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CURATOR
A pinboard by
Anu Bhattarai

Nuclear medicine physician

PINBOARD SUMMARY

FDG PET is a commonly employed nuclear medicine tool in the field of oncology. The ability of FDG to localise in inflammatory focus has allowed researchers to study it's utility in various inflammatory diseases like sarcoidosis,FUO etc.The role of FDG in detecting vascular graft infection in literature is limited. So the objective of our research is to explore the potential of FDG PET in prosthetic graft surgery infections.

5 ITEMS PINNED

Textural features of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection.

Abstract: The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of (18)F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI.Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing (18)F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different (18)F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize (18)F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8.The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive. SUVmax was found predictive in distinguishing these groups, but showed an unsatisfactory accuracy (AUC = 0.75).Textural analysis to characterize (18)F-FDG uptake heterogeneity is feasible and shows promising results in diagnosing AGI, but requires additional external validation and refinement before it can be implemented in the clinical decision-making process.

Pub.: 26 Dec '16, Pinned: 15 Dec '17

18 F-FDG PET/CT for the Diagnosis of Malignant and Infectious Complications After Solid Organ Transplantation

Abstract: Abstract Purpose Infection and malignancy represent two common complications after solid organ transplantation, which are often characterized by poorly specific clinical symptomatology. Herein, we have evaluated the role of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in this clinical setting. Methods Fifty-eight consecutive patients who underwent FDG PET/CT after kidney, lung or heart transplantation were included in this retrospective analysis. Twelve patients underwent FDG PET/CT to strengthen or confirm a diagnostic suspicion of malignancies. The remaining 46 patients presented with unexplained inflammatory syndrome, fever of unknown origin (FUO), CMV or EBV seroconversion during post-transplant follow-up without conclusive conventional imaging. FDG PET/CT results were compared to histology or to the finding obtained during a clinical/imaging follow-up period of at least 6 months after PET/CT study. Results Positive FDG PET/CT results were obtained in 18 (31 %) patients. In the remaining 40 (69 %) cases, FDG PET/CT was negative, showing exclusively a physiological radiotracer distribution. On the basis of a patient-based analysis, FDG PET/CT’s sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were respectively 78 %, 90 %, 78 % and 90 %, with a global accuracy of 86 %. FDG PET/CT was true positive in 14 patients with bacterial pneumonias (n = 4), pulmonary fungal infection (n = 1), histoplasmosis (n = 1), cutaneous abscess (n = 1), inflammatory disorder (sacroiliitis) (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 3) and NSCLC (n = 3). On the other hand, FDG PET/CT failed to detect lung bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, septicemia, endocarditis and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), respectively, in four patients. FDG PET/CT contributed to adjusting the patient therapeutic strategy in 40 % of cases. Conclusions FDG PET/CT emerges as a valuable technique to manage complications in the post-transplantation period. FDG PET/CT should be considered in patients with severe unexplained inflammatory syndrome or FUO and inconclusive conventional imaging or to discriminate active from silent lesions previously detected by conventional imaging particularly when malignancy is suspected. Abstract Purpose Infection and malignancy represent two common complications after solid organ transplantation, which are often characterized by poorly specific clinical symptomatology. Herein, we have evaluated the role of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in this clinical setting. PurposeInfection and malignancy represent two common complications after solid organ transplantation, which are often characterized by poorly specific clinical symptomatology. Herein, we have evaluated the role of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in this clinical setting.18 Methods Fifty-eight consecutive patients who underwent FDG PET/CT after kidney, lung or heart transplantation were included in this retrospective analysis. Twelve patients underwent FDG PET/CT to strengthen or confirm a diagnostic suspicion of malignancies. The remaining 46 patients presented with unexplained inflammatory syndrome, fever of unknown origin (FUO), CMV or EBV seroconversion during post-transplant follow-up without conclusive conventional imaging. FDG PET/CT results were compared to histology or to the finding obtained during a clinical/imaging follow-up period of at least 6 months after PET/CT study. MethodsFifty-eight consecutive patients who underwent FDG PET/CT after kidney, lung or heart transplantation were included in this retrospective analysis. Twelve patients underwent FDG PET/CT to strengthen or confirm a diagnostic suspicion of malignancies. The remaining 46 patients presented with unexplained inflammatory syndrome, fever of unknown origin (FUO), CMV or EBV seroconversion during post-transplant follow-up without conclusive conventional imaging. FDG PET/CT results were compared to histology or to the finding obtained during a clinical/imaging follow-up period of at least 6 months after PET/CT study. Results Positive FDG PET/CT results were obtained in 18 (31 %) patients. In the remaining 40 (69 %) cases, FDG PET/CT was negative, showing exclusively a physiological radiotracer distribution. On the basis of a patient-based analysis, FDG PET/CT’s sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were respectively 78 %, 90 %, 78 % and 90 %, with a global accuracy of 86 %. FDG PET/CT was true positive in 14 patients with bacterial pneumonias (n = 4), pulmonary fungal infection (n = 1), histoplasmosis (n = 1), cutaneous abscess (n = 1), inflammatory disorder (sacroiliitis) (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 3) and NSCLC (n = 3). On the other hand, FDG PET/CT failed to detect lung bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, septicemia, endocarditis and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), respectively, in four patients. FDG PET/CT contributed to adjusting the patient therapeutic strategy in 40 % of cases. ResultsPositive FDG PET/CT results were obtained in 18 (31 %) patients. In the remaining 40 (69 %) cases, FDG PET/CT was negative, showing exclusively a physiological radiotracer distribution. On the basis of a patient-based analysis, FDG PET/CT’s sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were respectively 78 %, 90 %, 78 % and 90 %, with a global accuracy of 86 %. FDG PET/CT was true positive in 14 patients with bacterial pneumonias (n = 4), pulmonary fungal infection (n = 1), histoplasmosis (n = 1), cutaneous abscess (n = 1), inflammatory disorder (sacroiliitis) (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 3) and NSCLC (n = 3). On the other hand, FDG PET/CT failed to detect lung bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, septicemia, endocarditis and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), respectively, in four patients. FDG PET/CT contributed to adjusting the patient therapeutic strategy in 40 % of cases. Conclusions FDG PET/CT emerges as a valuable technique to manage complications in the post-transplantation period. FDG PET/CT should be considered in patients with severe unexplained inflammatory syndrome or FUO and inconclusive conventional imaging or to discriminate active from silent lesions previously detected by conventional imaging particularly when malignancy is suspected. ConclusionsFDG PET/CT emerges as a valuable technique to manage complications in the post-transplantation period. FDG PET/CT should be considered in patients with severe unexplained inflammatory syndrome or FUO and inconclusive conventional imaging or to discriminate active from silent lesions previously detected by conventional imaging particularly when malignancy is suspected.

Pub.: 28 Nov '16, Pinned: 15 Dec '17

Differential FDG-PET Uptake Patterns in Uninfected and Infected Central Prosthetic Vascular Grafts.

Abstract: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning has been suggested as a means to detect vascular graft infections. However, little is known about the typical FDG uptake patterns associated with synthetic vascular graft implantation. The aim of the present study was to compare uninfected and infected central vascular grafts in terms of various parameters used to interpret PET images.From 2007 through 2013, patients in whom a FDG-PET scan was performed for any indication after open or endovascular central arterial prosthetic reconstruction were identified. Graft infection was defined as the presence of clinical or biochemical signs of graft infection with positive cultures or based on a combination of clinical, biochemical, and imaging parameters (other than PET scan data). All other grafts were deemed uninfected. PET images were analyzed using maximum systemic uptake value (SUVmax), tissue to background ratio (TBR), visual grading scale (VGS), and focality of FDG uptake (focal or homogenous).Twenty-seven uninfected and 32 infected grafts were identified. Median SUVmax was 3.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.0-4.2) for the uninfected grafts and 5.7 for the infected grafts (IQR 2.2-7.8). Mean TBR was 2.0 (IQR 1.4-2.5) and 3.2 (IQR 1.5-3.5), respectively. On VGS, 44% of the uninfected and 72% of the infected grafts were judged as a high probability for infection. Homogenous FDG uptake was noted in 74% of the uninfected and 31% of the infected grafts. Uptake patterns of uninfected and infected grafts showed a large overlap for all parameters.The patterns of FDG uptake for uninfected vascular grafts largely overlap with those of infected vascular grafts. This questions the value of these individual FDG-PET-CT parameters in identifying infected grafts.

Pub.: 15 Jul '15, Pinned: 15 Dec '17