I'm coffee crazy - and how could I not be, I spent five years completing my PhD!
So much science goes into your morning "Cup of Joe". Cats are fun too though.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to measure validity and reproducibility of a caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ) developed for the Australian population. The C-FFQ was designed to assess average daily caffeine consumption using four categories of food and beverages including; energy drinks; soft drinks/soda; coffee and tea and chocolate (food and drink). Participants completed a seven-day food diary immediately followed by the C-FFQ on two consecutive days. The questionnaire was first piloted in 20 adults, and then, a validity/reproducibility study was conducted (n = 90 adults). The C-FFQ showed moderate correlations (r = .60), fair agreement (mean difference 63 mg) and reasonable quintile rankings indicating fair to moderate agreement with the seven-day food diary. To test reproducibility, the C-FFQ was compared to itself and showed strong correlations (r = .90), good quintile rankings and strong kappa values (κ = 0.65), indicating strong reproducibility. The C-FFQ shows adequate validity and reproducibility and will aid researchers in Australia to quantify caffeine consumption.
Pub.: 07 Jan '17, Pinned: 16 Jan '17
Abstract: Abstract Introduction This study aimed to determine whether a smoking restriction prior to sensory evaluation affects sensory perception and liking of beverages that represent sweetness (sweetened cocoa), saltiness (vegetable juice), sourness (orange juice), and bitterness (black coffee). Methods Smokers were asked to either abstain from smoking for 2 h or to smoke a cigarette 5 min prior to sensory evaluation of beverages. As a control, non-smokers participated in this study. Results Smokers who smoked 5 min prior to tasting beverages rated black coffee as significantly more bitter than did those who either abstained from smoking for 2 h or non-smokers. No effect of cigarette smoking was found either in intensity of other taste qualities and flavor or in the liking of the four types of beverages. Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that cigarette smokers should abstain from smoking for 2 h prior to sensory evaluation of bitter-tasting beverages such as black coffee. Abstract Introduction This study aimed to determine whether a smoking restriction prior to sensory evaluation affects sensory perception and liking of beverages that represent sweetness (sweetened cocoa), saltiness (vegetable juice), sourness (orange juice), and bitterness (black coffee). IntroductionThis study aimed to determine whether a smoking restriction prior to sensory evaluation affects sensory perception and liking of beverages that represent sweetness (sweetened cocoa), saltiness (vegetable juice), sourness (orange juice), and bitterness (black coffee). Methods Smokers were asked to either abstain from smoking for 2 h or to smoke a cigarette 5 min prior to sensory evaluation of beverages. As a control, non-smokers participated in this study. MethodsSmokers were asked to either abstain from smoking for 2 h or to smoke a cigarette 5 min prior to sensory evaluation of beverages. As a control, non-smokers participated in this study. Results Smokers who smoked 5 min prior to tasting beverages rated black coffee as significantly more bitter than did those who either abstained from smoking for 2 h or non-smokers. No effect of cigarette smoking was found either in intensity of other taste qualities and flavor or in the liking of the four types of beverages. ResultsSmokers who smoked 5 min prior to tasting beverages rated black coffee as significantly more bitter than did those who either abstained from smoking for 2 h or non-smokers. No effect of cigarette smoking was found either in intensity of other taste qualities and flavor or in the liking of the four types of beverages. Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that cigarette smokers should abstain from smoking for 2 h prior to sensory evaluation of bitter-tasting beverages such as black coffee. ConclusionThis study provides empirical evidence that cigarette smokers should abstain from smoking for 2 h prior to sensory evaluation of bitter-tasting beverages such as black coffee.
Pub.: 07 Dec '16, Pinned: 19 Dec '16
Abstract: Lipids are among the major chemical compounds present in coffee beans, and they affect the flavor and aroma of the coffee beverage. Coffee oil is rich in kaurene diterpene compounds, mainly cafestol (CAF) and kahweol (KAH), which are related to plant defense mechanisms and to nutraceutical and sensorial beverage characteristics. Despite their importance, the final steps of coffee diterpenes biosynthesis remain unknown. To understand the molecular basis of coffee diterpenes biosynthesis, we report the content dynamics of CAF and KAH in several Coffea arabica tissues and the transcriptional analysis of cytochrome P450 genes (P450). We measured CAF and KAH concentrations in leaves, roots, flower buds, flowers and fruit tissues at seven developmental stages (30–240 days after flowering - DAF) using HPLC. Higher CAF levels were detected in flower buds and flowers when compared to fruits. In contrast, KAH concentration increased along fruit development, peaking at 120 DAF. We did not detect CAF or KAH in leaves, and higher amounts of KAH than CAF were detected in roots. Using P450 candidate genes from EST database, we performed RT-qPCR transcriptional analysis of leaves, flowers and fruits at three developmental stages (90, 120 and 150 DAF). Three P450 genes (CaCYP76C4, CaCYP82C2 and CaCYP74A1) had transcriptional patterns similar to CAF concentration and two P450 genes (CaCYP71A25 and CaCYP701A3) have transcript accumulation similar to KAH concentration. These data warrant further investigation of these P450s as potential candidate genes involved in the final stages of the CAF and KAH biosynthetic pathways.
Pub.: 03 Dec '16, Pinned: 08 Dec '16
Abstract: Coffee is an important crop that assures a sustainable economy to farmers in tropical regions. A dramatic concern for coffee production is currently represented by climate change, which threatens the survival of Coffea arabica cultivation worldwide and imposes modifications of the agronomic practices to prevent this risk. The quality of coffee beans depends on optimized protocols of cultivation, ripe berries collection, and removal of the outer fruit layers by dry or wet processes and moisture reduction. Storage and shipment represent two steps where bean quality needs to be preserved by preventing fungal contamination that may impact the final product and form mycotoxins, mainly ochratoxin A. In this review, we describe the challenges faced by the coffee industry to guarantee quality from production to roasting and brewing. An overview of novel technologies, such as the application of starter cultures in fermentation and the exploitation of industrial enzymes in accelerating the process of flavour development in coffee beans, is given. Moreover, the results of studies on microbial populations on coffee and the differences found in fungi, yeasts and bacteria composition among the investigations, are summarized. In particular, this review describes new attempts to contain the development of mycotoxigenic fungi, through the application of antagonistic microorganisms such as S. cerevisiae. The new wave of specialty coffees, i.e., those with a cupping score higher than 85/100, is also presented. It is shown how, through careful coffee production methods and controlled fermentation processes, coffee producers may increase their income by assuring high standards of quality and high added value for the coffee experience sector.
Pub.: 24 Oct '16, Pinned: 18 Nov '16
Abstract: The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy-two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry.The new SCAA and WCR Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel can be used as an important tool for communication in the coffee industry, to standardize the description of coffee flavors in a replicable way throughout the coffee value chain, and to educate coffee consumers. It brings industry and science closer together, unifying communication and enabling problem solving of issues critical to the specialty coffee industry. Both the lexicon and flavor wheel are living documents, so there is flexibility and space for additional coffee flavor descriptors as trained panels gain more experience with these tools.
Pub.: 11 Nov '16, Pinned: 14 Nov '16
Abstract: Abstract Biological pigments are chemical compounds that absorb light in the wavelength range of the visible region. They are present in all living organisms, vegetables being among their main producers. In this work, the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to investigate some qualitative features related to pigments of ground and roasted coffee. The samples were collected at several Colombian commercial markets from different regions. Colombian coffee is known worldwide for its quality and flavor, being the main agricultural export product of the country. Therefore, it is important to study the composition and color of ground and roasted coffee in order to show quality and special characteristics of local varieties. Studying the content of pigments after roasting and grinding the coffee can allow a better understanding of the coloring process, which can lead to the definition of new criteria for evaluating the quality and other characteristics of the final product by comparing the optical spectra. In this work, the optical absorption spectra obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy show absorption bands that match those of the pigments capsanthin, lutein and chlorophyll. In addition, an absorption peak in the near-infrared region was revealed, which also provides information regarding the composition of roasted and ground coffee.AbstractBiological pigments are chemical compounds that absorb light in the wavelength range of the visible region. They are present in all living organisms, vegetables being among their main producers. In this work, the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to investigate some qualitative features related to pigments of ground and roasted coffee. The samples were collected at several Colombian commercial markets from different regions. Colombian coffee is known worldwide for its quality and flavor, being the main agricultural export product of the country. Therefore, it is important to study the composition and color of ground and roasted coffee in order to show quality and special characteristics of local varieties. Studying the content of pigments after roasting and grinding the coffee can allow a better understanding of the coloring process, which can lead to the definition of new criteria for evaluating the quality and other characteristics of the final product by comparing the optical spectra. In this work, the optical absorption spectra obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy show absorption bands that match those of the pigments capsanthin, lutein and chlorophyll. In addition, an absorption peak in the near-infrared region was revealed, which also provides information regarding the composition of roasted and ground coffee.
Pub.: 07 Nov '16, Pinned: 14 Nov '16
Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate coffee flavour perception and release as function of serving temperature to support standardisation in the specialty coffee branch. The coffee cultivar Bourbon Caturra was evaluated at six serving temperatures ranging from 31°C to 62°C. Coffee samples were analysed by dynamic headspace sampling gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and descriptive analyses using sip-and-spit tasting. The release of volatiles followed mostly the van't Hoff principle and was exuberated at temperatures above 40°C. Aliphatic ketones, alkylpyrazines, some furans and pyridines increased most notably at temperatures ⩾50°C. The changes in volatile release profiles could explain some of the sensory differences observed. The flavour notes of 'sour', 'tobacco' and 'sweet' were mostly associated with the coffees served at 31-44°C, whereas coffees served between 50°C and 62°C exhibited stronger 'overall intensity', 'roasted' flavour and 'bitter' notes.
Pub.: 22 Oct '16, Pinned: 24 Oct '16
Abstract: Many biochemical events occur inside grains during post-harvest processes. Several methods have been developed to relate the chemical composition of the coffee grain to the beverage quality, including identification of possible molecular markers for flavor characterizing. This study was aimed at evaluating the changes in the proteomic profile of pulped and natural C. arabica grains dried in a yard or dryer at 60°C. It was observed that fruits dried in a dryer at 60°C showed an altered proteomic profile, with a reduction in the most abundant proteins compared to those yard-dried grains. Among the identified proteins, those involved in the metabolism of sugars and stress response were highlighted. Results have shown that post-harvest processes that impact coffee quality are related to changes in protein abundance, indicating that proteomic analysis may be effective in the identification of biochemical changes in coffee grains subjected to different post-harvest processes.
Pub.: 18 Oct '16, Pinned: 19 Oct '16
Abstract: In this study, the effects of particle size (222 to 1085 μm), packing amount (7.1 to 10.7 g), and brewing volume (113 to 226 mL) on physiochemical properties of the brew were investigated based on a single-serve coffee brewer. The results show that decreasing particle size could increase the extraction yield by about 63% without changing the extraction of acidic and phenolic compounds, implying finer grinds potentially could be used to reduce the use of coffee. Increasing packing amount had no effect on the extraction yield, but increased the concentration ratio of acidic to phenolic compounds, thus changing the flavor profile of the brew. > 80% of the soluble solids were extracted within the first 113 mL, while further brewing diluted the brew and introduced more bitter and astringent compounds. This study increased the understanding of single-serve brewing process, which is important to optimize brew quality and minimize production cost.
Pub.: 28 Sep '16, Pinned: 17 Oct '16
Abstract: A process for roasting of coffee beans involving spouted bed roasting (SBR), followed by cryogenic cooling and grinding was developed. The temperature and time of roasting was 210 °C and 22 min. It was found that coffee subjected to SBR roasting followed by cryogenic cooling had greater impact on the retention of volatile compounds especially the furans and thiols than the conventional drum roasting (CDR). The dehydration, the zero and first order color degradation rate constants for cryo treated SBR coffee beans were found to be 0.079, 1.9 and 0.04488 respectively where as for CDR coffee beans it was 0.03942, 1.398 and 0.030 correspondingly. The sensory analysis confirmed that proposed roasting method was beneficial for the retention of volatile flavor compounds and reduction of the burning of surface, and will be very useful for coffee processing in order to produce high quality coffee beans and increase its economic value.
Pub.: 20 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Oct '16
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits.
Pub.: 06 Oct '16, Pinned: 11 Oct '16
Abstract: The objective of this study was to present possible formulations for an instant coffee product enriched with chlorogenic acids for the Brazilian market. Formulations were prepared with different concentrations of freeze dried extracts of green Coffea canephora beans (G) added to freeze dried extracts of roasted Coffea arabica (A) and Coffea canephora (C). Medium (M) and dark (D) roasting degrees instant coffee were produced (AM, AD, CM and CD) to obtain four formulations with green extract addition (AMG, ADG, CMG and CDG). Chlorogenic acids were determined by HPLC, with average contents of 7.2 %. Roasted extracts and formulations were evaluated for 5-CQA and caffeine contents (by HPLC), browned compounds (absorbance 420 nm), and antioxidant activity (ABTS and Folin). Coffee brews of the four formulations were also assessed in a lab-scale test by 42 consumers for acceptance of the color, aroma, flavor and body, overall acceptance and purchase intent, using a 10 cm hybrid scale. The formulations obtained acceptance scores of 6.6 and 7.7 for all attributes, thus they were equally acceptable. Greater purchase intent was observed for ADG, CDG and CMG (6.9) in comparison to AMG (6.1). The formulations had, on average, 2.5 times more 5-CQA than the average obtained from conventional commercial instant coffees. In addition to being more economically viable, the formulations developed with C. canephora (CDG and CMG) showed greater antioxidant potential (32.5 g of Trolox/100 g and 13.8 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g) due to a balance in the amount of bioactive compounds.
Pub.: 30 Aug '16, Pinned: 23 Sep '16
Abstract: Coffee beans roasting is an important step in coffee production because it enables the development of flavor, aroma and color. Most coffee beans are commercially roasted in large-scale, but some coffee drinkers prefer to precisely control the freshness and the special flavor by their own roasting method. This study was conducted to develop a novel approach to thermal decomposition that includes the heat reactivity properties of coffee beans. From roasting conditions versus thermal decomposition characteristics, we found the optimal roasting conditions and thermal decomposition characteristics, and discovered the control conditions. The parameters and reactivity properties could be applied to design during roasting and storage. Overall, we applied a nonisothermal kinetic model for the evaluation of kinetic parameters and storage conditions, compared the results to simulated thermal analysis, and then did a sensory evaluation to determine the suitable roasting condition.This approach led to the development of a novel procedure and an appropriate model for estimating the interesting relationship of roasting control process, thermal decomposition properties, storage conditions and sensory evaluation of coffee beans. A novel approach to discovering the heat reactivity properties of coffee beans. Coffee beab flavor with roasting conditions has a very close character of the relationship. It could be applied to set baking function and special flavor designs for roasting coffee beans.
Pub.: 11 Aug '16, Pinned: 23 Sep '16
Abstract: People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more "codable", then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too.
Pub.: 21 Jun '16, Pinned: 23 Sep '16
Abstract: Authors: Eugene Jones Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10454446.2014.949973?af=R Citation: Journal of Food Products Marketing Publication Date: 2015-07-06T09:55:31Z Journal: Journal of Food Products Marketing
Pub.: 06 Jul '15, Pinned: 23 Sep '16
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between frequency of coffee intake and osteoporosis (OP) in a general Chinese male sample.We conducted a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional study to investigate the associations by using a self-report questionnaire to estimate the frequency of coffee intake. A total of 992 men were available for data analysis in this study. Multiple regression models controlling for confounding factors to include frequency of coffee intake variable were performed to investigate the relationships for OP.Positive correlations between frequency of coffee intake and T-score were reported (β = 0.211, P = 0.024). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the frequency of coffee intake was significantly associated with OP (P < 0.05 for model 1 and model 2). The men with moderate frequency of coffee intake had a lower prevalence of OP.The findings indicated that consumption of coffee was independently and significantly associated with OP. The prevalence of OP was less frequent in Chinese men with moderate coffee intake.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02451397.
Pub.: 09 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Aug '16
Abstract: Music is known to affect patrons in a service environment, and its types and applications have been widely studied. However, little research has yet addressed the possibility for patrons to create their background music (BGM) in collaboration with service providers. Also, the coffee shop has often been neglected as a research area for BGM application. We, thus, explore the potential for co-creation of background music (BGM) in coffee shop management. Based on the notion of congruity effect, which holds that congruent BGM leads to approach behavior, our research unveils that patrons experience a positive mood from BGM in harmony with a coffee shop environment and in turn show approach behavior represented by spending more money and time. More importantly, our research further explores the effect of BGM co-creation in boosting approach behavior (via enhanced perceived mood). The findings of this research suggest that coffee shop owners would benefit from adopting this co-creation strategy in managing their coffee shops.
Pub.: 06 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Aug '16
Abstract: Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown.We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP in their children.The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft drinks and total caffeine consumption] and CP in children, with nonconsumers as the reference group. Models included adjustment for maternal age and education, medically assisted reproduction, and smoking, and for each source of caffeine, adjustments were made for the other sources.Total daily caffeine intake before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk. High consumption (≥6 servings/d) of caffeinated soft drinks before pregnancy was associated with an increased CP risk (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and children of women consuming 3-5 daily servings of caffeinated soft drinks during pregnancy weeks 13-30 also had an increased CP risk (HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.8). A mean daily consumption of 51-100 mg caffeine from soft drinks during the first half of pregnancy was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of CP in children (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6).Maternal total daily caffeine consumption before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk in children. The observed increased risk with caffeinated soft drinks warrants further investigation.
Pub.: 05 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Aug '16
Abstract: Despite widespread popularity and possible health effects, the prevalence and distribution of coffee consumption in US adults are poorly characterized.We sought to estimate usual daily coffee intakes from all coffee-containing beverages, including decaffeinated and regular coffee, among US adults according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors.Dietary intake data from ≤2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire administered during the NHANES 2003-2006 were used to estimate the person-specific probability of consuming coffee on a particular day and the usual amount consumed on consumption days. Trends in population mean coffee consumption over time were evaluated by using multiple linear regression and 1-d 24-h recall data from NHANES 2003-2012. Analyses were weighted to be representative of the US adult population aged ≥20 y.An estimated 154 million adults, or 75% of the US population, aged ≥20 y reported drinking coffee; 49% reported drinking coffee daily. Prevalence did not vary by sex, education, income, or self-reported general health (all P ≥ 0.05) but did vary by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol drinking (all P < 0.05). Among coffee drinkers, the mean ± SE usual intake was 14.1 ± 0.5 fluid ounces/d (417 ± 15 mL/d). Mean usual intakes were higher in men than women, in older age groups than in those aged 20 to <30 y, in non-Hispanic whites than in non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanic/other races, in smokers than in never smokers, and in daily alcohol consumers than in nonconsumers (all P < 0.05). Population mean coffee consumption was stable from 2003 to 2012 (P-trend = 0.09).Coffee is widely consumed in the United States, with usual intakes varying by lifestyle and demographic factors, most notably by age. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether observed differences by age reflect birth cohort effects or changes in drinking patterns over the lifetime.
Pub.: 05 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Aug '16
Abstract: Coffee quality is highly dependent on geographical factors. Based on the chemical characterization of 25 coffee samples from worldwide provenances and same roasting degree, Discriminant Analysis (DA) was employed to develop models that are able to identify the continental or country (Brazil) provenance of blind coffee samples. These models are based on coffee composition, particularly on several key compounds either with or without significant impact on aroma, such as 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-methylbutanal and 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine. All models were validated with new and independent data from literature, and also through cross-validation and permutation tests. Furthermore, the robustness of the proposed models in case of incomplete characterization data was also tested, being concluded that missing data is supportable by the models. In the whole, this article provides compelling arguments for the development of DA-based tools with the purpose of controlling the quality of coffee in terms of their continental and/or national origins.
Pub.: 02 Aug '16, Pinned: 04 Aug '16
Abstract: Coffee consumption has been consistently associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in cohort studies. In addition, coffee components increased insulin sensitivity in animal models. However, data from intervention studies on the effect of coffee consumption on glucose metabolism have been limited by small sample sizes, lack of blinding, short follow-up duration and the use of surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity. We designed the Coffee for Metabolic Health (COMETH) study to evaluate the effect of coffee consumption on insulin sensitivity.
Pub.: 02 Aug '16, Pinned: 04 Aug '16
Abstract: Research on the potential protective effects of coffee and its bioactives (caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes) against oxidative stress and related chronic disease risk has been increasing in the last years. The present review summarizes the main findings on the effect of coffee consumption on protection against lipid, protein and DNA damage, as well as on the modulation of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes in human studies. Twenty-six dietary intervention studies (involving acute and chronic coffee intake) have been considered. Overall, the results suggest that coffee consumption can increase glutathione levels and improve protection against DNA damage, especially following regular/repeated intake. On the contrary, the effects of coffee on plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes, as well as on protein and lipid damage, are unclear following both acute and chronic exposure. The high heterogeneity in terms of type of coffee, doses and duration of the studies, the lack of information on coffee and/or brew bioactive composition, as well as the choice of biomarkers and the methods used for their evaluation, may partially explain the variability observed among findings. More robust and well-controlled intervention studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the effect of coffee on oxidative stress markers in humans.
Pub.: 28 Jul '16, Pinned: 03 Aug '16
Abstract: The concentration of twenty-seven elements (Li, Be, B, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) in green coffee samples and their infusions were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, green coffee samples were prepared by microwave digestion, while infusions were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The accuracy and precision of the proposed methods were verified by recovery experiments. Considering samples, K, Cu and Al had the highest mean concentrations with 6714.5 μg g-1, 12.1 μg g-1, and 25.9 μg g-1 among major, trace and toxic elements, respectively. The impact of brewing type on leachability of elements was also studied and the results outlined that mean leachability of elements to Turkish coffee were greater than to mud coffee. Furthermore, dietary element intakes through green coffee consumption were also estimated. This is the first study presenting wide range of elements in green coffee brews and calculating dietary intakes.
Pub.: 29 Jul '16, Pinned: 01 Aug '16
Abstract: The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers’ preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.
Pub.: 29 Jul '16, Pinned: 01 Aug '16
Abstract: Coffee contains biologically-active substances that suppress carcinogenesis in vivo, and coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of malignant melanoma. We studied the impact of total coffee consumption and of different brewing methods on the incidence of malignant melanoma in a prospective cohort of Norwegian women.We had baseline information on total coffee consumption and consumption of filtered, instant, and boiled coffee from self-administered questionnaires for 104,080 women in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study. We also had follow-up information collected 6-8 years after baseline. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data, and multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for malignant melanoma by consumption category of total, filtered, instant, and boiled coffee.During 1.7 million person-years of follow-up, 762 cases of malignant melanoma were diagnosed. Compared to light consumers of filtered coffee (≤1 cup/day), we found a statistically significant inverse association with low-moderate consumption (>1-3 cups/day, HR = 0.80; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.98) and high-moderate consumption of filtered coffee (>3-5 cups/day, HR = 0.77; 95 % CI 0.61-0.97) and melanoma risk (p trend = 0.02). We did not find a statistically significant association between total, instant, or boiled coffee consumption and the risk of malignant melanoma in any of the consumption categories.The data from the NOWAC Study indicate that a moderate intake of filtered coffee could reduce the risk of malignant melanoma.
Pub.: 31 Jul '16, Pinned: 01 Aug '16
Abstract: When a half-full Bordeaux glass is oscillated sideways at 4 Hz, calm waves of wine gently ripple upon the surface. However, when a cylindrical mug is subject to the same motion, it does not take long for the liquid to splash aggressively against the cup and ultimately spill. This is a manifestation of the same principles that also make us spill coffee when we walk. In this study, we first investigate the physical properties of the fluid-structure interaction of the coffee cup; in particular, the frequency spectrum of each oscillating component is examined methodically. It is revealed that the cup's oscillation is not monochromatic: harmonic modes exist, and their proportions are significant. As a result, although the base frequency of the cup is considerably displaced from the resonance region, maximum spillage is initiated by the second harmonic mode of driving force that the cup exerts on its contents. Thus, we spill coffee. As an application of these experimental findings, a number of methods to reduce liquid spillage are investigated. Most notably, an alternative method to hold the cup is suggested; in essence, by altering the mechanical structure of the cup-holding posture, we can effectively suppress the higher frequency components of the driving force and thus stabilize the liquid oscillation. In an attempt to rationalize all we have investigated above, a mechanical model is proposed. Due to practicalities, rather than to construct a dynamical system using Newton's equation of motion, we choose to utilize the Euler-Lagrangian equations. Extensive simulation studies reveal that our model, crude in its form, successfully embodies the essential facets of reality. This liberates us to make two predictions that were beyond our experimental limits: the change in magnitude of the driving force and the temporal stabilization process.
Pub.: 26 Jul '16, Pinned: 29 Jul '16
Abstract: The effect of roasting conditions on the NIR and HPLC profiles of coffee samples was systematically evaluated by ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), also as a function of the varietal origin (Arabica or Robusta) of the beans. With respect to previously published paper, the use of ASCA allowed not to limit the characterization to individual analytes or specific family of compounds, by extending it to whole instrumental profiles, thus providing a holistic characterization of the roasting process, also in terms of how it changes depending on the species of the raw material. In particular, it was evidenced that both the species and the roasting time have a significant effect on the fingerprints and that, only in the case of NIR spectra, their interaction is significant as well. Moreover, it was possible to highlight what are the main variations in the experimental profiles ascribable to the effects of the controlled factors and in particular, in the case of roasting time, to discover a major longitudinal monotonic trend which is accompanied by a minor one that can be associated to the formation of intermediates.
Pub.: 22 Jul '16, Pinned: 26 Jul '16
Abstract: Sensory acceptance testing was used to determine whether the serving temperature of black filter coffee had an effect on the hedonic sensory quality of the imbibed product using naïve assessors (n = 25) analysed in duplicate. Additionally, descriptive sensory evaluation was used to assess coffee aroma, flavour and aftertaste attributes at different temperatures using a total of fourteen attributes. Prior to consumption, exothermic spectral analysis was assessed using a thermal imaging camera on each cup of coffee to ensure that the correct drinking temperature was recorded prior to being consumed by assessors. anova Partial Least‐Squares Regression (APLSR) was used to analyse experimental data accumulated. This study established that various sensory attributes of coffee are affected by the temperature coffee is imbibed at. Coffee served at 31.0 °C was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) to hedonic attributes. In contrast, coffees served at the higher temperatures of 70.8 °C and 74.4 °C were positively (P < 0.05) correlated to hedonic attributes.
Pub.: 21 Jul '16, Pinned: 26 Jul '16
Abstract: Anti-inflammatory effects of coffee consumption have been reported to be caused by caffeine and adenosine receptor signaling. However, contradictory effects have been observed. Many kinds of chronic diseases are linked to inflammation; therefore a profound understanding of potential effects of coffee consumption is desirable.We performed ex vivo experiments with eight individuals investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood before and after coffee consumption, as well as in vitro experiments applying caffeine on isolated cells. After in vitro inflammatory stimulation of the cells, released cytokines, chemokines and eicosanoids were determined and quantified using targeted mass spectrometric methods. Remarkably, the release of inflammation mediators IL6, IL8, GROA, CXCL2, CXCL5 as well as PGA2, PGD2, PGE2, LTC4, LTE4 and 15S-HETE was significantly affected after coffee consumption. While in several individuals coffee consumption or caffeine treatment caused significant down-regulation of most inflammation mediators, in other healthy individuals exactly the opposite effects were observed.Ruling out age, sex, coffee consumption habits, the metabolic kinetics of caffeine in blood and the individual amount of regulatory T-cells or CD39 expression as predictive parameters, we demonstrated here that coffee consumption may have significant pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in an individual fashion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pub.: 19 Jul '16, Pinned: 20 Jul '16
Abstract: This study is part of a wider project aiming to correlate the chemical composition of the coffee volatile fraction to its sensory properties with the end-goal of developing an instrumental analysis approach complementary to human sensory profiling. The proposed investigation strategy compares the chemical information concerning coffee aroma and flavor obtained with HS-SPME of the ground coffee and in-solution SBSE/SPME sampling combined with GC-MS to evaluate their compatibility with the cupping evaluation for quality control purposes. Roasted coffee samples with specific sensory properties were analyzed. The chemical results obtained by the three samplings were compared through multivariate analysis, and related to the samples’ sensory attributes. Despite the differences between the three sampling approaches, data processing showed that the three methods provide the same kind of chemical information useful for sample discrimination, and that they could be used interchangeably to sample the coffee aroma and flavor.
Pub.: 12 Jul '16, Pinned: 20 Jul '16
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