactive carbonyl scavenger aminoguanidine. Overall these studies demonstrate that glycation of lipid-free apoA-I, particularly late glycation, modifies its structure, its capacity to bind phospholipids and but not ABCA1- or ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux from macrophages.
Pub.: 07 Jun '13, Pinned: 17 Jul '17
Abstract: 1,4-Dicarbonyl compounds, which include 2,5-hexanedione and recently discovered endogenous 4-ketoaldehydes (levuglandins, isoketals, and neuroketals), exhibit severe toxicity. The key step in the toxicity of these compounds is their reaction with the lysyl residues of proteins to form pyrrole adducts. To screen for effective scavengers of these toxic compounds, we determined the reaction rates of pyrrole formation for a series of primary amines with a model 4-ketoaldehyde, 4-oxopentanal (OPA). We found pyridoxamine (PM) to react extremely rapidly, with a second-order rate constant at physiological pH being approximately 2300 times faster than that of Nalpha-acetyllysine. The extreme reactivity of PM was unique to 1,4-dicarbonyls, as its reactions with methylglyoxal and 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal were much slower and only slightly faster than with Nalpha-acetyllysine. The phenolic group of PM was found to be essential to its high reactivity, and the rate constant for pyrrole formation with OPA exhibited a maximum at pH 7.5, close to the second pKa of PM. We therefore propose a mechanism involving transfer of the phenolic proton to the carbonyl of the initially formed hemiacetal, which facilitates subsequent nucleophilic attack and ring closure. Only 1,4-dicarbonyls are likely to participate in the proposed mechanism, thereby conferring unique sensitivity of this class of compounds to scavenging by PM.
Pub.: 18 Mar '04, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Isoketals and levuglandins are highly reactive gamma-ketoaldehydes formed by oxygenation of arachidonic acid in settings of oxidative injury and cyclooxygenase activation, respectively. These compounds rapidly adduct to proteins via lysyl residues, which can alter protein structure/function. We examined whether pyridoxamine, which has been shown to scavenge alpha-ketoaldehydes formed by carbohydrate or lipid peroxidation, could also effectively protect proteins from the more reactive gamma-ketoaldehydes. Pyridoxamine prevented adduction of ovalbumin and also prevented inhibition of RNase A and glutathione reductase activity by the synthetic gamma-ketoaldehyde, 15-E2-isoketal. We identified the major products of the reaction of pyridoxamine with the 15-E2-isoketal, including a stable lactam adduct. Two lipophilic analogues of pyridoxamine, salicylamine and 5'-O-pentylpyridoxamine, also formed lactam adducts when reacted with 15-E2-isoketal. When we oxidized arachidonic acid in the presence of pyridoxamine or its analogues, pyridoxamine-isoketal adducts were found in significantly greater abundance than the pyridoxamine-N-acyl adducts formed by alpha-ketoaldehyde scavenging. Therefore, pyridoxamine and its analogues appear to preferentially scavenge gamma-ketoaldehydes. Both pyridoxamine and its lipophilic analogues inhibited the formation of lysyl-levuglandin adducts in platelets activated ex vivo with arachidonic acid. The two lipophilic pyridoxamine analogues provided significant protection against H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate the utility of pyridoxamine and lipophilic pyridoxamine analogues to assess the potential contributions of isoketals and levuglandins in oxidant injury and inflammation and suggest their potential utility as pharmaceutical agents in these conditions.
Pub.: 21 Dec '06, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Both inflammation and oxidative injury are features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the contribution of these intertwined phenomena to the loss of working memory in this disease is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that highly reactive γ-ketoaldehydes that are formed both by non-enzymatic free radical catalyzed lipid peroxidation and by cyclooxygenases may be causally linked to the development of memory impairment in AD. We found that levels of γ-ketoaldehyde protein adducts were increased in the hippocampus of brains obtained postmortem from patients with AD compared to age-matched controls, but that levels of γ-ketoaldehyde protein adducts in the cerebellum were not different in the two groups. Moreover, immunohistochemistry revealed that adducts localized to hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We tested the effect of an orally available γ-ketoaldehyde scavenger, salicylamine, on the development of spatial working memory deficits in hApoE4 targeted replacement mice, a mouse model of dementia. Long-term salicylamine supplementation did not significantly alter body weight or survival, but protected against the development of age-related deficits in spatial working memory in 12-14 month old ApoE4 mice. These findings suggest that γ-ketoaldehyde adduct formation is associated with damage to hippocampal neurons in patients with AD and can contribute to the pathogenesis of spatial working memory deficits in hApoE4 mice. These data provide a rational basis for future studies exploring whether γ-ketoaldehyde scavengers may mitigate the development of cognitive dysfunction in patients with AD.
Pub.: 29 Jun '11, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Rapid activation causes remodeling of atrial myocytes resembling that which occurs in experimental and human atrial fibrillation (AF). Using this cellular model, we previously observed transcriptional upregulation of proteins implicated in protein misfolding and amyloidosis. For organ-specific amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, preamyloid oligomers (PAOs) are now recognized to be the primary cytotoxic species. In the setting of oxidative stress, highly-reactive lipid-derived mediators known as γ-ketoaldehydes (γ-KAs) have been identified that rapidly adduct proteins and cause PAO formation for amyloid β1-42 implicated in Alzheimer's. We hypothesized that rapid activation of atrial cells triggers oxidative stress with lipid peroxidation and formation of γ-KAs, which then rapidly crosslink proteins to generate PAOs. To investigate this hypothesis, rapidly-paced and control, spontaneously-beating atrial HL-1 cells were probed with a conformation-specific antibody recognizing PAOs. Rapid stimulation of atrial cells caused the generation of cytosolic PAOs along with a myocyte stress response (e.g., transcriptional upregulation of Nppa and Hspa1a), both of which were absent in control, unpaced cells. Rapid activation also caused the formation of superoxide and γ-KA adducts in atriomyocytes, while direct exposure of cells to γ-KAs resulted in PAO production. Increased cytosolic atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and the generation of ANP oligomers with exposure to γ-KAs and rapid atrial HL-1 cell stimulation, strongly suggest a role for ANP in PAO formation. Salicylamine (SA) is a small molecule scavenger of γ-KAs that can protect proteins from modification by these reactive compounds. PAO formation and transcriptional remodeling were inhibited when cells were stimulated in the presence of SA, but not with the antioxidant curcumin, which is incapable of scavenging γ-KAs. These results demonstrate that γ-KAs promote protein misfolding and PAO formation as a component of the atrial cell stress response to rapid activation, and they provide a potential mechanistic link between oxidative stress and atrial cell injury.
Pub.: 03 Dec '14, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: This review aims to provide an overview on the properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and their cardioprotective effects. Emergent HDL therapies will be presented in the context of the current understanding of HDL function, metabolism, and protective antiatherosclerotic properties. The epidemiological association between levels of HDL-C or its major apolipoprotein (apoA-I) is strong, graded, and coherent across populations. HDL particles mediate cellular cholesterol efflux, have antioxidant properties, and modulate vascular inflammation and vasomotor function and thrombosis. A link of causality has been cast into doubt with Mendelian randomization data suggesting that genes causing HDL-C deficiency are not associated with increased cardiovascular risk, nor are genes associated with increased HDL-C, with a protective effect. Despite encouraging data from small studies, drugs that increase HDL-C levels have not shown an effect on major cardiovascular end-points in large-scale clinical trials. It is likely that the cholesterol mass within HDL particles is a poor biomarker of therapeutic efficacy. In the present review, we will focus on novel therapeutic avenues and potential biomarkers of HDL function. A better understanding of HDL antiatherogenic functions including reverse cholesterol transport, vascular protective and antioxidation effects will allow novel insight on novel, emergent therapies for cardiovascular prevention.
Pub.: 20 Jun '13, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: For more than two decades, there has been continuing evidence of lipid oxidation playing a central role in atherogenesis. The oxidation hypothesis of atherogenesis has evolved to focus on specific proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids that result from the oxidation of LDL phospholipids containing arachidonic acid and that are recognized by the innate immune system in animals and humans. These oxidized phospholipids are largely generated by potent oxidants produced by the lipoxygenase and myeloperoxidase pathways. The failure of antioxidant vitamins to influence clinical outcomes may have many explanations, including the inability of vitamin E to prevent the formation of these oxidized phospholipids and other lipid oxidation products of the myeloperoxidase pathway. Preliminary data suggest that the oxidation hypothesis of atherogenesis and the reverse cholesterol transport hypothesis of atherogenesis may have a common biological basis. The levels of specific oxidized lipids in plasma and lipoproteins, the levels of antibodies to these lipids, and the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory properties of HDL may be useful markers of susceptibility to atherogenesis. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoA-I mimetic peptides may both promote a reduction in oxidized lipids and enhance reverse cholesterol transport and therefore may have therapeutic potential.
Pub.: 03 Apr '04, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Atherosclerosis is associated with dysfunctional HDL, and oxidation of HDL is thought to give rise to HDL becoming dysfunctional. Lipoprotein oxidation represents a complex series of processes that can be assessed by various methods. In general, oxidation mediated by 1-electron or radical oxidants gives rise to lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) as the primary product. These LOOHs may then undergo further reactions giving rise to secondary lipid oxidation products and/or oxidation of lipoprotein-associated proteins. Thus, LOOHs specifically oxidize Met residues of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and A-II (the major proteins of HDL) to MetO. Here we describe an HPLC-based method to detect oxidized HDL containing specifically oxidized forms of apoA-I and apoA-II. This method may be useful to assess the early stages of HDL oxidation in biological samples.
Pub.: 17 Dec '08, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Atherosclerosis can be considered as an inflammatory disease and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a critical factor in atherogenesis. Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is generally an antiatherogenic lipoprotein, this property can be compromised by functional impairment mainly due to oxidative modification. As such, understanding the proatherogenic properties exerted by oxidized-HDL (oxHDL) becomes more important. This study was focused on examining the role of oxHDL as a proatherogenic agent, using oxLDL as a positive control. The comparative toxicity of oxHDL and oxLDL having same range of malondialdehyde, to monocytes was evaluated. After treatment, markers for oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytotoxicity were quantitated. The results showed that like oxLDL, oxHDL induced significant oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and release of TNF -alpha and MMP-9 in monocytes/macrophages, but was less potent than oxLDL in promoting these proatherogenic effects. Further, the effects of oxHDL for the enhanced formation of MMP-9 were found to be mediated by NADPH oxidase/ROS-JNK/ERK pathway, as one mechanism.
Pub.: 22 Jul '14, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Although a selective strong elevation in the plasma level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is the hallmark of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), also other plasma lipoprotein and lipid subspecies are changed in these patients. Several studies in FH patients have pointed to the qualitative abnormalities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, including their triglyceride and sphingomyelin enrichment, reduced capacity to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages, impaired anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, and reduced plasma levels of miRs regulating HDL-dependent cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, typical of atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, accurate understanding of HDL functionality and its disturbances in FH may serve a better estimation of the prognosis and also provide additional clues when searching for novel therapeutic choices in this disease. In spite of such a potential promise, there has been no prior comprehensive review focusing on indices of HDL function in FH patients. In the present review, we aim to fulfill this gap by identifying measures of HDL function that are impaired in FH, and by providing a concise summary on the impact of different lipid-modifying therapies on HDL functionality in FH.
Pub.: 17 May '17, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Emerging evidence suggests that the role of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the atherosclerotic process is not as clear as previously thought, since atheroprotective HDL becomes atherogenic in states of increased inflammatory processes. Areas covered: In this review we aim to elucidate the role of HDL as a prognostic biomarker and we discuss therapeutic approaches that aim to increase HDL and their possible clinical benefit. Expert opinion: Given the structural variability and biological complexity of the HDL particle, its role in the atherosclerotic process is far from clear. According to current evidence, the atheroprotective role of HDL turns atherogenic in states of increased inflammatory processes, while even minor alterations in systemic inflammation are likely to hinder the endothelial protective effects of HDL. In accordance, significant data have revealed that HDL-related drugs may be effective in reducing cardiovascular mortality; however they are not as encouraging or unanimous as expected. Possible future goals could be to quantify either HDL subclasses or functions in an attempt to reach safer conclusions as to the prognostic importance of HDL in coronary atherosclerosis. Having achieved that, a more targeted therapy that would aim to raise either HDL functionality or to remodel HDL structure would be more easily designed.
Pub.: 09 Feb '16, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Increased lipid peroxidation occurs in many conditions associated with inflammation. Because lipid peroxidation produces lipid aldehydes that can induce inflammatory responses through unknown mechanisms, elucidating these mechanisms may lead to development of better treatments for inflammatory diseases. We recently demonstrated that exposure of cultured cells to lipid aldehydes such as isolevuglandins (IsoLG) results in the modification of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We therefore sought to determine (i) whether PE modification by isolevuglandins (IsoLG-PE) occurred in vivo, (ii) whether IsoLG-PE stimulated the inflammatory responses of macrophages, and (iii) the identity of receptors mediating the inflammatory effects of IsoLG-PE.IsoLG-PE levels were elevated in plasma of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and in the livers of mice fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity and hepatosteatosis. IsoLG-PE potently stimulated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. The effects of IsoLG-PE were blocked by the soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) and by RAGE antagonists. Furthermore, macrophages derived from the bone marrow of Ager null mice failed to express inflammatory cytokines in response to IsoLG-PE to the same extent as macrophages from wild-type mice.These studies are the first to identify IsoLG-PE as a mediator of macrophage activation and a specific receptor, RAGE, which mediates its biological effects.PE modification by IsoLG forms RAGE ligands that activate macrophages, so that the increased IsoLG-PE generated by high circulating cholesterol levels or high-fat diet may play a role in the inflammation associated with these conditions.
Pub.: 10 Mar '15, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) is regarded as an important protective factor against cardiovascular disease, with abundant evidence of an inverse relationship between its serum levels and risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as various antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, observations of hereditary syndromes featuring scant HDL-C concentration in absence of premature atherosclerotic disease suggest HDL-C levels may not be the best predictor of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, the beneficial effects of HDL may not depend solely on their concentration, but also on their quality. Distinct subfractions of this lipoprotein appear to be constituted by specific protein-lipid conglomerates necessary for different physiologic and pathophysiologic functions. However, in a chronic inflammatory microenvironment, diverse components of the HDL proteome and lipid core suffer alterations, which propel a shift towards a dysfunctional state, where HDL-C becomes proatherogenic, prooxidant, and proinflammatory. This heterogeneity highlights the need for further specialized molecular studies in this aspect, in order to achieve a better understanding of this dysfunctional state; with an emphasis on the potential role for proteomics and lipidomics as valuable methods in the search of novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular disease.
Pub.: 04 Dec '15, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Levels of reactive γ-ketoaldehydes derived from arachidonate increase in diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative injury. To assess the biological importance of these γ-ketoaldehydes, we previously identified salicylamine as an effective γ-ketoaldehyde scavenger in vitro and in cells. To determine if salicylamine could be administered in vivo, we developed an LC/MS/MS assay to measure salicylamine in plasma and tissues. In mice, half-life (t(1/2)) was 62 minutes. Drinking water supplementation (1-10 g/L) generated tissue concentrations (10-500 μM) within the range previously shown to inhibit γ-ketoaldehydes in cells. Therefore, oral administration of salicylamine can be used to assess the contribution of γ-ketoaldehydes in animal models of disease.
Pub.: 01 Mar '10, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
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