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Consequences of sex education on teen and young adult sexual behaviors and outcomes.
Abstract: This study examined whether formal sex education is associated with sexual health behaviors and outcomes using recent nationally representative survey data.Data used were from 4,691 male and female individuals aged 15-24 years from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. Weighted bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted by gender, estimating the associations of sex education by type (only abstinence, abstinence and birth control, or neither) before first sexual intercourse, and sexual behaviors and outcomes.Receipt of sex education, regardless of type, was associated with delays in first sex for both genders, as compared with receiving no sex education. Respondents receiving instruction about abstinence and birth control were significantly more likely at first sex to use any contraception (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73, females; OR = 1.91, males) or a condom (OR = 1.69, females; OR = 1.90, males), and less likely to have an age-discrepant partner (OR = .67, females; OR = .48, males). Receipt of only abstinence education was not statistically distinguishable in most models from receipt of either both or neither topics. Among female subjects, condom use at first sex was significantly more likely among those receiving instruction in both topics as compared with only abstinence education. The associations between sex education and all longer-term outcomes were mediated by older age at first sex.Sex education about abstinence and birth control was associated with healthier sexual behaviors and outcomes as compared with no instruction. The protective influence of sex education is not limited to if or when to have sex, but extends to issues of contraception, partner selection, and reproductive health outcomes.
Pub.: 25 Sep '12, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
School-based sex education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in young adults.
Abstract: To quantify the effectiveness of school-based sexual education on risky sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition in adulthood.Online survey of sexual attitudes and behaviours.Students at a British university were surveyed regarding where they learnt most about sex at 14 years of age, how easy they found talking about sexual issues with their parents and age at first intercourse. The effects of these factors were modelled on risk of recent unprotected intercourse and self-reported STIs in adulthood.Seventy-eight of 711 (11%) students reported unprotected intercourse in the 4 weeks before the survey, and 44 (6.2%) students had ever been diagnosed with an STI. Both age at first intercourse (risk reduced by 11% per year of delayed intercourse, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3-19%) and learning about sex from lessons at school (66% reduction in risk compared with learning from one's mother, 95% CI 5-88%) were associated with reductions in risk of unprotected intercourse. Factors associated with fewer STIs were age at first intercourse (17% reduction per year of delayed intercourse, 95% CI 5-28%); and learning about sex from lessons at school (85% reduction, 95% CI 32-97%), from friends of the same age (54% reduction, CI 7-77%) and from first boy/girlfriend (85% reduction, 95% CI 35-97%) compared with learning from one's mother.School-based sexual education is effective at reducing the risk of unprotected intercourse and STIs in early adulthood. Influence from friends in adolescence may also have a positive effect on the risk of STIs in later life.
Pub.: 07 Nov '12, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Exploring the role of computers in sex and relationship education within British families.
Abstract: In this study, we aimed to identify the impact that computers can have in relation to sex and relationship education, as well as to provide a communication model that can be used within British families. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore the factors that influence communication of sexual matters within British families. Twenty families from the northeast of England were recruited through purposive sampling. First, semistructured interviews were conducted to identify how sexual matters were discussed within families. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The second part of the research involved identifying the impact of using a computer program on knowledge and confidence within families to enhance communication about sexual matters. Although the majority of parents and their children were found to discuss sexual matters, the computer program was found to increase knowledge and confidence, which led to greater communication within families. The results highlighted the beneficial role that computer programs can have when educating and increasing communication within families. Future research needs to focus on improving access to information relating to sex and relationship education for parents so they can educate and talk openly about sexual matters with their children. A resource that does exactly this is www.safecoolsex.com.
Pub.: 12 Apr '13, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Interview with Oswalt Kolle (1928-2010): German sex education pioneer.
Abstract: Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956) was the first pioneer of scientific sexology after World War II with his surveys on human sexuality in the male (1948) and the female (1953), which underwent worldwide translations and also had a major impact in Europe.To clarify the role of the journalist Oswalt Kolle (1928-2010) as the promoter of sex education in Germany and Western Europe in the late 1960s.The information is almost exclusively based on a live interview taken with the time witness Oswalt Kolle in February 2010. This scientific technique of oral history is well established in the field of history research today.Kolle has a strong family background in the medical field as his father was a well-known psychiatrist and his grandfather a prominent bacteriologist. Before starting an interest in sex education, Kolle was a successful journalist by interviewing celebrities but turned into one of the most important critics against the restricted views on sex in Germany and Western Europe in the 1960s. His books and films on sexuality were translated into at least 12 languages and were major blockbusters for at least a decade.Oswalt Kolle had more influence on the public awareness and practice of sexuality in Western Europe and especially Germany than any other single person in his time.
Pub.: 30 Apr '14, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Long Live Love. The implementation of a school-based sex-education program in The Netherlands.
Abstract: Implementation of health education programs is often inadequately considered or not considered at all in planning, developing and evaluating interventions. With the focus being predominantly on the adoption stage, little is known about the factors influencing the implementation and continuation stages of the diffusion process. This study contributes to the understanding of factors that promote or impede each stage of the diffusion process in the school setting using the sex education program Long Live Love (LLL) as an example. A survey integrating different diffusion-related concepts was completed by 130 teachers. Results showed that teacher curriculum-related beliefs were associated with all stages in the diffusion process. Although adoption of LLL was predominantly related to teacher curriculum-related beliefs, implementation completeness and fidelity and continued use of LLL were also enhanced by contextual factors, namely teacher training and interactive context variables (school policy, governing body support and student response), respectively. The results of this study can be used to optimize the adoption, implementation and continuation of school-based (sexual) health promotion programs.
Pub.: 13 May '14, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Protective effects of middle school comprehensive sex education with family involvement.
Abstract: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its effectiveness.This longitudinal evaluation followed a cohort of 6th graders (N = 2453) through the end of 8th grade. The design used random assignment of 24 schools into treatment and comparison conditions. The analysis included multiple-group logistic regression to assess differences in delay of sex between intervention and comparison groups.In schools where the program was taught, 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls had had sex by the end of 8th grade compared to boys and girls at comparison schools. Completing family activities during the first year of the program predicted delayed sexual debut for boys.Theory-based, developmentally appropriate, comprehensive sex education programs that include parent involvement can be effective in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students. Parent involvement is particularly important for boys, as family activities may encourage parents to talk with their sons earlier and more frequently.
Pub.: 03 Oct '14, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Promoting Sex Education Among Teenagers Through an Interactive Game: Reasons for Success and Implications.
Abstract: A game application, "Making Smart Choices", was developed to fill the gap of limited easy-to-access resources available on sex education in Hong Kong and to disseminate correct knowledge and positive attitudes toward sex to teenagers using popular platforms such as tablets, Facebook, and the Web.Three versions of the game (iPAD, Facebook, and Web-based) were developed using HTML5. A theoretical framework that involved game-based learning and participatory design approach was used to design, develop, modify, and optimize the game for use with secondary school students (n=1176) 12-16 years of age. Pre- and post-test scores of students' safer sex knowledge were compared to test the effectiveness of the game. Students' survey and interviews were analyzed to assess participant feelings and attitudes toward the game.The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test indicated that students' sex knowledge (n=788) improved with a medium effect size (0.477) after playing the game. Increases in positive attitudes toward sex and relationship and in awareness of making smart sexual choices were reported from student surveys and interviews. Students described the game as "interesting," "interactive," "informative," and "real-to-life."We advocate that the participatory design approach, which supports collaborative efforts of different stakeholders, is an effective framework for developing game-based learning tools for sex education. Our work provides preliminary findings that suggest game-based learning, preferably delivered through popular interactive platforms, can be effective in promoting sex education to teenagers.
Pub.: 17 Jul '15, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
"We Don't Get Into All That": An Analysis of How Teachers Uphold Heteronormative Sex and Relationship Education.
Abstract: Legislation that applies to UK SRE currently advocates inclusive provision. Given the nonstatutory status of SRE, however, it is unclear how teachers incorporate sexual inclusivity, especially as research has shown that teachers' discursive practices can promote a heteronormative SRE climate (Renn, 2010). Using a discursive psychological approach to analyze interview data, this study examined how teachers account for their provision as inclusive. It was revealed that even when promoting their inclusivity, teachers' SRE provision upholds heteronormativity. In doing this, they positioned LGB and same-sex practices outside of the classroom, potentially leaving these young people without a sufficient sex education.
Pub.: 26 Aug '15, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Changes in Adolescents' Receipt of Sex Education, 2006-2013.
Abstract: Updated estimates of adolescents' receipt of sex education are needed to monitor changing access to information.Using nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated changes over time in adolescents' receipt of sex education from formal sources and from parents and differentials in these trends by adolescents' gender, race/ethnicity, age, and place of residence.Between 2006-2010 and 2011-2013, there were significant declines in adolescent females' receipt of formal instruction about birth control (70% to 60%), saying no to sex (89% to 82%), sexually transmitted disease (94% to 90%), and HIV/AIDS (89% to 86%). There was a significant decline in males' receipt of instruction about birth control (61% to 55%). Declines were concentrated among adolescents living in nonmetropolitan areas. The proportion of adolescents talking with their parents about sex education topics did not change significantly. Twenty-one percent of females and 35% of males did not receive instruction about methods of birth control from either formal sources or a parent.Declines in receipt of formal sex education and low rates of parental communication may leave adolescents without instruction, particularly in nonmetropolitan areas. More effort is needed to understand this decline and to explore adolescents' potential other sources of reproductive health information.
Pub.: 02 Apr '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
The Effects of Sex Education on the Risky Sexual Behaviour of School Going Adolescents: A Case Study of Mbenjere Secondary, Ntaja and Nsanama Community Day Secondary Schools
Abstract: Adolescents are at a high risk for a number of health consequences associated with early and unsafe sexual activity including infection with HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies. The amplified sexual risk-taking behaviour among adolescents culminates into thinking that perhaps lack of knowledge pertaining to sex and sexuality provokes adolescents into undertaking sexual risks. Consequently, sex education was introduced as a means of introducing youths in the field of sexual and reproductive health in Malawi to help them go for informed decisions. The use of several interventions countrywide is cited to have decreased the rates of sexual activity in some adolescents, however, despite the positive trend many adolescents remain at risk for unintended pregnancy, STIs and HIV/AIDS infection. This study empirically evaluates how sex education has impacted risky sexual behaviours undertaken by the schooling youths in the Machinga district particularly in three schools namely: Mbenjere, Ntaja and Nsanama Community Day Secondary Schools. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were employed in the study. Questionnaire and focus group discussions served as data collection tools. Results of the study revealed that a good number of schooling youths had enough sexual knowledge but still undertook sexual risks. The study however concludes that sex education is failing to positively impact schooling youth’s behaviour because of some cultural and personal factors which seems to contradict the whole purpose of sex and sexuality education amongst youths in Machinga.
Pub.: 03 Mar '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
The challenges of girls’ right to education: let’s talk about human rights-based sex education
Abstract: Authors: Meghan Campbell Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13642987.2016.1207627?ai=z4&mi=3fqos0&af=R Citation: The International Journal of Human Rights Publication Date: 2016-07-25T08:00:34Z Journal: International Journal of Human Rights
Pub.: 25 Jul '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Chastity for democracy: Surplus repression and the rhetoric of sex education
Abstract: Authors: Casey Ryan Kelly Article URL: http://nca.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00335630.2016.1209548?ai=z4&mi=3fqos0&af=R Citation: Quarterly Journal of Speech Publication Date: 2016-07-29T07:04:29Z Journal: Quarterly Journal of Speech
Pub.: 29 Jul '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
The Power in Pleasure: Practical Implementation of Pleasure in Sex Education Classrooms
Abstract: Authors: Erica R. Koepsel Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15546128.2016.1209451?af=R Citation: American Journal of Sexuality Education Publication Date: 2016-08-24T10:12:06Z Journal: American Journal of Sexuality Education
Pub.: 24 Aug '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
What do young people think about their school-based sex and relationship education? A qualitative synthesis of young people's views and experiences.
Abstract: Although sex and relationship education (SRE) represents a key strand in policies to safeguard young people and improve their sexual health, it currently lacks statutory status, government guidance is outdated and a third of UK schools has poor-quality SRE. We aimed to investigate whether current provision meets young people's needs.Synthesis of qualitative studies of young people's views of their school-based SRE.Eligible studies originated from the UK, Ireland, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Iran, Brazil and Sweden.Studies of students aged 4-19 in full-time education, young adults ≤19 (not necessarily in full-time education) or adults ≤25 if recalling their experiences of school-based SRE.-69 publications were identified, with 55 remaining after quality appraisal (representing 48 studies). The synthesis found that although sex is a potent and potentially embarrassing topic, schools appear reluctant to acknowledge this and attempt to teach SRE in the same way as other subjects. Young people report feeling vulnerable in SRE, with young men anxious to conceal sexual ignorance and young women risking sexual harassment if they participate. Schools appear to have difficulty accepting that some young people are sexually active, leading to SRE that is out of touch with many young people's lives. Young people report that SRE can be negative, gendered and heterosexist. They expressed dislike of their own teachers delivering SRE due to blurred boundaries, lack of anonymity, embarrassment and poor training.SRE should be 'sex-positive' and delivered by experts who maintain clear boundaries with students. Schools should acknowledge that sex is a special subject with unique challenges, as well as the fact and range of young people's sexual activity, otherwise young people will continue to disengage from SRE and opportunities for safeguarding and improving their sexual health will be reduced.
Pub.: 15 Sep '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Learning from commercial entertainment producers in order to create entertainment sex education
Abstract: Authors: Alan McKee Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14681811.2016.1228528?ai=z4&mi=3fqos0&af=R Citation: Sex Education Publication Date: 2016-09-12T05:36:46Z Journal: Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning
Pub.: 12 Sep '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Sex Education: Challenges and Choices
Abstract: Authors: Alison MacKenzie ; Nicki Hedge ; Penny Enslin Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00071005.2016.1232363?ai=1bf&mi=47tg1r&af=R Citation: British Journal of Educational Studies Publication Date: 2016-09-28T10:46:13Z Journal: British Journal of Educational Studies
Pub.: 28 Sep '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Overcoming the ignorance of basic sex education.
Abstract: Another academic year is underway, and schools in England can again choose whether or not to teach sex and relationships education (SRE). The evidence in favour of making SRE a requirement in all schools is stacked higher than ever. One girl in four starts her period before she has learned about it, and 38% of boys do not learn anything about wet dreams before they experience them ( Sex Education Forum (SEF) 2016a ), which shows that even biological aspects of SRE are falling short.
Pub.: 08 Oct '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
‘So, What Do Men and Women Want? Is It any Different from What Animals Want?’ Sex Education in an Upper Secondary School
Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study is to discuss and problematise notions of femininity and masculinity constructed in teaching situations among 16-year-old upper-secondary students studying science. The empirical examples originate from a teaching session with the theme of ‘sex and relationships’. The analysis is focused on metaphors inherent in a lesson that has its origins in the animal world. The findings show that the lesson ‘sex in the animal world’ is full of anthropomorphism, metaphors that humanise animal behaviour. Teachers and students compare the animals’ sexual behaviour with human behaviour, with the result that the animal world can be perceived as representative of natural sexual behaviour. The survey illustrates problems with how the examples are permeated by cultural values in the presentation of the animal world and how these examples form constructions of femininity and masculinity in the classroom.AbstractThe aim of the study is to discuss and problematise notions of femininity and masculinity constructed in teaching situations among 16-year-old upper-secondary students studying science. The empirical examples originate from a teaching session with the theme of ‘sex and relationships’. The analysis is focused on metaphors inherent in a lesson that has its origins in the animal world. The findings show that the lesson ‘sex in the animal world’ is full of anthropomorphism, metaphors that humanise animal behaviour. Teachers and students compare the animals’ sexual behaviour with human behaviour, with the result that the animal world can be perceived as representative of natural sexual behaviour. The survey illustrates problems with how the examples are permeated by cultural values in the presentation of the animal world and how these examples form constructions of femininity and masculinity in the classroom.
Pub.: 01 Dec '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Sex and relationships education (SRE) in schools: feedback from the Sexpectations Project, Hastings, UK
Abstract: In July 2016, the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) published the ‘SRE: Shh... No Talking’ report and #EndtheSilence campaign began trending on social media.1 The report highlighted the current inadequacy of sex and relationship education (SRE) in UK schools. THT state ‘for SRE to be effective it has to be of high quality’; but what constitutes good quality SRE' In Hastings, East Sussex, UK the Sexpectations programme has been running since August 2011. The programme, delivered by local junior doctors, aims to introduce 14-year-old and 15-year-old local school attenders to local National Health Service Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) facilities with a virtual tour of the clinic. Sessions cover topics such as STIs, teen pregnancy, safe sex practices, relationships and real-life sexual health scenarios. From August 2014 to August 2015, student feedback was collated to explore pupil's experiences of learning SRE through Sexpectations. Of the 53 responders: 100% (53/53) stated...
Pub.: 18 Nov '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Evangelical Christian parents’ attitudes towards abstinence-based sex education: ‘I want my kids to have great sex!’
Abstract: Authors: Lauren Dent ; Patricia Maloney Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14681811.2016.1256281?ai=z4&mi=3fqos0&af=R Citation: Sex Education Publication Date: 2016-11-25T04:36:56Z Journal: Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning
Pub.: 25 Nov '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Learning about sex in later life: sources of education and older Australian adults
Abstract: Authors: Bianca Fileborn, Anthony Lyons, Sharron Hinchliff, Graham Brown, Wendy Heywood, Victor Minichiello Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14681811.2016.1273829?ai=z4&mi=3fqos0&af=R Citation: Sex Education Publication Date: 2016-12-28T12:47:35Z Journal: Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning
Pub.: 28 Dec '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17
Engaging parents with sex and relationship education: A UK primary school case study
Abstract: Objective: To assess an intervention to familiarise parents with children’s books for use in primary (5–11 years) sex and relationship education (SRE) classes. Method: Case study of a 7-week programme in one London primary school, using ethnographic observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with parents (n = 7) and key stakeholders (n = 4), and pre- and post-programme self-completion questionnaires (n = 9). Results: Parents reported increased understanding of the SRE curriculum and awareness of relevant children’s books, enhanced interactions with their children on SRE topics and some positive effects on partners and attitudes towards the school. There was increased confidence in addressing issues in the SRE curriculum for parents of 8- to 10-year-olds, although reduced confidence for one mother. Conclusions: Familiarising parents with materials has the potential to enhance SRE, by improving coherence between educators’ and parents’ messages to children about sex and relationships, increased discussion of SRE topics in parent–child conversations and reduced parental anxiety about topics such as sexual orientation. Future challenges of involving fathers, scalability and sustainability highlight the dilemma of how best to enable parental choice or make equalities interventions.
Pub.: 03 Nov '16, Pinned: 02 Mar '17