A pinboard by
Allah Bukhsh

Academician and researcher in the area of clinical pharmacy, At present doing PhD in the field of Clinical Pharmacy.

Interacting researchers from all over the world in the field of pharmacy practice and clinical pharmacy.


I am a PhD scholar in Clinical Pharmacy, I study impact of self-management in diabetes.

Worldwide around 415 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), and the number is expected to increase to 642 million by 2040, making it one of the leading non communicable health care problem worldwide. Pakistan has been ranked 7th in diabetes disease burden in the world with prevalence rate of 7.6% to 11% in 2011, and it is projected to reach 15% (14 million) by year 2030. If the present development continues, Pakistan is expected to move to top 4th place. The morbidity and mortality resulting from complications of type 2 DM continue to contribute a significant economic burden on individual patient as well as on society. Diabetes associated complications are directly linked with patients’ glycaemic control. Although there are many factors which can influence optimum glycemic control, adherence to relevant self-care behaviours such as healthy diet, regular exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose and use of medication are considered to play the leading role in establishing glycaemic control. Numerous study tools on diabetes self-care have been introduced; however, most existing tools do not show expectable and meaningful correlations with patients’ glycaemic control. The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) was designed to appraise self-care activities which can predict glycaemic control outcomes. However, this tool has not been validated in Pakistan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Urdu version of DSMQ among type 2 diabetes patients. The Urdu version of DSMQ will be of significant value for clinical studies examining glycaemic control in relation to patients’ diabetes self-care behaviours as well as for clinicians seeking to assess their patients’ self-care in order to identify behaviours in need of improvement.


Improvement in medication adherence and self-management of diabetes with a clinical pharmacy program: a randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital.

Abstract: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacy program on health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital in Brazil.A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period was performed in 70 adults, aged 45 years or older, with type 2 diabetes who were taking insulin and who had an HbA1c level ≥8%. Patients in the control group (CG) (n = 36) received standard care, patients in the intervention group (IG) (n = 34) received an individualized pharmacotherapeutic care plan and diabetes education. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included diabetes and medication knowledge, adherence to medication, insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques and diabetes-related quality of life. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 6 months using questionnaires.Diabetes knowledge, medication knowledge, adherence to medication and correct insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques significantly improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group. At the end of the study, mean HbA1c values in the control group remained unchanged but were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Diabetes-related quality of life significantly improved in the intervention group but worsened significantly in the control group.The program improved health outcomes and resulted in better glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy.

Pub.: 20 Mar '15, Pinned: 29 Aug '17

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perception towards Human Papillomavirus among university students in Pakistan

Abstract: This cross-sectional study comprises a questionnaire-based survey regarding knowledge about human papillomavirus and its vaccine among students in different educational fields at public and private universities in the city of Lahore in Pakistan. A 26-item questionnaire was used to attain the objective of this study. The reliability of this tool was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha (0.79) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was 0.827. The response rate to the survey was 78.0%, of whom the majority (74.9%) were females and 308 (79%) were single (median age = 23 years). While assessing the respondents’ knowledge about HPV, 223(57%) students reported that they had already heard of HPV (human papillomavirus) and nearly 215 (55%) reported that HPV causes cervical cancer and can infect both men and women. Gender and field of study were two main factors found influencing the respondents’ knowledge about HPV. Moreover, students’ understanding about the mode of transmission of HPV was cursory: 40.51% said they didn’t know how HPV is transmitted, 133 (34.10%) stated that HPV spreads through the exchange of bodily fluids, and 22 (5.64%) selected cough/sneezing. In terms of prevention, 175 (44.87%) students stated that HPV can be prevented by vaccination, 30.0% reported sexual abstinence, 21.54% using condoms, and nearly 5.38% disclosed use of antibiotics. Addressing the knowledge of students regarding HPV vaccine, nearly 53% stated there is no vaccine against HPV and almost 64% rejected the statement that HPV vaccine prevents cervical cancer. In addition, students reported that they will be more than willing to get vaccinated for HPV if their physician recommend them (RII=0.74) followed by parents (RII=0.69). The results of this study revealed a poor understanding among respondents about the health problems associated with HPV, its prevention, modes of transmission and arability of HPV vaccine in Pakistan.

Pub.: 21 Jun '16, Pinned: 26 Aug '17

Evaluation of Therapeutic Effectiveness of Prescribed Medications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Findings from a Tertiary Care Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.

Abstract: The present study was aimed to highlight the current prescribing pattern of oral hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of these therapeutic categories in achieving target glycemic control.This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 6 months' duration conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan.The current research recruited 145 patients presented in diabetes management center of a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Mean age of the participants was 50.2 (± 8.5) years. Out of the 145 patients, 63% were females and 37% were males. Most patients were diagnosed to have diabetes within the past 5 years. Diabetes-induced neuropathy was the most common complication (71.7%) among the patients. A large proportion of these patients (70.3%) were also suffering from other comorbidities among which the most common one is hypertension. The average number of prescribed medications was 1.31. Metformin was prescribed to a majority of patients (64%) as monotherapy while 28.96% received combination therapy. Mean glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) before and after 3 months of treatment was 8.5 (± 2.3) and 8.04 (± 2.1), respectively. Inferential statistics show a strong association between HBA1c and life style modifications and adherence to medication therapy (P = 0.05). However, the correlation between HBA1c and Morisky score and duration of disease was inverse and weak (P = 0.6, 0.4). The t-test values show a small difference between HBA1c values before and after 3 months (t = 0.440 and 0.466, respectively).Optimization of medication regimen and continuous patient education regarding life style modification and adherence to medication therapy are necessitated to bring HBA1c values near to target.

Pub.: 19 Jul '17, Pinned: 26 Aug '17

Psychometric Properties of the Urdu Version of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire.

Abstract: Patient education is a key element in the treatment of diabetes. Assessment of diabetes knowledge is important for optimum treatment. For the assessment of diabetes knowledge, validated tool is essential. None of such validated tool is available in Urdu language. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the 24-item Urdu version of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) among type 2 diabetes patients.Standard "forward-backward" process was used to translate DKQ into Urdu language. Later, it was validated on a convenience sample of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, between July and September 2016. Internal consistency was assessed by reliability analysis, one-way analysis of variance was applied for known group validity and multivariate linear logistic regression was applied for identifying significant predictors for patients' DKQ score.Good internal consistency was observed for DKQ (Cronbach's α = 0.702). The mean HbA1c of the patients was 8.55% (±1.91). DKQ scores of patients' with "good glycemic control" (14.22 ± 2.4) were observed significantly higher (P < 0.05) than patients with "poor glycemic control" (12.56 ± 2.75). Multiple linear regression revealed that patients' HbA1c (OR -0.17, CI -1.111, -0.023) and patients' education (OR 0.17, CI -0.032, 0.758) were significant predictors for DKQ sum score.Urdu version of the DKQ is a valid and reliable instrument for adequate estimation of disease knowledge and its association with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients in Pakistan.

Pub.: 14 Jul '17, Pinned: 26 Aug '17