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CURATOR
A pinboard by
The Sparrho Team

I'm coffee crazy - and how could I not be, I spent five years completing my PhD!

PINBOARD SUMMARY

So much science goes into your morning "Cup of Joe". Cats are fun too though.

78 ITEMS PINNED

The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Chemosensory Perceptionof Common Beverages

Abstract: Abstract Introduction This study aimed to determine whether a smoking restriction prior to sensory evaluation affects sensory perception and liking of beverages that represent sweetness (sweetened cocoa), saltiness (vegetable juice), sourness (orange juice), and bitterness (black coffee). Methods Smokers were asked to either abstain from smoking for 2 h or to smoke a cigarette 5 min prior to sensory evaluation of beverages. As a control, non-smokers participated in this study. Results Smokers who smoked 5 min prior to tasting beverages rated black coffee as significantly more bitter than did those who either abstained from smoking for 2 h or non-smokers. No effect of cigarette smoking was found either in intensity of other taste qualities and flavor or in the liking of the four types of beverages. Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that cigarette smokers should abstain from smoking for 2 h prior to sensory evaluation of bitter-tasting beverages such as black coffee. Abstract Introduction This study aimed to determine whether a smoking restriction prior to sensory evaluation affects sensory perception and liking of beverages that represent sweetness (sweetened cocoa), saltiness (vegetable juice), sourness (orange juice), and bitterness (black coffee). IntroductionThis study aimed to determine whether a smoking restriction prior to sensory evaluation affects sensory perception and liking of beverages that represent sweetness (sweetened cocoa), saltiness (vegetable juice), sourness (orange juice), and bitterness (black coffee). Methods Smokers were asked to either abstain from smoking for 2 h or to smoke a cigarette 5 min prior to sensory evaluation of beverages. As a control, non-smokers participated in this study. MethodsSmokers were asked to either abstain from smoking for 2 h or to smoke a cigarette 5 min prior to sensory evaluation of beverages. As a control, non-smokers participated in this study. Results Smokers who smoked 5 min prior to tasting beverages rated black coffee as significantly more bitter than did those who either abstained from smoking for 2 h or non-smokers. No effect of cigarette smoking was found either in intensity of other taste qualities and flavor or in the liking of the four types of beverages. ResultsSmokers who smoked 5 min prior to tasting beverages rated black coffee as significantly more bitter than did those who either abstained from smoking for 2 h or non-smokers. No effect of cigarette smoking was found either in intensity of other taste qualities and flavor or in the liking of the four types of beverages. Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that cigarette smokers should abstain from smoking for 2 h prior to sensory evaluation of bitter-tasting beverages such as black coffee. ConclusionThis study provides empirical evidence that cigarette smokers should abstain from smoking for 2 h prior to sensory evaluation of bitter-tasting beverages such as black coffee.

Pub.: 07 Dec '16, Pinned: 19 Dec '16

Diterpenes biochemical profile and transcriptional analysis of cytochrome P450s genes in leaves, roots, flowers, and during Coffea arabica L. fruit development

Abstract: Lipids are among the major chemical compounds present in coffee beans, and they affect the flavor and aroma of the coffee beverage. Coffee oil is rich in kaurene diterpene compounds, mainly cafestol (CAF) and kahweol (KAH), which are related to plant defense mechanisms and to nutraceutical and sensorial beverage characteristics. Despite their importance, the final steps of coffee diterpenes biosynthesis remain unknown. To understand the molecular basis of coffee diterpenes biosynthesis, we report the content dynamics of CAF and KAH in several Coffea arabica tissues and the transcriptional analysis of cytochrome P450 genes (P450). We measured CAF and KAH concentrations in leaves, roots, flower buds, flowers and fruit tissues at seven developmental stages (30–240 days after flowering - DAF) using HPLC. Higher CAF levels were detected in flower buds and flowers when compared to fruits. In contrast, KAH concentration increased along fruit development, peaking at 120 DAF. We did not detect CAF or KAH in leaves, and higher amounts of KAH than CAF were detected in roots. Using P450 candidate genes from EST database, we performed RT-qPCR transcriptional analysis of leaves, flowers and fruits at three developmental stages (90, 120 and 150 DAF). Three P450 genes (CaCYP76C4, CaCYP82C2 and CaCYP74A1) had transcriptional patterns similar to CAF concentration and two P450 genes (CaCYP71A25 and CaCYP701A3) have transcript accumulation similar to KAH concentration. These data warrant further investigation of these P450s as potential candidate genes involved in the final stages of the CAF and KAH biosynthetic pathways.

Pub.: 03 Dec '16, Pinned: 08 Dec '16

Challenges, Vol. 7, Pages 19: Challenges in Specialty Coffee Processing and Quality Assurance

Abstract: Coffee is an important crop that assures a sustainable economy to farmers in tropical regions. A dramatic concern for coffee production is currently represented by climate change, which threatens the survival of Coffea arabica cultivation worldwide and imposes modifications of the agronomic practices to prevent this risk. The quality of coffee beans depends on optimized protocols of cultivation, ripe berries collection, and removal of the outer fruit layers by dry or wet processes and moisture reduction. Storage and shipment represent two steps where bean quality needs to be preserved by preventing fungal contamination that may impact the final product and form mycotoxins, mainly ochratoxin A. In this review, we describe the challenges faced by the coffee industry to guarantee quality from production to roasting and brewing. An overview of novel technologies, such as the application of starter cultures in fermentation and the exploitation of industrial enzymes in accelerating the process of flavour development in coffee beans, is given. Moreover, the results of studies on microbial populations on coffee and the differences found in fungi, yeasts and bacteria composition among the investigations, are summarized. In particular, this review describes new attempts to contain the development of mycotoxigenic fungi, through the application of antagonistic microorganisms such as S. cerevisiae. The new wave of specialty coffees, i.e., those with a cupping score higher than 85/100, is also presented. It is shown how, through careful coffee production methods and controlled fermentation processes, coffee producers may increase their income by assuring high standards of quality and high added value for the coffee experience sector.

Pub.: 24 Oct '16, Pinned: 18 Nov '16

Using Single Free Sorting and Multivariate Exploratory Methods to Design a New Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel

Abstract: The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy-two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry.The new SCAA and WCR Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel can be used as an important tool for communication in the coffee industry, to standardize the description of coffee flavors in a replicable way throughout the coffee value chain, and to educate coffee consumers. It brings industry and science closer together, unifying communication and enabling problem solving of issues critical to the specialty coffee industry. Both the lexicon and flavor wheel are living documents, so there is flexibility and space for additional coffee flavor descriptors as trained panels gain more experience with these tools.

Pub.: 11 Nov '16, Pinned: 14 Nov '16

Study of the Pigments in Colombian Powdered Coffee Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

Abstract: Abstract Biological pigments are chemical compounds that absorb light in the wavelength range of the visible region. They are present in all living organisms, vegetables being among their main producers. In this work, the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to investigate some qualitative features related to pigments of ground and roasted coffee. The samples were collected at several Colombian commercial markets from different regions. Colombian coffee is known worldwide for its quality and flavor, being the main agricultural export product of the country. Therefore, it is important to study the composition and color of ground and roasted coffee in order to show quality and special characteristics of local varieties. Studying the content of pigments after roasting and grinding the coffee can allow a better understanding of the coloring process, which can lead to the definition of new criteria for evaluating the quality and other characteristics of the final product by comparing the optical spectra. In this work, the optical absorption spectra obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy show absorption bands that match those of the pigments capsanthin, lutein and chlorophyll. In addition, an absorption peak in the near-infrared region was revealed, which also provides information regarding the composition of roasted and ground coffee.AbstractBiological pigments are chemical compounds that absorb light in the wavelength range of the visible region. They are present in all living organisms, vegetables being among their main producers. In this work, the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to investigate some qualitative features related to pigments of ground and roasted coffee. The samples were collected at several Colombian commercial markets from different regions. Colombian coffee is known worldwide for its quality and flavor, being the main agricultural export product of the country. Therefore, it is important to study the composition and color of ground and roasted coffee in order to show quality and special characteristics of local varieties. Studying the content of pigments after roasting and grinding the coffee can allow a better understanding of the coloring process, which can lead to the definition of new criteria for evaluating the quality and other characteristics of the final product by comparing the optical spectra. In this work, the optical absorption spectra obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy show absorption bands that match those of the pigments capsanthin, lutein and chlorophyll. In addition, an absorption peak in the near-infrared region was revealed, which also provides information regarding the composition of roasted and ground coffee.

Pub.: 07 Nov '16, Pinned: 14 Nov '16

Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits.

Pub.: 06 Oct '16, Pinned: 11 Oct '16

Development of an instant coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to present possible formulations for an instant coffee product enriched with chlorogenic acids for the Brazilian market. Formulations were prepared with different concentrations of freeze dried extracts of green Coffea canephora beans (G) added to freeze dried extracts of roasted Coffea arabica (A) and Coffea canephora (C). Medium (M) and dark (D) roasting degrees instant coffee were produced (AM, AD, CM and CD) to obtain four formulations with green extract addition (AMG, ADG, CMG and CDG). Chlorogenic acids were determined by HPLC, with average contents of 7.2 %. Roasted extracts and formulations were evaluated for 5-CQA and caffeine contents (by HPLC), browned compounds (absorbance 420 nm), and antioxidant activity (ABTS and Folin). Coffee brews of the four formulations were also assessed in a lab-scale test by 42 consumers for acceptance of the color, aroma, flavor and body, overall acceptance and purchase intent, using a 10 cm hybrid scale. The formulations obtained acceptance scores of 6.6 and 7.7 for all attributes, thus they were equally acceptable. Greater purchase intent was observed for ADG, CDG and CMG (6.9) in comparison to AMG (6.1). The formulations had, on average, 2.5 times more 5-CQA than the average obtained from conventional commercial instant coffees. In addition to being more economically viable, the formulations developed with C. canephora (CDG and CMG) showed greater antioxidant potential (32.5 g of Trolox/100 g and 13.8 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g) due to a balance in the amount of bioactive compounds.

Pub.: 30 Aug '16, Pinned: 23 Sep '16

A Kinetics Study of Coffee Bean of Roasting and Storage Conditions

Abstract: Coffee beans roasting is an important step in coffee production because it enables the development of flavor, aroma and color. Most coffee beans are commercially roasted in large-scale, but some coffee drinkers prefer to precisely control the freshness and the special flavor by their own roasting method. This study was conducted to develop a novel approach to thermal decomposition that includes the heat reactivity properties of coffee beans. From roasting conditions versus thermal decomposition characteristics, we found the optimal roasting conditions and thermal decomposition characteristics, and discovered the control conditions. The parameters and reactivity properties could be applied to design during roasting and storage. Overall, we applied a nonisothermal kinetic model for the evaluation of kinetic parameters and storage conditions, compared the results to simulated thermal analysis, and then did a sensory evaluation to determine the suitable roasting condition.This approach led to the development of a novel procedure and an appropriate model for estimating the interesting relationship of roasting control process, thermal decomposition properties, storage conditions and sensory evaluation of coffee beans. A novel approach to discovering the heat reactivity properties of coffee beans. Coffee beab flavor with roasting conditions has a very close character of the relationship. It could be applied to set baking function and special flavor designs for roasting coffee beans.

Pub.: 11 Aug '16, Pinned: 23 Sep '16

Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts.

Abstract: People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more "codable", then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too.

Pub.: 21 Jun '16, Pinned: 23 Sep '16

Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

Abstract: Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown.We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP in their children.The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft drinks and total caffeine consumption] and CP in children, with nonconsumers as the reference group. Models included adjustment for maternal age and education, medically assisted reproduction, and smoking, and for each source of caffeine, adjustments were made for the other sources.Total daily caffeine intake before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk. High consumption (≥6 servings/d) of caffeinated soft drinks before pregnancy was associated with an increased CP risk (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and children of women consuming 3-5 daily servings of caffeinated soft drinks during pregnancy weeks 13-30 also had an increased CP risk (HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.8). A mean daily consumption of 51-100 mg caffeine from soft drinks during the first half of pregnancy was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of CP in children (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6).Maternal total daily caffeine consumption before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk in children. The observed increased risk with caffeinated soft drinks warrants further investigation.

Pub.: 05 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Aug '16

Coffee Drinking Is Widespread in the United States but Usual Intake Varies by Key Demographic and Lifestyle Factors.

Abstract: Despite widespread popularity and possible health effects, the prevalence and distribution of coffee consumption in US adults are poorly characterized.We sought to estimate usual daily coffee intakes from all coffee-containing beverages, including decaffeinated and regular coffee, among US adults according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors.Dietary intake data from ≤2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire administered during the NHANES 2003-2006 were used to estimate the person-specific probability of consuming coffee on a particular day and the usual amount consumed on consumption days. Trends in population mean coffee consumption over time were evaluated by using multiple linear regression and 1-d 24-h recall data from NHANES 2003-2012. Analyses were weighted to be representative of the US adult population aged ≥20 y.An estimated 154 million adults, or 75% of the US population, aged ≥20 y reported drinking coffee; 49% reported drinking coffee daily. Prevalence did not vary by sex, education, income, or self-reported general health (all P ≥ 0.05) but did vary by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol drinking (all P < 0.05). Among coffee drinkers, the mean ± SE usual intake was 14.1 ± 0.5 fluid ounces/d (417 ± 15 mL/d). Mean usual intakes were higher in men than women, in older age groups than in those aged 20 to <30 y, in non-Hispanic whites than in non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanic/other races, in smokers than in never smokers, and in daily alcohol consumers than in nonconsumers (all P < 0.05). Population mean coffee consumption was stable from 2003 to 2012 (P-trend = 0.09).Coffee is widely consumed in the United States, with usual intakes varying by lifestyle and demographic factors, most notably by age. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether observed differences by age reflect birth cohort effects or changes in drinking patterns over the lifetime.

Pub.: 05 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Aug '16

Molecules, Vol. 21, Pages 979: Coffee Consumption and Oxidative Stress: A Review of Human Intervention Studies

Abstract: Research on the potential protective effects of coffee and its bioactives (caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes) against oxidative stress and related chronic disease risk has been increasing in the last years. The present review summarizes the main findings on the effect of coffee consumption on protection against lipid, protein and DNA damage, as well as on the modulation of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes in human studies. Twenty-six dietary intervention studies (involving acute and chronic coffee intake) have been considered. Overall, the results suggest that coffee consumption can increase glutathione levels and improve protection against DNA damage, especially following regular/repeated intake. On the contrary, the effects of coffee on plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes, as well as on protein and lipid damage, are unclear following both acute and chronic exposure. The high heterogeneity in terms of type of coffee, doses and duration of the studies, the lack of information on coffee and/or brew bioactive composition, as well as the choice of biomarkers and the methods used for their evaluation, may partially explain the variability observed among findings. More robust and well-controlled intervention studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the effect of coffee on oxidative stress markers in humans.

Pub.: 28 Jul '16, Pinned: 03 Aug '16