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A collection illustrating the depth and breadth of the science research published by NASA
Abstract: This report presents the results obtained by the five U.S. participating laboratories in the Versailles Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) round-robin for fracture toughness of advanced ceramics. Three test methods were used: indentation fracture, indentation strength, and single-edge pre-cracked beam. Two materials were tested: a gas-pressure sintered silicon nitride and a zirconia toughened alumina. Consistent results were obtained with the latter two test methods. Interpretation of fracture toughness in the zirconia alumina composite was complicated by R-curve and environmentally-assisted crack growth phenomena.
Pub.: 01 Jan '92, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: A series of microcosm experiments was performed using serial dilutions of a sewage microbial community to inoculate a set of batch cultures in sterile sewage. After inoculation, the dilution-defined communities were allowed to regrow for several days and a number of community attributes were measured in the regrown assemblages. Based upon a set of numerical simulations, community structure was expected to differ along the dilution gradient; the greatest differences in structure were anticipated between the undiluted-low-dilution communities and the communities regrown from the very dilute (more than 10(-4)) inocula. Furthermore, some differences were expected among the lower-dilution treatments (e.g., between undiluted and 10(-1)) depending upon the evenness of the original community. In general, each of the procedures used to examine the experimental community structures separated the communities into at least two, often three, distinct groups. The groupings were consistent with the simulated dilution of a mixture of organisms with a very uneven distribution. Significant differences in community structure were detected with genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphism and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), physiological (community level physiological profiling), and culture-based (colony morphology on R2A agar) measurements. Along with differences in community structure, differences in community size (acridine orange direct counting), composition (ratio of sewage medium counts to R2A counts, monitoring of each colony morphology across the treatments), and metabolic redundancy (i.e., generalist versus specialist) were also observed, suggesting that the differences in structure and diversity of communities maintained in the same environment can be manifested as differences in community organization and function.
Pub.: 07 Feb '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: Combining Viking pressure and temperature data with Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter topography data, we have computed the fraction of the martian year during which pressure and temperature allow for liquid water to be stable on the martian surface. We find that liquid water would be stable within the Hellas and Argyre basin and over the northern lowlands equatorward of about 40 degrees. The location with the maximum period of stable conditions for liquid water is in the southeastern portion of Utopia Planitia, where 34% of the year liquid water would be stable if it were present. Locations of stability appear to correlate with the distribution of valley networks.
Pub.: 28 Feb '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: CH stretching bands, nu(CH), in the infrared spectrum of single crystals of nominally high purity, of laboratory-grown MgO, and of natural upper mantle olivine, provide an "organic" signature that closely resembles the symmetrical and asymmetrical C--H stretching modes of aliphatic -CH(2) units. The nu(CH) bands indicate that H(2)O and CO(2), dissolved in the matrix of these minerals, converted to form H(2) and chemically reduced C, which in turn formed C--H entities, probably through segregation into defects such as dislocations. Heating causes the C--H bonds to pyrolyze and the nu(CH) bands to disappear, but annealing at 70 degrees C causes them to reappear within a few days or weeks. Modeling dislocations in MgO suggests that the segregation of C can lead to C(x) chains, x = 4, with the terminal C atoms anchored to the MgO matrix by bonding to two O(-). Allowing H(2) to react with such C(x) chains leads to [O(2)C(CH(2))(2)CO(2)] or similar precipitates. It is suggested that such C(x)--H(y)--O(z) entities represent protomolecules from which derive the short-chain carboxylic and dicarboxylic and the medium-chain fatty acids that have been solvent-extracted from crushed MgO and olivine single crystals, respectively. Thus, it appears that the hard, dense matrix of igneous minerals represents a medium in which protomolecular units can be assembled. During weathering of rocks, the protomolecular units turn into complex organic molecules. These processes may have provided stereochemically constrained organics to the early Earth that were crucial to the emergence of life.
Pub.: 28 Feb '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: These are intriguing times in the exploration of other solar-system bodies. Continuing discoveries about life on Earth and the return of data suggesting the presence of liquid water environments on or under the surfaces of other planets and moons have combined to suggest the significant possibility that extraterrestrial life may exist in this solar system. Similarly, not since the Viking missions of the mid-1970s has there been as great an appreciation for the potential for Earth life to contaminate other worlds. Current plans for the exploration of the solar system include constraints intended to prevent biological contamination from being spread by solar-system exploration missions.
Pub.: 28 Feb '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: Understanding dynamic conditions in the Solar Nebula is the key to prediction of the material to be found in comets. We suggest that a dynamic, large-scale circulation pattern brings processed dust and gas from the inner nebula back out into the region of cometesimal formation-extending possibly hundreds of astronomical units (AU) from the sun-and that the composition of comets is determined by a chemical reaction network closely coupled to the dynamic transport of dust and gas in the system. This scenario is supported by laboratory studies of Mg silicates and the astronomical data for comets and for protoplanetary disks associated with young stars, which demonstrate that annealing of nebular silicates must occur in conjunction with a large-scale circulation. Mass recycling of dust should have a significant effect on the chemical kinetics of the outer nebula by introducing reduced, gas-phase species produced in the higher temperature and pressure environment of the inner nebula, along with freshly processed grains with "clean" catalytic surfaces to the region of cometesimal formation. Because comets probably form throughout the lifetime of the Solar Nebula and processed (crystalline) grains are not immediately available for incorporation into the first generation of comets, an increasing fraction of dust incorporated into a growing comet should be crystalline olivine and this fraction can serve as a crude chronometer of the relative ages of comets. The formation and evolution of key organic and biogenic molecules in comets are potentially of great consequence to astrobiology.
Pub.: 28 Feb '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: In the beginning the surface of the Earth was extremely hot, because the Earth as we know it is the product of a collision between two planets, a collision that also created the Moon. Most of the heat within the very young Earth was lost quickly to space while the surface was still quite hot. As it cooled, the Earth's surface passed monotonically through every temperature regime between silicate vapor to liquid water and perhaps even to ice, eventually reaching an equilibrium with sunlight. Inevitably the surface passed through a time when the temperature was around 100 degrees C at which modern thermophile organisms live. How long this warm epoch lasted depends on how long a thick greenhouse atmosphere can be maintained by heat flow from the Earth's interior, either directly as a supplement to insolation, or indirectly through its influence on the nascent carbonate cycle. In both cases, the duration of the warm epoch would have been controlled by processes within the Earth's interior where buffering by surface conditions played little part. A potentially evolutionarily significant warm period of between 10(5) and 10(7) years seems likely, which nonetheless was brief compared to the vast expanse of geological time.
Pub.: 22 Mar '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition [von Hippel, P. H. & Yager, T. D. (1992) Science 255, 809-812 and von Hippel, P. H. & Yager, T. D. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 2307-2311] requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this balancing should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle, but do find many troubling inconsistencies, most notably, anomalous memory effects. These effects suggest that termination has a deterministic component and may conceivably not be stochastic at all. We find that a key experiment by Wilson and von Hippel [Wilson, K. S. & von Hippel, P. H. (1994) J. Mol. Biol. 244, 36-51] thought to demonstrate stochastic termination was an incorrectly analyzed regulatory effect of Mg(2+) binding.
Pub.: 20 Apr '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The emergence of biochemical homochirality was a key step in the origin of life, yet prebiotic mechanisms for chiral separation are not well constrained. Here we demonstrate a geochemically plausible scenario for chiral separation of amino acids by adsorption on mineral surfaces. Crystals of the common rock-forming mineral calcite (CaCO(3)), when immersed in a racemic aspartic acid solution, display significant adsorption and chiral selectivity of d- and l-enantiomers on pairs of mirror-related crystal-growth surfaces. This selective adsorption is greater on crystals with terraced surface textures, which indicates that d- and l-aspartic acid concentrate along step-like linear growth features. Thus, selective adsorption of linear arrays of d- and l-amino acids on calcite, with subsequent condensation polymerization, represents a plausible geochemical mechanism for the production of homochiral polypeptides on the prebiotic Earth.
Pub.: 02 May '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The present study was designed to determine (1) the transcupular fluid pressure (Δ) generated across the semicircular canal cupula in response to sinusoidal head rotation, (2) the translabyrinthine dilational pressure () generated across the membranous labyrinth in response to an increase in endolymph fluid volume (hydrops), (3) afferent nerve discharge patterns generated by these distinct pressure stimuli and, (4) threshold values of Δ and required to elicit afferent neural responses. The experimental model was the oyster toadfish, Micromechanical indentation of the horizontal canal (HC) duct and utricular vestibule was used to simulate sinusoidal head rotation and fluid volume injection. Single-unit neural spike trains and endolymph pressure within the ampulla, on both sides of the cupula, were recorded simultaneously. Δ averaged 0.013 Pa per 1°/s of sinusoidal angular head velocity and averaged 0.2 Pa per 1 nL of endolymph volume injection. The most responsive afferents had a threshold sensitivity to Δ of 10 Pa and to of 5 × 10 Pa based on a discharge modulation criterion of 1 impulse/s per cycle for 2 Hz pressure stimuli. Neural sensitivity to Δ was expected on the basis of transverse cupular and hair bundle deflections. Analysis of mechanics of the end organ, neuronal projections into the crista, and individual neural firing patterns indicates that sensitivity resulted from pressure-induced distension of the ampulla that led to a nonuniform cupular deformation pattern and hair bundle deflections. This explanation is consistent with predictions of a finite element model of the end organ. Results have implications regarding the role of Δ in angular motion transduction and the role of under transient hydropic conditions.
Pub.: 31 Aug '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The burrow walls created by macrofauna in aquatic sediments are sites of intense chemical mass transfer. Quantitative measurement of their significance is, however, difficult because chemistry in the immediate vicinity of burrow walls is temporally dynamic due to periodic ventilation of burrows by macrofauna. A temporally dynamic, 2D multicomponent diffusion-reaction model was utilized to depict the magnitude and time dependency of chemical mass transfer in the immediate vicinity of burrow walls as well as at the water/sediment interface. The simulation results illustrate that sediment particles, pore water, and microorganisms within a few millimeters of burrow walls experience significant oscillation in pH (as much as two pH units) and dissolved oxygen concentration (between saturation and near anoxia) whereas such oscillation is absent at the water/ sediment interface. The geochemical oscillation is expected to affect the net stability of mineral phases, activities and community structures of microorganisms, and rates and magnitudes of microbial diagenetic reactions.
Pub.: 09 Jun '06, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: Although there is significant interest in the potential interactions of microbes with gas hydrate, no direct physical association between them has been demonstrated. We examined several intact samples of naturally occurring gas hydrate from the Gulf of Mexico for evidence of microbes. All samples were collected from anaerobic hemipelagic mud within the gas hydrate stability zone, at water depths in the ca. 540- to 2,000-m range. The delta(13)C of hydrate-bound methane varied from -45.1 per thousand Peedee belemnite (PDB) to -74.7 per thousand PDB, reflecting different gas origins. Stable isotope composition data indicated microbial consumption of methane or propane in some of the samples. Evidence of the presence of microbes was initially determined by 4,6-diamidino 2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) total direct counts of hydrate-associated sediments (mean = 1.5 x 10(9) cells g(-1)) and gas hydrate (mean = 1.0 x 10(6) cells ml(-1)). Small-subunit rRNA phylogenetic characterization was performed to assess the composition of the microbial community in one gas hydrate sample (AT425) that had no detectable associated sediment and showed evidence of microbial methane consumption. Bacteria were moderately diverse within AT425 and were dominated by gene sequences related to several groups of Proteobacteria, as well as Actinobacteria and low-G + C Firmicutes. In contrast, there was low diversity of Archaea, nearly all of which were related to methanogenic Archaea, with the majority specifically related to Methanosaeta spp. The results of this study suggest that there is a direct association between microbes and gas hydrate, a finding that may have significance for hydrocarbon flux into the Gulf of Mexico and for life in extreme environments.
Pub.: 27 Oct '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The molecular and isotopic compositions of lipid biomarkers of cultured Aquificales genera have been used to study the community and trophic structure of the hyperthermophilic pink streamers and vent biofilm from Octopus Spring. Thermocrinis ruber, Thermocrinis sp. strain HI 11/12, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, Aquifex pyrophilus, and Aquifex aeolicus all contained glycerol-ether phospholipids as well as acyl glycerides. The n-C(20:1) and cy-C(21) fatty acids dominated all of the Aquificales, while the alkyl glycerol ethers were mainly C(18:0). These Aquificales biomarkers were major constituents of the lipid extracts of two Octopus Spring samples, a biofilm associated with the siliceous vent walls, and the well-known pink streamer community (PSC). Both the biofilm and the PSC contained mono- and dialkyl glycerol ethers in which C(18) and C(20) alkyl groups were prevalent. Phospholipid fatty acids included both the Aquificales n-C(20:1) and cy-C(21), plus a series of iso-branched fatty acids (i-C(15:0) to i-C(21:0)), indicating an additional bacterial component. Biomass and lipids from the PSC were depleted in (13)C relative to source water CO(2) by 10.9 and 17.2 per thousand, respectively. The C(20-21) fatty acids of the PSC were less depleted than the iso-branched fatty acids, 18.4 and 22.6 per thousand, respectively. The biomass of T. ruber grown on CO(2) was depleted in (13)C by only 3.3 per thousand relative to C source. In contrast, biomass was depleted by 19.7 per thousand when formate was the C source. Independent of carbon source, T. ruber lipids were heavier than biomass (+1.3 per thousand). The depletion in the C(20-21) fatty acids from the PSC indicates that Thermocrinis biomass must be similarly depleted and too light to be explained by growth on CO(2). Accordingly, Thermocrinis in the PSC is likely to have utilized formate, presumably generated in the spring source region.
Pub.: 27 Oct '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The lack of readily available experimental systems has limited knowledge pertaining to the development of Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis and diarrheal disease in humans. We used a novel low-shear stress cell culture system developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in conjunction with cultivation of three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates of human intestinal tissue to study the infectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for human intestinal epithelium. Immunohistochemical characterization and microscopic analysis of 3-D aggregates of the human intestinal epithelial cell line Int-407 revealed that the 3-D cells more accurately modeled human in vivo differentiated tissues than did conventional monolayer cultures of the same cells. Results from infectivity studies showed that Salmonella established infection of the 3-D cells in a much different manner than that observed for monolayers. Following the same time course of infection with Salmonella, 3-D Int-407 cells displayed minimal loss of structural integrity compared to that of Int-407 monolayers. Furthermore, Salmonella exhibited significantly lower abilities to adhere to, invade, and induce apoptosis of 3-D Int-407 cells than it did for infected Int-407 monolayers. Analysis of cytokine expression profiles of 3-D Int-407 cells and monolayers following infection with Salmonella revealed significant differences in expression of interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-1Ra, and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNAs between the two cultures. In addition, uninfected 3-D Int-407 cells constitutively expressed higher levels of transforming growth factor beta1 mRNA and prostaglandin E2 than did uninfected Int-407 monolayers. By more accurately modeling many aspects of human in vivo tissues, the 3-D intestinal cell model generated in this study offers a novel approach for studying microbial infectivity from the perspective of the host-pathogen interaction.
Pub.: 13 Oct '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal community structure. In addition, we identified at least one new species with potential for use in remediation of hot acidic soil.
Pub.: 28 Nov '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The growth rate of climate forcing by measured greenhouse gases peaked near 1980 at almost 5 W/m(2) per century. This growth rate has since declined to approximately 3 W/m(2) per century, largely because of cooperative international actions. We argue that trends can be reduced to the level needed for the moderate "alternative" climate scenario ( approximately 2 W/m(2) per century for the next 50 years) by means of concerted actions that have other benefits, but the forcing reductions are not automatic "co-benefits" of actions that slow CO(2) emissions. Current trends of climate forcings by aerosols remain very uncertain. Nevertheless, practical constraints on changes in emission levels suggest that global warming at a rate +0.15 +/- 0.05 degrees C per decade will occur over the next several decades.
Pub.: 26 Dec '01, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: Optical depth records indicate that volcanic aerosols from major eruptions often produce clouds that have greater surface area than typical Arctic polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). A trajectory cloud-chemistry model is used to study how volcanic aerosols could affect springtime Arctic ozone loss processes, such as chlorine activation and denitrification, in a cold winter within the current range of natural variability. Several studies indicate that severe denitrification can increase Arctic ozone loss by up to 30%. We show large PSC particles that cause denitrification in a nonvolcanic stratosphere cannot efficiently form in a volcanic environment. However, volcanic aerosols, when present at low altitudes, where Arctic PSCs cannot form, can extend the vertical range of chemical ozone loss in the lower stratosphere. Chemical processing on volcanic aerosols over a 10-km altitude range could increase the current levels of springtime column ozone loss by up to 70% independent of denitrification. Climate models predict that the lower stratosphere is cooling as a result of greenhouse gas built-up in the troposphere. The magnitude of column ozone loss calculated here for the 1999--2000 Arctic winter, in an assumed volcanic state, is similar to that projected for a colder future nonvolcanic stratosphere in the 2010 decade.
Pub.: 21 Feb '02, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The distribution and abundance of Ixodes scapularis were studied in Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and portions of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan by inspecting small mammals for ticks and by collecting questing ticks at 138 locations in state parks and natural areas. Environmental data were gathered at a local level (i.e., micro and meso levels), and a geographic information system (GIS) was used with several digitized coverages of environmental data to create a habitat profile for each site and a grid map for Wisconsin and Illinois. Results showed that the presence and abundance of I. scapularis varied, even when the host population was adequate. Tick presence was positively associated with deciduous, dry to mesic forests and alfisol-type soils of sandy or loam-sand textures overlying sedimentary rock. Tick absence was associated with grasslands, conifer forests, wet to wet/mesic forests, acidic soils of low fertility and a clay soil texture, and Precambrian bedrock. We performed a discriminant analysis to determine environmental differences between positive and negative tick sites and derived a regression equation to examine the probability of I. scapularis presence per grid. Both analyses indicated that soil order and land cover were the dominant contributors to tick presence. We then constructed a risk map indicating suitable habitats within areas where I. scapularis is already established. The risk map also shows areas of high probability the tick will become established if introduced. Thus, this risk analysis has both explanatory power and predictive capability.
Pub.: 03 Apr '02, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The low-shear environment of optimized rotation suspension culture allows both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells to assume physiologically relevant phenotypes that have led to significant advances in fundamental investigations of medical and biological importance. This culture environment has also been used to model microgravity for ground-based studies regarding the impact of space flight on eukaryotic and prokaryotic physiology. We have previously demonstrated that low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) under optimized rotation suspension culture is a novel environmental signal that regulates the virulence, stress resistance, and protein expression levels of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. However, the mechanisms used by the cells of any species, including Salmonella, to sense and respond to LSMMG and identities of the genes involved are unknown. In this study, we used DNA microarrays to elucidate the global transcriptional response of Salmonella to LSMMG. When compared with identical growth conditions under normal gravity (1 x g), LSMMG differentially regulated the expression of 163 genes distributed throughout the chromosome, representing functionally diverse groups including transcriptional regulators, virulence factors, lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes, iron-utilization enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. Many of the LSMMG-regulated genes were organized in clusters or operons. The microarray results were further validated by RT-PCR and phenotypic analyses, and they indicate that the ferric uptake regulator is involved in the LSMMG response. The results provide important insight about the Salmonella LSMMG response and could provide clues for the functioning of known Salmonella virulence systems or the identification of uncharacterized bacterial virulence strategies.
Pub.: 09 Oct '02, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The process by which liquid cloud droplets homogeneously crystallize into ice is still not well understood. The ice nucleation process based on the standard and classical theory of homogeneous freezing initiates within the interior volume of a cloud droplet. Current experimental data on homogeneous freezing rates of ice in droplets of supercooled water, both in air and emulsion oil samples, show considerable scatter. For example, at -33 degrees C, the reported volume-based freezing rates of ice in supercooled water vary by as many as 5 orders of magnitude, which is well outside the range of measurement uncertainties. Here, we show that the process of ice nucleus formation at the air (or oil)-liquid water interface may help to explain why experimental results on ice nucleation rates yield different results in different ambient phases. Our results also suggest that surface crystallization of ice in cloud droplets can explain why low amounts of supercooled water have been observed in the atmosphere near -40 degrees C.
Pub.: 29 Nov '02, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: The preparation, synthesis, and characterization of Corning trace-element glasses 95IRV, 95IRW, and 95IRX by bulk chemical and electron microprobe techniques is discussed. Working values for the doped elements in the 95-series glasses are established. Blank values have been determined by both bulk chemical and electron microprobe analysis, and important x-ray interferences are highlighted. Chemical homogeneity both within a rod cross-section, and along cane length has been documented. These glasses are standard reference materials intended for use as both primary and secondary electron microprobe standards.
Pub.: 01 Jan '02, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: Lake Vida, one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, was previously believed to be shallow (<10 m) and frozen to its bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and temperature data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water column composed of a NaCl brine with a salinity seven times that of seawater that remains liquid below -10 degrees C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice cover is stabilized by a negative feedback between ice growth and the freezing-point depression of the brine. The ice cover contains frozen microbial mats throughout that are viable after thawing and has a history that extends to at least 2,800 (14)C years B.P., suggesting that the brine has been isolated from the atmosphere for as long. To our knowledge, Lake Vida has the thickest subaerial lake ice cover recorded and may represent a previously undiscovered end-member lacustrine ecosystem on Earth.
Pub.: 09 Jan '03, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the global mean, but they can be used to calibrate global aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2-4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is approximately 1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize global warming.
Pub.: 15 May '03, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
Abstract: As part of a continuing effort to validate the radiometric scales assigned to integrating sphere sources used in the calibration of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, a radiometric measurement comparison was held in May 1998 at Raytheon/Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS). This comparison was conducted in support of the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instruments. The radiometric scale assigned to the Spherical Integrating Source (SIS100) by SBRS was validated through a comparison with radiometric measurements made by a number of stable, well-characterized transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA’s GSFC), and the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center (UA). The measured radiances from the radiometers differed by ±3 % in the visible to near infrared when compared to the SBRS calibration of the sphere, and the overall agreement was within the combined uncertainties of the individual measurements. In general, the transfer radiometers gave higher values than the SBRS calibration in the near infrared and lower values in the blue. The measurements of the radiometers differed by ±4 % from 800 nm to 1800 nm compared to the SBRS calibration of the sphere, and the overall agreement was within the combined uncertainties of the individual measurements for wavelengths less than 2200 nm. The results of the radiometric measurement comparison presented here supplement the results of previous measurement comparisons on the integrating sphere sources used to calibrate the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) at NEC Corporation, Yokohama, Japan.
Pub.: 01 Jun '03, Pinned: 17 Feb '17
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