Creative industries on Mars
Abstract: Authors: Graeme Harper Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17510694.2016.1232463?ai=1d7y9&mi=6b657i&af=R Citation: Creative Industries Journal Publication Date: 2016-10-14T09:01:35Z Journal: Creative Industries Journal
Pub.: 14 Oct '16, Pinned: 24 Oct '16
The biological terraforming of Mars: planetary ecosynthesis as ecological succession on a global scale.
Abstract: Mars is bitterly cold and dry, but robotic spacecraft have returned abundant data that indicate Mars once had a much warmer and wetter climate in the past. These data, the basis of the search for past or present life on Mars, suggest the possibility of returning Mars to its previous climate by global engineering techniques. Greenhouse gases, such as perfluorocarbons, appear to be the best method for warming Mars and increasing its atmospheric density so that liquid water becomes stable. The process of making Mars habitable for terrestrial organisms is called terraforming or planetary ecosynthesis. The process of introducing terrestrial ecosystems to Mars can be compared with a descent down a high mountain. Each drop in elevation results in a warmer, wetter climate and more diverse biological community. Beginning with a polar desert, the sequence of ecosystems passes through tundra, boreal forest, and temperate ecosystems where moisture determines the presence of desert, grassland, or forest. This model suggests a sequence for the introduction of ecosystems to Mars and the communities to search for potential colonizing species for Mars.
Pub.: 16 Jul '04, Pinned: 09 Sep '16
Design of an optical-communication link with Mars
Abstract: The possibility of using optical communications in free-space as an improvement of current RF communication systems was analyzed in this Project. The particular case of a link Mars-Earth was studied and a link based in the future NASA's MLCD project, which is currently being developed, was designed. For this, an orbit simulator was programmed, evaluating the transfer orbit, analyzing the losses that occur in the transmission channel, using several atmospheric models, selecting the most adequate elements for the transmitter and the receiver, calculating the Doppler effect during the mission, and performing a budget link for the different orbit positions. From these results, the maximum bitrate through the MLCD mission was evaluated for the different astronomical observatories chosen as optical ground stations.
Pub.: 24 May '16, Pinned: 09 Sep '16
Learning to live on a Mars day: fatigue countermeasures during the Phoenix Mars Lander mission.
Abstract: To interact with the robotic Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) spacecraft, mission personnel were required to work on a Mars day (24.65 h) for 78 days. This alien schedule presents a challenge to Earth-bound circadian physiology and a potential risk to workplace performance and safety. We evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of a fatigue management program to facilitate synchronization with the Mars day and alleviate circadian misalignment, sleep loss, and fatigue.Operational field study.PML Science Operations Center.Scientific and technical personnel supporting PML mission.Sleep and fatigue education was offered to all support personnel. A subset (n = 19) were offered a short-wavelength (blue) light panel to aid alertness and mitigate/reduce circadian desynchrony. They were assessed using a daily sleep/work diary, continuous wrist actigraphy, and regular performance tests. Subjects also completed 48-h urine collections biweekly for assessment of the circadian 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm.Most participants (87%) exhibited a circadian period consistent with adaptation to a Mars day. When synchronized, main sleep duration was 5.98 ± 0.94 h, but fell to 4.91 ± 1.22 h when misaligned (P < 0.001). Self-reported levels of fatigue and sleepiness also significantly increased when work was scheduled at an inappropriate circadian phase (P < 0.001). Prolonged wakefulness (≥ 21 h) was associated with a decline in performance and alertness (P < 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively).The ability of the participants to adapt successfully to the Mars day suggests that future missions should utilize a similar circadian rhythm and fatigue management program to reduce the risk of sleepiness-related errors that jeopardize personnel safety and health during critical missions.
Pub.: 02 Oct '12, Pinned: 09 Sep '16
Mars ain't the kind of place to raise your kid: ethical implications of pregnancy on missions to colonize other planets.
Abstract: The colonization of a new planet will inevitably bring about new bioethical issues. One is the possibility of pregnancy during the mission. During the journey to the target planet or moon, and for the first couple of years before a colony has been established and the colony has been accommodated for children, a pregnancy would jeopardize the safety of the crew and the wellbeing of the child. The principal concern with a pregnancy during an interplanetary mission is that it could put the entire crew in danger. Resources such as air, food, and medical supplies will be limited and calculated to keep the crew members alive. We explore the bioethical concerns of near-future space travel.
Pub.: 26 Aug '16, Pinned: 09 Sep '16
Political and legal challenges in a Mars colony
Abstract: In our essay we are going to briefly discuss some legal and political questions associated with the future colonization of Mars which is now being planned by NASA and the second one is known as Project MarsOne. We assume that it will be unclear as to which legal and political solutions could work in the new Martian ecological niche. Here we will show that this issue requires more attention because we unable to predict which elements of human nature will dominate the lives of the Mars colonizers.
Pub.: 31 May '16, Pinned: 09 Sep '16
A pragmatic approach to sovereignty on Mars
Abstract: Rising interest in Mars colonization from both private and public sectors necessitates a renewed discussion about sovereignty in space. The non-appropriation principle of the Outer Space Treaty currently prohibits any sovereign claims to celestial bodies, but it remains unclear how this principle should be applied to the peaceful colonization of Mars. Here we develop a pragmatic approach to guide the settlement of Mars, which is based upon a “bounded first possession” model with mandatory planetary parks. Scientists, experts, and leaders will establish planetary park locations and regulations through worldwide community solicitation in order to protect sites of scientific, aesthetic, historical, cultural, environmental, spiritual value. Colonization parties may occupy limited plots of martian land and may claim exclusive economic rights within this zone, while still refraining from any claims to sovereignty. All colonists remain under the legal jurisdiction of their host nation, with conflicts to be resolved diplomatically or through a temporary tribunal system composed of representatives from other Mars colonies. We also propose the formation of a Mars Secretariat as an administrative body with limited power to facilitate communication among parties. Our model for Mars colonization remains consistent with the Outer Space Treaty, but we also recommend revisiting or amending the non-appropriation and province of mankind principles to resolve the ambiguity of how nations, corporations, and individuals may utilize the resources of space.
Pub.: 30 May '16, Pinned: 09 Sep '16
Mars and Venus: Different destinies of terrestrial planets
Abstract: Being insignificantly different in distance from the Sun, the main terrestrial planets—Venus, the Earth, and Mars—fall, with due account for inaccuracies, within the so-called habitable zone, i.e., the range of distances from a parent star within which water on the planets can exist in the liquid state. Most likely, in the process of their formation, the three planets received approximately the same share of water. However, only the Earth’s climate is suitable for the development of life. How did it happen that Mars became cold and water on it froze, while the absolutely dry surface of Venus is red hot, exceeding 460°C' Was this always the situation' Climate changes on Mars and Venus from the beginning of the planets' independent existence to the present day are considered, and parallels are drawn with the changing climate of the Earth. The article also discusses how the particularities of the early climate of Mars are related to its inhabitation, as well as the likelihood of discovering biological activity on that planet. Some of the results presented in this article were obtained using Russian instruments installed on the artificial satellites Mars Express and Venus Express. Being insignificantly different in distance from the Sun, the main terrestrial planets—Venus, the Earth, and Mars—fall, with due account for inaccuracies, within the so-called habitable zone, i.e., the range of distances from a parent star within which water on the planets can exist in the liquid state. Most likely, in the process of their formation, the three planets received approximately the same share of water. However, only the Earth’s climate is suitable for the development of life. How did it happen that Mars became cold and water on it froze, while the absolutely dry surface of Venus is red hot, exceeding 460°C' Was this always the situation' Climate changes on Mars and Venus from the beginning of the planets' independent existence to the present day are considered, and parallels are drawn with the changing climate of the Earth. The article also discusses how the particularities of the early climate of Mars are related to its inhabitation, as well as the likelihood of discovering biological activity on that planet. Some of the results presented in this article were obtained using Russian instruments installed on the artificial satellites Mars Express and Venus Express.Mars ExpressVenus Express
Pub.: 01 Jul '16, Pinned: 09 Sep '16
Was Venus the First Habitable World of our Solar System?
Abstract: Present-day Venus is an inhospitable place with surface temperatures approaching 750K and an atmosphere over 90 times as thick as present day Earth's. Billions of years ago the picture may have been very different. We have created a suite of 3D climate simulations using topographic data from the Magellan mission, solar spectral irradiance estimates for 2.9 and 0.715 billion years ago, present day Venus orbital parameters, an ocean volume consistent with current theory and measurements, and an atmospheric composition estimated for early Venus. Using these parameters we find that such a world could have had moderate temperatures if Venus had a rotation period slower than about 16 Earth days, despite an incident solar flux 46-70% higher than modern Earth receives. At its current rotation period of 243 days, Venus's climate could have remained habitable until at least 715 million years ago if it hosted a shallow primordial ocean. These results demonstrate the vital role that rotation and topography play in understanding the climatic history of exoplanetary Venus-like worlds being discovered in the present epoch.
Pub.: 02 Aug '16, Pinned: 09 Sep '16