Marie Curie Individual European Fellow, University of Cambridge
The quest for transition from conventional medicine to personalised medicine
The concept of ‘Theranostics’ is shifting the paradigm of therapeutic approaches more towards patient-oriented and personalised care. Theranostic process is advanced solicitations of integrated material properties to clinical medicine for synchronized diagnosis and therapy. The success and implementation of personalized medicine is highly depending on the success of theranostics where functional drugs will be anchored as “companion” with the in-built diagnostic system to precisely govern whether the patient will get benefit from the specific treatment. The designing of the system could further be explored even to monitor the therapeutic progression and curative efficacy in real time. The hypothesis involves on site diagnosis and directed therapy in an inter-reliant, co-operative individual profile based way for personalised treatment. Furthermore, it postulates a transition from conventional medicine to personalized medicine based on the efficacy of on-spot diagnosis that require today to combat complex heterogeneous disease like cancer. The lecture will therefore highlight how systematic impost of theranostics needed appropriate decision making process. More comprehensive information transfer and knowledge exchange strategy are required across the scale to apprehend both sensing and ‘switch on’ the functions by which such information will be translated. There are number of critical interfaces across which respective triggering are obligatory to transfer the information within the theranostics system engaged into the decision-making process.
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Abstract: To cope with the rapid evolution of the tissue engineering field, it is now essential to incorporate the use of on-site responsive scaffolds. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find new 'Intelligent' biomaterials that can respond to the physicochemical changes in the microenvironment. In this present report, we have developed biocompatible stimuli responsive polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), (PANI-MWCNT/PNIPAm) composite nanofiber networks and demonstrated the physiological temperature coordinated cell grafting phenomenon on its surface. The composite nanofibers were prepared by a two-step process initiated with an assisted in situ polymerization followed by electrospinning. To obtain a smooth surface in individual nanofibers with the thinnest diameter, the component ratios and electrospinning conditions were optimized. The temperature-gated rearrangements of the molecular structure are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy with simultaneous macromolecular architecture changes reflected on the surface morphology, average diameter and pore size as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The stimuli responsiveness of the nanofibers has first been optimized with computational modeling of temperature sensitive components (coil-like and globular conformations) to tune the mechanism for temperature dependent interaction during in situ scaffolding with the cell membrane. The nanofiber networks show excellent biocompatibility, tested with fibroblasts and also show excellent sensitivity to inflammation to combat loco-regional acidosis that delay the wound healing process by an in vitro model that has been developed for testing the proposed responsiveness of the composite nanofiber networks. Cellular adhesion and detachment are regulated through physiological temperature and show normal proliferation of the grafted cells on the composite nanofibers. Thus, we report for the first time, the development of physiological temperature gated inflammation-sensitive smart biomaterials for advanced tissue regeneration and regenerative medicine.
Pub.: 08 Oct '16, Pinned: 26 Jun '17
Abstract: The development of MRI-visual order-disorder structures for cancer nanomedicine explores a pH-triggered mechanism for theragnosis of tumor hallmark functions. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) stabilized with amphiphilic poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid)-doxorubicin with folic acid (FA) surfacing are employed as a multi-functional approach to specifically target, diagnose, and deliver drugs via a single nanoscopic platform for cancer therapy. The functional aspects of the micellar nanocomposite is investigated in vitro using human breast SkBr3 and colon cancer HCT116 cell lines for the delivery, release, localization, and anticancer activity of the drug. For the first time, concentration-dependent T2 -weighted MRI contrast for a monolayer of clustered cancer cells is shown. The pH tunable order-disorder transition of the core-shell structure induces the relative changes in MRI contrast. The outcomes elucidate the potential of this material for smart cancer theranostics by delivering non-invasive real-time diagnosis, targeted therapy, and monitoring the course and response of the action before, during, and after the treatment regimen.
Pub.: 29 Aug '13, Pinned: 26 Jun '17
Abstract: Throughout the world, there are increasing demands for alternate approaches to advanced cancer therapeutics. Numerous potentially chemotherapeutic compounds are developed every year for clinical trial and some of them are considered as potential drug candidates. Nanotechnology-based approaches have accelerated the discovery process, but the key challenge still remains to develop therapeutically viable and physiologically safe materials suitable for cancer therapy. Here, we report a high turnover, on/off-switchable functionally popping reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator using a smart mesoporous titanium dioxide popcorn (TiO2 Pops) nanoarchitecture. The resulting TiO2 Pops, unlike TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), are exceptionally biocompatible with normal cells. Under identical conditions, TiO2 Pops show very high photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 NPs. Upon on/off-switchable photo activation, the TiO2 Pops can trigger the generation of high-turnover flash ROS and can deliver their potential anticancer effect by enhancing the intracellular ROS level until it crosses the threshold to open the 'death gate', thus reducing the survival of cancer cells by at least six times in comparison with TiO2 NPs without affecting the normal cells.
Pub.: 30 Sep '15, Pinned: 26 Jun '17