Research Fellow, Monash University
Studying proteins that are dysregulated during HIV latency will lead to new therapeutic targets
The Backstory: Eliminating HIV from the human body is difficult forcing patients to depend on ongoing life-long antiviral therapy. If therapy stops for any reason, the virus levels come back up again- mostly owing to the ability of HIV to hide inside host cell genomes. The ability of the virus to hide inside the cell, integrated into the genome, is called HIV latency and forms an important reservoir of the virus. Elimination of this latent reservoir is the biggest hurdle in curing HIV. We want to tackle this problem using proteomics techniques that involve cutting-edge mass spectrometry instruments which will allow us to detect proteins with great sensitivity. The Approach: While many studies have looked at the state of latently infected and uninfected cells, they have largely used genome and mRNA expression tools while we aim to study this at the protein level. This project aims to identify differences in protein expression levels between uninfected and latently-infected cells using advanced proteomic techniques. The Expected Outcomes: Studying the proteins that are dysregulated during HIV latency will allow us to 1) specifically identify and 2) target latently-infected cells.
Abstract: Introduction of cART in 1996 has drastically increased the life expectancy of people living with HIV-1. However, this treatment has not allowed cure as cessation of cART is associated with a rapid viral rebound. The main barrier to the eradication of the virus is related to the persistence of latent HIV reservoirs. Evidence is now accumulating that purging the HIV-1 reservoir might lead to a cure or a remission. The most studied strategy is the so called "shock and kill" therapy. This strategy is based on reactivation of dormant viruses from the latently-infected reservoirs (the shock) followed by the eradication of the reservoirs (the kill). This review focuses mainly on the recent advances made in the "shock and kill" therapy. We believe that a cure or a remission will come from combinatorial approaches i.e. combination of drugs to reactivate the dormant virus from all the reservoirs including the one located in sanctuaries, and combination of strategies boosting the immune system. Alternative strategies based on cell and gene therapy or based in inducing deep latency, which are evoked in this review reinforce the idea that at least a remission is attainable.
Pub.: 09 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Jul '17
Abstract: In pilot HIV-1 eradication studies, patients' immune responses were ineffective at killing viral reservoirs reactivated through latency reversing agents (LRAs) like suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). We hypothesized that T cells harboring reactivated HIV-1 express MIC and ULBP ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor of natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we demonstrated that MICA/B and ULBP2 are induced by SAHA on primary T cells harboring reactivated virus. Using latently HIV-1-infected J-Lat 6.3/8.4/9.2 and J1.1 cell lines, we showed that SAHA reverts latency and, simultaneously, up-regulates MICA/B and ULBP2 acting at the transcriptional level and through ATR activation, thus sensitizing T cells with reactivated virus to NKG2D-mediated killing by NK cells. Moreover, IL-2 and IL-15 potently boosted NKG2D expression and cytotoxicity of NK cells against SAHA-reactivated p24(+) target cells. Therefore, immunotherapy with cytokines enhancing NKG2D-mediated NK-cell cytotoxicity combined with administration of LRAs up-modulating NKG2D ligands, represents a promising approach towards HIV-1 eradication.
Pub.: 10 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Jul '17
Abstract: Viral infections are a major burden to human and animal health. Immune response against viruses consists of innate and adaptive immunity which are both critical for the eradication of the viral infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Proper innate immune response is required for the activation of adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are innate immune cells which have a central role in detecting viral infections including influenza A and human immunodeficiency viruses. Macrophages and other host cells respond to viral infection by modulating their protein expression levels, proteins' posttranslational modifications, as well as proteins' intracellular localization and secretion. Therefore the detailed characterization how viruses dynamically manipulate host proteome is needed for understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral infection. It is critical to identify cellular host factors which are exploited by different viruses, and which are less prone for mutations and could serve as potential targets for novel antiviral compounds. Here, we review how proteomics studies have enhanced our understanding of macrophage response to viral infection with special focus on Influenza A and Human immunodeficiency viruses, and virus infections of swine.Influenza A viruses (IAVs) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) infect annually millions of people worldwide and they form a severe threat to human health. Both IAVs and HIV-1 can efficiently antagonize host response and develop drug-resistant variants. Most current antiviral drugs are directed against viral proteins, and there is a constant need to develop new next-generation drugs targeting host proteins that are essential for viral replication. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are economically important swine pathogens. Both PRRSV and PCV2 cause severe respiratory tract illnesses in swine. IAVs, HIV-1, and swine viruses infect macrophages activating antiviral response against these viruses. Macrophages also have a central role in the replication and spread of these viruses. However, macrophage response to these viruses is incompletely understood. Current proteomics methods can provide a global view of host-response to viral infection which is needed for in-depth understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral infection. Here we review the current proteomics studies on macrophage response to viral infection and provide insight into the global host proteome changes upon viral infection.
Pub.: 26 Jun '17, Pinned: 31 Jul '17
Abstract: A single virus is capable of infecting and replicating in a single cell. Recent advances across single-cell omics technologies - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, epitranscriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - will offer unprecedented opportunities to gain more insights into the various aspects of the life cycle of viruses and their impact on the host cell. Here, using the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as an example, we summarize the current knowledge and the future potential of single-cell omics in the investigation of an important aspect of the life cycle of HIV-1 that represents a major hurdle in achieving viral eradication, HIV-1 latency.
Pub.: 03 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Jul '17
Abstract: The general mechanism involved in Tat activation of RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) elongation of the integrated HIV-1 was elucidated over 20 years ago. This mechanism involves Tat binding to the TAR RNA element that forms at the 5' end of viral transcripts and recruiting a general RNAP II elongation factor termed as P-TEFb. This elongation factor consists of CDK9 and Cyclin T1, and when recruited by Tat to TAR RNA, CDK9 was proposed to phosphorylate the carboxyl terminal domain of RNAP II and thereby activate elongation. Research in the past two decades has shown that the mechanism of Tat action is considerably more complicated than this simple model. In metabolically active cells, CDK9 and Cyclin T1 are now known to be largely sequestered in a RNA-protein complex termed as 7SK RNP. CDK9 and Cyclin T1 are released from the 7SK RNP by mechanisms not yet fully elucidated and along with Tat, bind to TAR RNA and orchestrate the assembly of a Super Elongation Complex (SEC) containing several additional proteins. CDK9 in the SEC then phosphorylates multiple substrates in the RNAP II complex to activate elongation. Importantly for therapeutic strategies, CDK9 and Cyclin T1 functions are down-regulated in resting CD4+ T cells that harbor latent HIV-1, and their up-regulation is required for reactivation of latent virus. Current strategies for a functional cure of HIV-1 infection therefore are likely to require development of latency reversal agents that up-regulate CDK9 and Cyclin T1 function in resting CD4+ T cells.
Pub.: 06 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Jul '17
Abstract: Although potent combination antiretroviral therapy can effectively block viral replication in the host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists due to the existence of latent but replication-competent proviruses residing primarily in a very small population of resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Viral latency is established when the expression of the autoregulatory viral trans-activating factor Tat is reduced to subthreshold levels. The absence of Tat reduces HIV transcription and protein production to levels that make the host cell invisible to the immune system and refractory to antiretroviral treatment. Key host cell mechanisms that drive HIV into latency are sequestration of transcription initiation factors, establishment of epigenetic barriers inactivating the proviral promoter, and blockage of the assembly of the host elongation factor P-TEFb. This comprehensive understanding of the molecular control of HIV transcription is leading to the development of optimized combinatorial reactivation and immune surveillance strategies designed to purge the latent viral reservoir. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Pub.: 19 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Jul '17