PhD student, Trinity College Dublin
Investigating protein interactions in S. aureus biofilm and identifying novel inhibitors of biofilm.
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infections on indwelling devices. S. aureus form multicellular communities called biofilms on these devices. My research focuses on proteins on the surface of S. aureus which are important in biofilm formation. These proteins on adjacent cells interact with each other allowing cells to aggregate forming a biofilm. My research has studied these interactions and further characterised them at the molecular level. My research has also investigated these protein interactions as novel targets for anti-biofilm therapy. Bacteria in biofilms are very difficult to treat, they are not killed by conventional antibiotics and are resistant to host immune cells. Thus, novel targets and inhibitors are required for anti-biofilm therapy. In my work, I have shown for the first time, that these protein interactions are an attractive target for anti-biofilm agents which do not kill the bacteria but prevent biofilm forming. I have identified several novel biofilm inhibitors targeting these interactions which may serve as scaffolds for further drug development.
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most important etiological agents of biofilm associated-infections on indwelling medical devices. Biofilm infections may also develop independently of indwelling devices, e.g., in native valve endocarditis, bone tissue, and open wounds. After attachment to tissue or indwelling medical devices that have been conditioned with host plasma proteins, staphylococcal biofilms grow, and produce a specific environment which provides the conditions for cell-cell interaction and formation of multicellular communities. Bacteria living in biofilms express a variety of macromolecules, including exopolysaccharides, proteins, extracellular eDNA, and other polymers. The S. aureus surface protein C and G (SasC and SasG), clumping factor B (ClfB), serine aspartate repeat protein (SdrC), the biofilm-associated protein (Bap), and the fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding proteins (FnBPA and FnBPB) are individually implicated in biofilm matrix formation. In S. epidermidis, a protein named accumulation-associated protein (Aap) contributes to both the primary attachment phase and the establishment of intercellular connections by forming fibrils on the cell surface. In S. epidermidis, proteinaceous biofilm formation can also be mediated by the extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) and S. epidermidis surface protein C (SesC). Additionally, multifunctional proteins such as extracellular adherence protein (Eap) and extracellular matrix protein binding protein (Emp) of S. aureus and the iron-regulated surface determinant protein C (IsdC) of S. lugdunensis can promote biofilm formation in iron-depleted conditions. This multitude of proteins intervene at different stages of biofilm formation with certain proteins contributing to biofilm accumulation and others mediating primary attachment to surfaces. This review examines the contribution of proteins to biofilm formation in Staphylococci. The potential to develop vaccines to prevent protein-dependent biofilm formation during staphylococcal infection is discussed.
Pub.: 30 Dec '14, Pinned: 26 Jul '17
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices using a variety of cell-surface proteins. There is growing evidence that specific homophilic interactions between these proteins represent an important mechanism of cell accumulation during biofilm formation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well-understood. Here we report the direct measurement of homophilic binding forces by the serine-aspartate repeat protein SdrC and their inhibition by a peptide. Using single-cell and single-molecule force measurements, we find that SdrC is engaged in low-affinity homophilic bonds that promote cell-cell adhesion. Low-affinity intercellular adhesion may play a role in favoring biofilm dynamics. We show that SdrC also mediates strong cellular interactions with hydrophobic surfaces, which are likely to be involved in the initial attachment to biomaterials, the first stage of biofilm formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a peptide derived from β-neurexin is a powerful competitive inhibitor capable of efficiently blocking surface attachment, homophilic adhesion, and biofilm accumulation. Molecular modeling suggests that this blocking activity may originate from binding of the peptide to a sequence of SdrC involved in homophilic interactions. Our study opens up avenues for understanding the role of homophilic interactions in staphylococcal adhesion, and for the design of new molecules to prevent biofilm formation during infection.
Pub.: 23 Mar '17, Pinned: 26 Jul '17
Abstract: Device-associated infections involving biofilm remain a persistent clinical problem. We recently reported that four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains formed biofilm independently of the icaADBC-encoded exopolysaccharide. Here, we report that MRSA biofilm development was promoted under mildly acidic growth conditions triggered by the addition of glucose to the growth medium. Loss of sortase, which anchors LPXTG-containing proteins to peptidoglycan, reduced the MRSA biofilm phenotype. Furthermore introduction of mutations in fnbA and fnbB, which encode the LPXTG-anchored multifunctional fibrinogen and fibronectin-binding proteins, FnBPA and FnBPB, reduced biofilm formation by several MRSA strains. However, these mutations had no effect on biofilm formation by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains. FnBP-promoted biofilm occurred at the level of intercellular accumulation and not primary attachment. Mutation of fnbA or fnbB alone did not substantially affect biofilm, and expression of either gene alone from a complementing plasmid in fnbA fnbB mutants restored biofilm formation. FnBP-promoted biofilm was dependent on the integrity of SarA but not through effects on fnbA or fnbB transcription. Using plasmid constructs lacking regions of FnBPA to complement an fnbAB mutant revealed that the A domain alone and not the domain required for fibronectin binding could promote biofilm. Additionally, an A-domain N304A substitution that abolished fibrinogen binding did not affect biofilm. These data identify a novel S. aureus biofilm phenotype promoted by FnBPA and FnBPB which is apparently independent of the known ligand-binding activities of these multifunctional surface proteins.
Pub.: 01 Apr '08, Pinned: 26 Jul '17
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms are clinically serious and play a critical role in the persistence of chronic infections due to their ability to resist antibiotics. The inhibition of biofilm formation is viewed as a new strategy for the prevention of S. aureus infections. Here, we demonstrated that minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of aloe-emodin exhibited no bactericidal activity against S. aureus but affected S. aureus biofilm development in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies indicated that aloe-emodin specifically inhibits the initial adhesion and proliferation stages of S. aureus biofilm development. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the S. aureus ATCC29213 biofilm extracellular matrix is mainly composed of protein. Laser scanning confocal microscope assays revealed that aloe-emodin treatment primarily inhibited extracellular protein production. Moreover, the Congo red assay showed that aloe-emodin also reduced the accumulation of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) on the cell surface. These findings will provide new insights into the mode of action of aloe-emodin in the treatment of infections by S. aureus biofilms.
Pub.: 16 Jul '17, Pinned: 26 Jul '17
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