Research Fellow, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Development of airway epithelium in vitro model using human nasal cells on various polymer scaffolds
Various factors and stimuli such as pollutants on air and trauma by accident or surgery can cause airway mucosa epithelium injury. Upon injury, normal maintenance of epithelial barrier is provided by a subset of slowly renewing progenitor cells, as cells within the airway have a low rate of turnover; with less than 5% of epithelial cells proliferating at any given time point. Thus, the methods to fasten the recellularization and wound healing process need to be studied to enable complete regeneration of severely disrupted airway epithelium. Besides that, the regeneration of airway epithelium outside the cell also will enable normal tissue and diseased tissue modeling for studies to understand the disease mechanisms and the interactions of the drugs on the airway and lung. In our study, the human airway cells isolated from nasal turbinates are cultured on various synthetic and natural polymers to regenerate the airway epithelium tissue outside the body. This in vitro airway epithelium can be used to assist the wound healing at the internal side human airway and also can function as the in vitro model, in future. Various factors that are involved in the airway epithelium regeneration, such as cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation; scaffolds characters suitable for in vitro and in vivo use; and the function of the regenerated tissue, are studied in my research. In addition to that, we are also studying the effect nasal fibroblast secretome on enhancing the wound healing of the airway epithelium cells. To be more specific, we identifying the specific factors, individually or synergistically, in the secretome that are responsible in promoting the airway epithelium wound healing as our previous study have shown that broblast secretome on enhancing the wound healing of the airway epithelium.
Abstract: Cigarette smoke (CS) accounts for nearly 90% of lung cancer deaths worldwide; however, an incomplete understanding of how CS initiates preneoplastic changes in the normal airway hinders early diagnosis. Short-term exposure to CS causes aberrant activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. We hypothesize that this response is elicited through the disruption of spatially segregated cell membrane proteins in the polarized airway epithelium. Using an in vitro model of highly differentiated HBE cells, we observed membrane characteristics consistent with the native airway, including the presence of a membrane mucin, MUC1, at the apical cell pole, beta-catenin at the apical-lateral membrane, and EGFR at the basolateral membrane. Following exposure to smoke, intercellular spaces enlarge and cilia disappear. This histopathology is accompanied by molecular events that include perinuclear trafficking of basolateral EGFR, EGFR phosphorylation, pEGFR-mediated phosphorylation of MUC1's cytoplasmic tail (CT), loss of E-cadherin/beta-catenin complexes at the adherens junctions (AJs), intracellular formation and nuclear shuffling of beta-catenin/MUC1-CT complexes, and, ultimately, up-regulation and nuclear localization of Wnt nuclear effector, Lef-1. In the presence of EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, CS-induced histopathology and molecular events were inhibited. These data point to EGFR as a portal through which CS mediates its damaging effects on AJ-mediated cell polarity and activation of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.
Pub.: 24 Jul '10, Pinned: 18 Aug '17
Abstract: Following injury to the airway epithelium, rapid regeneration of a functional epithelium is necessary in order to restore the epithelial barrier integrity. In the perspective of airway gene/cell therapy, we analyzed the capacity of human airway epithelial cells cultured as three-dimensional (3-D) spheroid structures to be efficiently transduced on long term by a pseudotyped lentiviral vector. The capacity of the 3-D spheroid structures to repopulate a denuded tracheal basement membrane and regenerate a well-differentiated airway epithelium was also analyzed.An HIV-1-derived VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vector encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was used. Airway epithelial cells were isolated from mature human fetal tracheas and airway xenografts, cultured as 3-D spheroid structures, and either transduced at multiplicity of infection (MOI) 10 and 100 or assayed in an ex vivo and in vivo model to evaluate their regeneration capacity.An in vivo repopulation assay in SCID-hu mice with transduced isolated fetal airway epithelial cells shows that lentiviral transduction does not alter the airway reconstitution. Transduction of the 3-D spheroid structures shows that 12% of cells were eGFP-positive for up to 80 days. In ex vivo and in vivo assays (NUDE-hu mice), the 3-D spheroid structures are able to repopulate denuded basement membrane and reconstitute a well-differentiated human airway surface epithelium.The efficient and long-term lentiviral transduction of 3-D spheroid structures together with their capacity to regenerate a well-differentiated mucociliary epithelium demonstrate the potential relevance of these 3-D structures in human airway gene/cell therapy.
Pub.: 05 Aug '04, Pinned: 18 Aug '17
Abstract: Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions, through several mechanisms including basal cell spreading and migration, followed by proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. The cellular and molecular factors involved in wound repair and epithelial regeneration are closely interacting and imply extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors as well as cytokines and growth factors secreted by airway epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The development of in vitro and in vivo models of airway epithelium wound repair allowed the study of the spatio-temporal modulation of these factors during the different steps of epithelial repair and regeneration. In this context, several studies have demonstrated that the matrix and secretory environment are markedly involved in these mechanisms and that their dysregulation may induce remodelling of the airway mucosa. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.
Pub.: 06 Dec '05, Pinned: 18 Aug '17
Abstract: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbations are generally associated with several causes, including pollutants, viruses, bacteria that are responsible for an excess of inflammatory mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines released by activated epithelial and inflammatory cells. The normal response of the airway surface epithelium to injury includes a succession of cellular events, varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium then has to repair and regenerate to restore its functions, through several mechanisms, including basal cell spreading and migration, followed by proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. In COPD, the remodeling of the airway epithelium, such as squamous metaplasia and mucous hyperplasia that occur during injury, may considerably disturb the innate immune functions of the airway epithelium. In vitro and in vivo models of airway epithelial wound repair and regeneration allow the study of the spatiotemporal modulation of cellular and molecular interaction factors-namely, the proinflammatory cytokines, the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, and the intercellular adhesion molecules. These factors may be markedly altered during exacerbation periods of COPD and their dysregulation may induce remodeling of the airway mucosa and a leakiness of the airway surface epithelium. More knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration may pave the way to cytoprotective and regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional, well-differentiated airway epithelium in COPD.
Pub.: 27 Oct '06, Pinned: 18 Aug '17
Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration and repair of airway epithelial structures demands close characterization of the associated cellular and molecular events. The choice of an animal model system to study these processes and the role of lung stem cells is debatable since ideally the chosen animal model should offer a valid comparison with the human lung. Species differences may include the complex three-dimensional lung structures, cellular composition of the lung airway as well as transcriptional control of the molecular events in response to airway epithelium regeneration, and repair following injury. In this paper, we discuss issues related to the study of the lung repair and regeneration including the role of putative stem cells in small- and large-animal models. At the end of this paper, the author discuss the potential for using sheep as a model which can help bridge the gap between small-animal model systems and humans.
Pub.: 11 Oct '12, Pinned: 18 Aug '17
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