A pinboard by
AFM Zakaria

Associate Professor, Shahjalal University of Science & Technology


This paper tries to reveal the level of inclusion of indigenous people in the REDD+ formulation

The REDD+, an extrapolation of economic instruments in solving environmental problems is hoped to be a policy regulatory tools for the future, which will be acceptable to all stakeholders in as much as their interests can be identified and economically align with the environment. Market instruments will not only motivate environmental compliance and sustainability, but will also move environmental issues from the liability to the assets side of a company’s balance sheet. Incentives will propel stakeholders to do better than the law requires through experimentation and innovation, thus fast-tracking the journey to sustainability. Although, Rahman and Miah (2017) show a very positive motivation towards REDD+, which might inspired from the experiences of other SARC countries (Karky and Karki, 2014) but it is evident that the very basic promise (implementation of Free, Prior, and Informed Consent) of this policy is absent in Bangladesh. When I draw the inclusion modalities especially when scrutinize the participation lists of workshop and consultation meetings, I find the presence of ‘who pays and who benefits’, a century old debate, very strongly. Nothing has changed in the nature of selection of representatives, place and organizations to conduct the meetings. My inspection reveals that this new market mechanism brings forest as an object of governance with new managerial perspectives by visibling the nature of homo-economicus with the adoption of FPIC while invisibling the innate nature of forest.


Forest protected areas governance in Zimbabwe: Shift needed away from a long history of local community exclusion.

Abstract: In this literature review based paper we explored the concept of exclusion of local communities from accessing resources in forest protected areas (FPAs) in Zimbabwe. We discussed the colonial and post-colonial forms, causes and mechanisms of exclusion and their social, economic and ecological outcomes. We examined the range of powers embodied in and exercised through various mechanisms, processes and social relations and their impact on local communities' access to FPA resources and associated benefits along the historical trajectory of forest governance in Zimbabwe. Results showed that the forms and extent of exclusion changed over time in tandem with the shifting political and economic landscape. During the colonial period, it was total exclusion whereby people were evicted from forest land as well as being denied access to basic resources for their livelihoods. Local communities' access to low value FPA resources improved during the post-colonial period but access to high value resources like commercial timber as well as sharing income benefits derived from FPA commercial activities remained a pipe dream. Regulation, legitimation, force and markets constituted the mixture of the power elements that FPA governing authorities used to exclude local communities. These powers remained intact despite attempts at collaborative governance in the 1990s. However, from the year 2000, local communities expressed their dissatisfaction with the centralised exclusionary governance system by invading the FPAs rendering them ungovernable. There is therefore a need for policy reform within the FPA sector to improve the current dire situation.

Pub.: 12 May '17, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Top-down, Bottom-up and Sideways: The Multilayered Complexities of Multi-level Actors Shaping Forest Governance and REDD+ Arrangements in Madre de Dios, Peru

Abstract: This study examines the role multilevel governance plays in the adoption of sustainable landscape management initiatives in emerging arrangements aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). It sheds light on the challenges these multiple layers of actors and interests encounter around such alternatives in a subnational jurisdiction. Through transcript analysis of 93 interviews with institutional actors in the region of Madre de Dios, Peru, particularly with regard to five sites of land-use change, we identified the multiple actors who are included and excluded in the decision-making process and uncovered their complex interactions in forest and landscape governance and REDD+ arrangements. Madre de Dios is a useful case for studying complex land-use dynamics, as it is home to multiple natural resources, a large mix of actors and interests, and a regional government that has recently experienced the reverberations of decentralization. Findings indicate that multiple actors shaped REDD+ to some extent, but REDD+ and its advocates were unable to shape land-use dynamics or landscape governance, at least in the short term. In the absence of strong and effective regional regulation for sustainable land use alternatives and the high value of gold on the international market, illegal gold mining proved to be a more profitable land-use choice. Although REDD+ created a new space for multilevel actor interaction and communication and new alliances to emerge, the study questions the prevailing REDD+ discourse suggesting that better coordination and cooperation will lead to integrated landscape solutions. For REDD+ to be able to play a role in integrated landscape governance, greater attention needs to be paid to grassroots actors, power and authority over territory and underlying interests and incentives for land-use change.

Pub.: 03 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18