A pinboard by
Yuqi Tan

Ph.D candicate, RMIT University


Water inflow a a critical problem for the metro tunnel worldwide. My study is to conduct a study on water inflow based on a metro tunnel case in Melbourne. My study will present a analytical model for water inflow rate prediction for the metro tunnel. Combining with the data we have collected over three year, the time-dependent changes of water inflow condition in the tunnel can be evaluated. Based on the established model and the site collected data. We can predict at what time, the water inflow rate in tunnel would exceed the maximum acceptable value, which is the service life of the tunnel.


Tunnelling and Hydrogeological Issues: A Short Review of the Current State of the Art

Abstract: Since the 1960s, there has been an increasing interest in the understanding of the hydraulic flow inside a hard rock mass, since water inflow into deep tunnels constitute a hazard, in addition to being an important factor in controlling the advancement of excavation. The characterisation of fluid flow through hard rock masses is still one of the most challenging problems faced by geologists and engineers. A rock mass is characterised by networks of discrete and ubiquitous discontinuities that strongly affect its hydraulic properties, but detailed knowledge of the discontinuity properties allows for the evaluation of the hydraulic flow in the rock mass affected by the excavation of a tunnel. A geostructural field survey is fundamental in order to correctly define the discontinuity types, settings and networks. Numerous approaches have been proposed to estimate the water inflow based on empirical relations supported by field experience and case studies, as well as analytical solutions. Often, however, these approaches are not easily applicable in standard practice and in complex scenarios. The most appropriate approach to characterising the hydraulic flow of the rock mass and to predicting in the most effective way the expected water inflow during the excavation of a tunnel is based on a detailed geological model and geostructural analysis as described in this paper.

Pub.: 08 Feb '13, Pinned: 28 Jul '17

An empirical equation for tunnel inflow assessment: application to sedimentary rock masses

Abstract: Groundwater inflow assessment is essential for the design of tunnel drainage systems, as well as for assessment of the environmental impact of the associated drainage. Analytical and empirical methods used in current engineering practice do not adequately account for the effect of the jointed-rock-mass anisotropy and heterogeneity. The impact of geo-structural anisotropy of fractured rocks on tunnel inflows is addressed and the limitations of analytical solutions assuming isotropic hydraulic conductivity are discussed. In particular, the study develops an empirical correction to the analytical formula frequently used to predict groundwater tunnel inflow. In order to obtain this, a discrete network flow modelling study was carried out. Numerical simulation results provided a dataset useful for the calibration of some empirical coefficient to correct the well-known Goodman’s equation. This correction accounts for geo-structural parameters of the rock masses such as joint orientation, aperture, spacing and persistence. The obtained empirical equation was then applied to a medium-depth open tunnel in Bergamo District, northern Italy. The results, compared with the monitoring data, showed that the traditional analytical equations give the highest overestimation where the hydraulic conductivity shows great anisotropy. On the other hand, the empirical relation allows a better estimation of the tunnel inflow.

Pub.: 03 Nov '10, Pinned: 28 Jul '17

Empirical model for estimating groundwater flow into tunnel in discontinuous rock masses

Abstract: The high volume of water inflow into tunnel plays a significant role in the design of drainage systems and exerts bio-environmental effects. In engineering practice, analytical and empirical methods that are commonly used to estimate water inflow in sedimentary rock masses, lack sufficient accuracy. The geostructural anisotropy in a fractured rock has a great impact on water inflow. In discontinuous media, anisotropy and heterogeneity of the fractured rock masses are highlited. Hence, these methods are not efficient to calculate water inflow to tunnel in such media, due to the assumed isotropic hydraulic coefficient. In this regard, an empirical formula is developed in this study for hydraulic conductivity in the fractured rock masses for analytical methods, alternately used to predict water inflow. To achieve this, a discrete network flow model was performed. The simulation resulted in a dataset that is helpful in developing hydraulic conductivity empirical formula for well-known Goodman equation. The geostructural parameters, such as the joint orientation, aperture, spacing and joint interconnectivity were included to determine this formula. The acquired empirical equation was utilized in the evaluation of groundwater inflow to middle-depth Amirkabir tunnel in north of Iran. In comparison to the observerd flow, analytical methods resulted in higher overestimation, especially in the sites with high anisotropy. However, empirical model led to a better estimation of water inflow to tunnel.

Pub.: 10 Mar '16, Pinned: 28 Jul '17