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This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of ANC visit(s) against malaria infection at parturition

The detrimental effect of malaria during and/or after pregnancy cannot be over emphasized, and lot of efforts had been put in place in order to reduce its scourge. Antenatal Care (ANC) is a major tool in improving maternal and foetal health. This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of ANC visit(s) against placental malaria infection at parturition with respect to ANC clinic attendance and Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT) uptake among parturients who seek delivery services in two secondary health facilities in Abeokuta. Blood samples from maternal and placenta were collected from 211 parturients. Blood films were prepared, stained with 10% giemsa staining technique and observed for malaria parasites under the microscope. Relevant maternal demographic characteristics were obtained from the parturients and Chi-square tests were conducted to measure relationships using SPSS version 16.0. Generally, a high turnout of ANC attendance (97.2%) was recorded among the parturients seeking delivery in Abeokuta Nigeria. However, about 60% of the respondent’s made above 3 ANC visits. Maternal age was a significant factor (p<0.05) affecting booking timing (early or late) and number of ANC visits made by the parturients. Furthermore, Late attendance as well as attending <4 ANC clinics are associated (p<0.05) with incomplete doses of IPT which in turn increases susceptibility to Pregnancy associated malaria in Abeokuta Ogun State. None usage of IPT, late ANC booking and receiving first dose of IPT towards the end or after second trimester are significant factors (p<0.05) associated with Pregnancy associated malaria. The full benefit of attached with ANC services could not be utilized as a result of late and inconsistent attendance practiced by the parturients during pregnancy and this could result in poor outcomes.


Uptake of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a cross-sectional study in Geita district, North-Western Tanzania.

Abstract: Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). For this reason, the World Health Organization currently recommends intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at each scheduled antenatal care (ANC) visit. In Tanzania, the revised IPTp policy was adopted in 2013 but the level of uptake and its association with pregnancy outcomes remains unknown.A cross-sectional study was conducted among singleton pregnant women who delivered in two selected health facilities of Geita district, northwestern Tanzania. Self-reported uptake of SP was verified using the ANC card and was recorded. Placental and peripheral blood was collected for diagnosis of malaria by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Gestational age was estimated based on last menstrual period or Ballard score. Infant birth weights were recorded within 24 hours of delivery.Of 431 participants, 167 (38.75%), 134 (31.09%), 104 (24.23%), and 26 (6.03%) reported taking none, one, two, and ≥ three doses of SP during pregnancy, respectively. The uptake of ≥ three doses of IPTp-SP among delivering women at Geita hospital and Katoro health centre was 9.06% and 1.2%, respectively. The overall prevalence of malaria in pregnancy by RDT, peripheral and placental smears was 19.5%, 29.7% and 37.6% respectively. The prevalence of placental parasitaemia was higher for women who delivered at Katoro Health Centre (41.57%) than those who delivered at Geita hospital (35.09%). The uptake of ≥ three doses of SP was associated with reduced odds of having placental malaria (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.31, p = 0.039) compared to < three doses. Women with placental parasitaemia were five times more likely to have delivered pre-term (AOR = 4.67, p = 0.002) and had lower mean birth weight infants than their uninfected counterparts (mean difference = 82 g, p = 0.039).The uptake of ≥ three doses of IPTp-SP is low in the present study area. Placental parasitaemia is prevalent and is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Receipt of ≥ three doses of IPTp-SP reduced the odds of placental parasitaemia. Thus, increased efforts towards scale-up and continuous evaluation of IPTp-SP efficacy is recommended.

Pub.: 26 Nov '14, Pinned: 20 Jul '17

Predictors for uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Tanzania.

Abstract: Tanzania adopted Intermittent-preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) policy in 2000; the guidelines at the time of the study recommended the timing of the first dose of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (IPTp-SP) at 20-24 weeks and the timing of the second dose at 28-32 weeks. The aim of this study was to identify factors that are responsible for the uptake of IPTp among pregnant Tanzanian women. Further, this study aims to justify the need for appropriate interventions that would strengthen the Tanzanian IPTp program towards the realization of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) targets.Data were analyzed from the 2011-2012 Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicators Survey (THMIS) of 1,616 women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth in the 2 years prior to the survey and received antenatal care (ANC) services.Logistic regression analysis results showed that (1) being in the age groups 30-34 and 35-39 versus other age groups and being married or living with partner versus those who reported as never married or divorced/separated were associated with high uptake of IPTp; (2) women pregnant with their first or second child versus those who already have had two or more children had higher odds of completing the recommended number of IPTp dosage; and (3) being a resident from the Eastern Zone versus Lake Zone as well as having the first antenatal visit in the first or second trimester versus third trimester were associated with higher uptake of IPTp.Applying these results could contribute to positive social change by helping providers, clinics, and organizations seeking to increase IPTp uptake among ANC attendees and providing health education programs to women, especially those residing in rural areas. This study could also help achieve United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 6 (combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases).

Pub.: 08 Jun '15, Pinned: 20 Jul '17

Effectiveness of the delivery of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in Kenya.

Abstract: Coverage with malaria in pregnancy interventions remains unacceptably low. Implementation research is needed to identify and quantify the bottlenecks for the delivery and use of these life-saving interventions through antenatal clinics (ANC).A cross-sectional study was carried out in ANC across nine health facilities in western Kenya. Data were collected for an individual ANC visit through structured observations and exit interviews with the same ANC clients. The cumulative and intermediate systems effectiveness for the delivery of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to eligible pregnant women on this one specific visit to ANC were estimated.Overall the ANC systems effectiveness for delivering malaria in pregnancy interventions was suboptimal. Only 40 and 53 % of eligible women received IPTp by directly observed therapy as per policy in hospitals and health centres/dispensaries respectively. The overall systems effectiveness for the receipt of IPTp disregarding directly observed therapy was 62 and 72 % for hospitals and lower level health facilities, respectively. The overall systems effectiveness for ITNs for first ANC visit was 63 and 67 % for hospitals and lower level facilities, respectively.This study found that delivery of IPTp and ITNs through ANC was ineffective and more so for higher-level facilities. This illustrates missed opportunities and provider level bottlenecks to the scale up and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy delivered through ANC. The high level of clustering within health facilities suggest that future studies should assess the feasibility of implementing interventions to improve systems effectiveness tailored to the health facility level.

Pub.: 20 Apr '16, Pinned: 20 Jul '17

Factors influencing dropout rate of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy.

Abstract: The burden of malaria in terms of morbidity and mortality is huge is Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pregnant women. Among the measures to curb down this burden include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and effective case management. These strategies were adopted by Ghana and implemented since 2003; however, there is still high dropout rate in IPT coverage. This study sought to investigate factors contributing to high dropout rate between IPT1 and IPT3 in the Tamale Metropolis, one of the health facilities with the highest IPT dropout rates in Ghana.Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among pregnant women, antenatal care (ANC) health workers and heads of health facilities to investigate factors which account for dropout rate of intermittent treatment of malaria.Shortage of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), inadequate supply of portable water for administration of SP, unavailability of IPT during outreach services, lack of knowledge by ANC staff about the dropout rate in their area of jurisdiction and poor attitude of some health workers were identified as barriers to achieving high IPT3 coverage.Late ANC visit, provider and logistical barriers account for the women's missed opportunities to prevent malaria in pregnancy through IPT. Addressing the above barriers will contribute to saving lives and ensuring progress towards the goal of combating malaria as well as reducing maternal, neonatal and child mortalities.

Pub.: 12 Oct '16, Pinned: 20 Jul '17

Effect of IPTp on Plasmodium falciparum antibody levels among pregnant women and their babies in a sub-urban coastal area in Ghana.

Abstract: Women exposed to Plasmodium infection develop antibodies and become semi-immune. This immunity is suppressed during pregnancy making both the pregnant woman and the foetus vulnerable to the adverse effects of malaria, particularly by Plasmodium falciparum. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) tablets is one of the current interventions to mitigate the effects of malaria on both the pregnant woman and the unborn child. The extent to which IPTp may interfere with the acquisition of protective immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is undefined in Ghana.Three-hundred-and-twenty pregnant women were randomly enrolled at the antenatal clinic (ANC) in Madina, Accra. Venous blood samples were obtained at first ANC registration and at 4-week intervals (post-IPTp administration). Placental and cord blood samples were obtained at delivery and the infants were followed monthly for 6 months after birth. Anti-IgG and IgM antibodies against a crude antigen preparation and the glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) of P. falciparum were quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).There was a general decline in the trend of mean concentrations of all the antibodies from enrolment to delivery. The levels of antibodies in cord blood and placenta were well correlated. Children did not show clinical signs of malaria at 6 months after birth.IgG against both crude antigen and GLURP were present in placenta and cord blood and it is therefore concluded that there is a trend of declining antibody from enrolment to delivery and IPTp-SP may have reduced malaria exposure, however, this does not impact on the transfer of antibodies to the foetus in utero. The levels of maternal and cord blood antibodies at delivery showed no adverse implications on malaria among the children at 6 months. However, the quantum and quality of the antibody transferred needs further investigation to ensure that the infants are protected from severe episodes of malaria.

Pub.: 28 May '17, Pinned: 20 Jul '17