Lecturer, Kogi State University, Anyigba
Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are widely distributed in nature from bacteria to humans, suggesting their involvement in important biological processes. Tissue-nonspecific AP are a class of TNAP that is present in numerous tissues but particularly abundant in the kidneys and the central nervous system (CNS). Neuropeptides are key mediators of biological processes in animals. The tetrapeptide FMRFamide neuropeptide (after the single-letter amino acid sequence Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2) was isolated from ganglia of a mollusc, the clam Macrocallista nimbosa. FMRFamide became the first recognized member of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs), a large assemblage of neuropeptides found throughout the metazoa. FaRPs are identified by the possession of a C-terminal -RFamide (-Arg-Phe-NH2) amino acid sequence and their presence have been described in invertebrates and vertebrates. FMRFamide-related peptides have been shown to be present in the rat's brain and spinal cord. The areas of the brain that show the presence of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity indicate that FaRPs may have a neurotransmitter role in the mammalian brain. Hence, my research is to explore the FaRPs-mediated functions and the related roles of TNAP in vertebrates. The overall goal of this research is to understand the functional and therapeutic characteristics of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in vertebrates. To this end, we are currently looking at the role of TNAP in FaRPs-mediated functions and explore the putative interactions between FaRPs and TNAP in the central nervous system of vertebrates, and how such interactions could shed more light on neuropeptide signaling pathways in the CNS. Moreover, such interactions could be exploited in addressing conditions like neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, memory loss, drug addiction and pain management.
Abstract: Since the discovery of FMRFamide, a cardioactive neuropeptide in the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa (Lightfoot, 1786) by Price and Greenberg (Science 197:670–671, 1977), there has been a steady increase in our understanding of the distribution and diversity of FMRFamide and FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) across phyla. The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger, 1833) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is a high-premium tropical economic species that is overexploited globally and may be in imminent danger of extinction in some areas. Conservation of this species and its amenability to culture is however hampered by the limited knowledge about its biology, including the neurohormonal system. Using indirect immunofluorescence technique with antisera raised against the tetrapeptide FMRFamide as well as reverse-phase HPLC, we have demonstrated the widespread distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the tissues of H. scabra, including the coelomic fluid, suggesting that FaRPs might have neurohormonal activities in this species.
Pub.: 05 Apr '13, Pinned: 25 Feb '18