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This board is owned by Matt Holland, NWAS LKS, Librarian. Contact Matt.Holland@nwas.nhs.uk


Hosts recent articles from research based journals. Pinboard started in September 2016.


The Association of Prehospital Intravenous Fluids and Mortality in Patients with Penetrating Trauma.

Abstract: The optimal approach to prehospital care of trauma patients is controversial, and thought to require balancing advanced field interventions with rapid transport to definitive care. We sought principally to examine any association between the amount of prehospital IV fluid (IVF) administered and mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of trauma registry data patients who sustained penetrating trauma between January 2008 and February 2011, as identified in the Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation registry with corresponding prehospital records from the Philadelphia Fire Department. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models and instrumental variable analysis, adjusted for injury severity using scene vital signs before the intervention was delivered. There were 1966 patients identified. Overall mortality was 22.60%. Approximately two-thirds received fluids and one-third did not. Both cohorts had similar Trauma and Injury Severity Score-predicted mortality. Mortality was similar in those who received IVF (23.43%) and those who did not (21.30%) (p = 0.212). Patients who received IVF had longer mean scene times (10.82 min) than those who did not (9.18 min) (p < 0.0001), although call times were similar in those who received IVF (24.14 min) and those who did not (23.83 min) (p = 0.637). Adjusted analysis of 1722 patients demonstrated no benefit or harm associated with prehospital fluid (odds ratio [OR] 0.905, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.75). Instrumental variable analysis utilizing variations in use of IVF across different Emergency Medical Services (EMS) units also found no association between the unit's percentage of patients that were provided fluids and mortality (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.08). We found no significant difference in mortality or EMS call time between patients who did or did not receive prehospital IVF after penetrating trauma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Pub.: 05 Mar '18, Pinned: 06 Mar '18

Management of Multi-Casualty Incidents in Mountain Rescue: Evidence-Based Guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM).

Abstract: Blancher, Marc, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R. Wheeler III, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, and Peter Paal. Management of multi-casualty incidents in mountain rescue. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.Multi-Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur in mountain areas. Little is known about the incidence and character of such events, and the kind of rescue response. Therefore, the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM) set out to provide recommendations for the management of MCI in mountain areas.Details of MCI occurring in mountain areas related to mountaineering activities and involving organized mountain rescue were collected. A literature search using (1) PubMed, (2) national mountain rescue registries, and (3) lay press articles on the internet was performed. The results were analyzed with respect to specific aspects of mountain rescue.We identified 198 MCIs that have occurred in mountain areas since 1956: 137 avalanches, 38 ski lift accidents, and 23 other events, including lightning injuries, landslides, volcanic eruptions, lost groups of people, and water-related accidents.General knowledge on MCI management is required. Due to specific aspects of triage and management, the approach to MCIs may differ between those in mountain areas and those in urban settings.Mountain rescue teams should be prepared to manage MCIs. Knowledge should be reviewed and training performed regularly. Cooperation between terrestrial rescue services, avalanche safety authorities, and helicopter crews is critical to successful management of MCIs in mountain areas.

Pub.: 16 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Effectiveness of prehospital trauma triage systems in selecting severely injured patients: Is comparative analysis possible?

Abstract: In an optimal trauma system, prehospital trauma triage ensures transport of the right patient to the right hospital. Incorrect triage results in undertriage and overtriage. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate and compare prehospital trauma triage system quality worldwide and determine effectiveness in terms of undertriage and overtriage for trauma patients.A systematic search of Pubmed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was performed, using "trauma", "trauma center," or "trauma system", combined with "triage", "undertriage," or "overtriage", as search terms. All studies describing ground transport and actual destination hospital of patients with and without severe injuries, using prehospital triage, published before November 2017, were eligible for inclusion. To assess the quality of these studies, a critical appraisal tool was developed.A total of 33 articles were included. The percentage of undertriage ranged from 1% to 68%; overtriage from 5% to 99%. Older age and increased geographical distance were associated with undertriage. Mortality was lower for severely injured patients transferred to a higher-level trauma center. The majority of the included studies were of poor methodological quality. The studies of good quality showed poor performance of the triage protocol, but additional value of EMS provider judgment in the identification of severely injured patients.In most of the evaluated trauma systems, a substantial part of the severely injured patients is not transported to the appropriate level trauma center. Future research should come up with new innovative ways to improve the quality of prehospital triage in trauma patients.

Pub.: 06 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Developing prehospital clinical practice guidelines for resource limited settings: why re-invent the wheel?

Abstract: Methods on developing new (de novo) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have received substantial attention. However, the volume of literature is not matched by research into alternative methods of CPG development using existing CPG documents—a specific issue for guideline development groups in low- and middle-income countries. We report on how we developed a context specific prehospital CPG using an alternative guideline development method. Difficulties experienced and lessons learnt in applying existing global guidelines’ recommendations to a national context are highlighted.The project produced the first emergency care CPG for prehospital providers in Africa. It included > 270 CPGs and produced over 1000 recommendations for prehospital emergency care. We encountered various difficulties, including (1) applicability issues: few pre-hospital CPGs applicable to Africa, (2) evidence synthesis: heterogeneous levels of evidence classifications and (3) guideline quality. Learning points included (1) focusing on key CPGs and evidence mapping, (2) searching other resources for CPGs, (3) broad representation on CPG advisory boards and (4) transparency and knowledge translation. Re-inventing the wheel to produce CPGs is not always feasible. We hope this paper will encourage further projects to use existing CPGs in developing guidance to improve patient care in resource-limited settings.

Pub.: 05 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Perceptions and experiences of community first responders on their role and relationships: qualitative interview study

Abstract: Community First Responders (CFRs) are lay volunteers who respond to medical emergencies. We aimed to explore perceptions and experiences of CFRs in one scheme about their role.We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of CFRs during June and July 2016 in a predominantly rural UK county. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Framework method, supported by NVivo 10.We interviewed four female and 12 male adult CFRs aged 18–65+ years with different levels of expertise and tenures. Five main themes were identified: motivation and ongoing commitment; learning to be a CFR; the reality of being a CFR; relationships with statutory ambulance services and the public; and the way forward for CFRs and the scheme. Participants became CFRs mainly for altruistic reasons, to help others and put something back into their community, which contributed to personal satisfaction and helped maintain their involvement over time. CFRs valued scenario-based training and while some were keen to access additional training to enable them to attend a greater variety of incidents, others stressed the importance of maintaining existing abilities and improving their communication skills. They were often first on scene, which they recognised could take an emotional toll but for which they found informal support mechanisms helpful. Participants felt a lack of public recognition and sometimes were undervalued by ambulance staff, which they thought arose from a lack of clarity over their purpose and responsibilities. Although CFRs perceived their role to be changing, some were fearful of extending the scope of their responsibilities. They welcomed support for volunteers, greater publicity and help with fundraising to enable schemes to remain charities, while complementing the role of ambulance services.CFR schemes should consider the varying training, development and support needs of staff. CFRs wanted schemes to be complementary but distinct from ambulance services. Further information on outcomes and costs of the CFR contribution to prehospital care is needed.Our findings provide insight into the experiences of CFRs, which can inform how the role might be better supported. Because CFR schemes are voluntary and serve defined localities, decisions about levels of training, priority areas and targets should be locally driven. Further research is required on the effectiveness, outcomes, and costs of CFR schemes and a wider understanding of stakeholder perceptions of CFR and CFR schemes is also needed.

Pub.: 05 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

[Miscommunication as a risk focus in patient safety : Work process analysis in prehospital emergency care].

Abstract: In an analysis of a critical incident reporting system (CIRS) in out-of-hospital emergency medicine, it was demonstrated that in 30% of cases deficient communication led to a threat to patients; however, the analysis did not show what exactly the most dangerous work processes are. Current research shows the impact of poor communication on patient safety.An out-of-hospital workflow analysis collects data about key work processes and risk areas. The analysis points out confounding factors for a sufficient communication. Almost 70% of critical incidents are based on human factors. Factors, such as communication and teamwork have an impact but fatigue, noise levels and illness also have a major influence.(I) CIRS database analysis The workflow analysis was based on 247 CIRS cases. This was completed by participant observation and interviews with emergency doctors and paramedics. The 247 CIRS cases displayed 282 communication incidents, which are categorized into 6 subcategories of miscommunication. One CIRS case can be classified into different categories if more communication incidents were validated by the reviewers and four experienced emergency physicians sorted these cases into six subcategories. (II) Workflow analysis The workflow analysis was carried out between 2015 and 2016 in Jena and Berlin, Germany. The focal point of research was to find accumulation of communication risks in different parts of prehospital patient care. During 30 h driving with emergency ambulances, the author interviewed 12 members of the emergency medical service of which 5 were emergency physicians and 7 paramedics. A total of 11 internal medicine cases and one automobile accident were monitored. After patient care the author asked in a 15-min interview if miscommunication or communication incidents occurred.(I) CIRS analysis Between 2005 and 2015, 845 reports were reported to the database. The experts identified 247 incident reports with communication failure. All communication aspects were analyzed and classified. We identified 282 communication incidents. (II) Workflow analysis The analysis showed three phases of prehospital patient care: 1. incoming emergency call and dispatch of ambulance service, 2. prehospital treatment, 3. transportation to a hospital. Overall, the number of incidences is increasing as a consequence of parallel workflows. Category 1 was particularly significant and predominantly, paramedics criticized that emergency physicians did not acknowledge their advice (n = 73 vs. n = 9). Category 3 with n = 63, category 4 with n = 20 and category 2 with n = 13 were the major reasons for incidents.A better interface communication helps to coordinate patient transfer and is an option for optimizing resources. Frequent training in communication is an option to avoid incidents.

Pub.: 07 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Trends and predictors of prehospital delay in patients undergoing primary coronary intervention.

Abstract: Delay in seeking medical care following symptom onset in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is related to increased morbidity and mortality. Actual trends of prehospital delays in patients hospitalized with STEMI have not been well characterized. We evaluated trends in the length of time that had elapsed from symptom onset to hospital presentation among STEMI patients admitted to our hospital.We retrospectively studied 2203 consecutive patients hospitalized for acute STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between January 2008 and December 2016. Information on the delay in time from symptom onset to presentation at hospital was extracted from the patients' medical records.Over the 9-year study period, the median duration of prehospital delay for patients undergoing primary PCI showed significant variations, being maximal between the years 2013 and 2014 (150 vs. 90 min, respectively, P<0.001). A significant increase was found in the proportion of patients with prehospital delay less than 2 h, being maximal between the years 2011 and 2013 (64 vs. 47%, P=0.001). An opposite trend was found for decrease in patients with prehospital delay more than 6 h, being maximal between 2008 and 2015 (32 vs. 23%, P=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression model showed that older age, diabetes, female sex, and first STEMI were associated independently with prehospital delay more than 2 h.Prehospital delay periods for patients undergoing primary PCI showed variations over time. More efforts are needed to educate at-risk populations about seeking early medical assistance.

Pub.: 07 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Title: Impact of the Direct Transfer to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention-Capable Hospitals on Survival to Hospital Discharge for Patients with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Abstract: Patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are frequently transported to the closest hospital. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is often indicated following OHCA. This study's primary objective was to determine the association between being transported to a PCI-capable hospital and survival to discharge for patients with OHCA. The additional delay to hospital arrival which could offset a potential increase in survival associated with being transported to a PCI-capable center was also evaluated.This study used a registry of OHCA in Montreal, Canada. Adult patients transported to a hospital following a non-traumatic OHCA were included. Hospitals were dichotomized based on whether PCI was available on-site or not. The effect of hospital type on survival to discharge was assessed using a multivariable logistic regression. The added prehospital delay which could offset the increase in survival associated with being transported to a PCI-capable center was calculated using that regression.A total of 4922 patients were included, of whom 2389 (48%) were transported to a PCI-capable hospital and 2533 (52%) to a non-PCI-capable hospital. There was an association between being transported to a PCI-capable center and survival to discharge (adjusted odds ratio = 1.60 [95% confidence interval 1.25-2.05], p < 0.001). Increasing the delay from call to hospital arrival by 14.0 minutes would offset the potential benefit of being transported to a PCI-capable center.It could be advantageous to redirect patients suffering from OHCA patients to PCI-capable centers if the resulting expected delay is of less than 14 minutes.

Pub.: 07 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Delayed Sequence Intubation by Intensive Care Flight Paramedics in Victoria, Australia.

Abstract: Delayed sequence intubation (DSI) involves the administration of ketamine to facilitate adequate preoxygenation in the agitated patient. DSI was introduced into the Clinical Practice Guideline for Intensive Care Flight Paramedics in Victoria in late 2013. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients receiving DSI.A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patients who received DSI between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, during both primary response and retrieval missions. Patients' clinical characteristics, DSI success rates, and complications were determined from electronic patient care records.Forty patients received DSI during the study period. Of these, 32 were intubated to manage traumatic injury and the remaining 8 were intubated for medical reasons. On arrival of the first road ambulance, median oxygen saturation was 96.5%, and immediately prior to DSI the median was 98.0%. One patient had a period of self-limiting apnea (< 15 seconds) following ketamine administration. Oxygen saturation was either maintained or increased prior to laryngoscopy in all patients. Post-intubation, one patient experienced bradycardia (heart rate < 60 beats per minute), two patients had a systolic blood pressure drop of > 20 mm Hg, one patient experienced an increase in heart rate of > 20 beats per minute, and two patients had transient oxygen desaturation (< 85%). No patients experienced cardiac arrest or required surgical airway intervention. All patients were successfully intubated. After DSI, the median oxygen saturation was 100%.DSI provides a reasonably safe and effective approach for intensive care flight paramedics in the preoxygenation of agitated, hypoxic patients in order to decrease the risk of peri-intubation desaturation and related hypoxic injury.

Pub.: 07 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Trends in care processes and survival following prehospital resuscitation improvement initiatives for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in British Columbia, 2006-2016.

Abstract: British Columbia (BC) Emergency Health Services implemented a strategy to improve outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), focusing on paramedic-led high-quality on-scene resuscitation. We measured changes in care metrics and survival trends.This was a post-hoc study of prospectively identified consecutive non-traumatic ambulance-treated adult OHCAs from 2006 to 2016 within BC's four metropolitan areas. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge; we described available favourable neurological outcomes (mRS ≤3). We tested the significance of year-by-year trends in baseline characteristics, and calculated risk-adjusted survival rates using multivariable Poisson regression.We included 15 145 patients. In univariate analyses there were significant increases in bystander CPR, chest compression fraction, advanced life support attendance, duration of resuscitation until advanced airway placement, duration of resuscitation until termination, and overall scene time. There was a significant decrease in initial shockable rhythms, bystander witnessed arrests, and transports initiated prior to ROSC. Survival and the proportion of survivors with favourable neurological outcomes increased significantly. In adjusted analyses, there was an improvement in return of spontaneous circulation (risk-adjusted rate 41% in 2006 to 51% in 2016; adjusted rate ratio per year 1.02, 95%CI 1.01-1.02, p < 0.01 for trend) and survival at hospital discharge (risk-adjusted rate 8.6% in 2006 to 16% in 2016; adjusted rate ratio per year 1.05, 95%CI 1.04-1.06, p < 0.01 for trend).From 2006 to 2016 BC's provincial ambulance system prioritized paramedic-led on-scene resuscitation, during which time there were significant improvements in patient outcomes. Our data may assist other systems, providing a model for prehospital resuscitation quality improvement.

Pub.: 07 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

New Immobilization Guidelines Change EMS Critical Thinking in Older Adults With Spine Trauma.

Abstract: The impact of immobilization techniques on older adult trauma patients with spinal injury has rarely been studied. Our advisory group implemented a change in the immobilization protocol used by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals across a region encompassing 9 trauma centers and 24 EMS agencies in a Rocky Mountain state using a decentralized process on July 1, 2014. We sought to determine whether implementing the protocol would alter immobilization methods and affect patient outcomes among adults ≥60 years with a cervical spine injury.This was a 4-year retrospective study of patients ≥60 years with a cervical spine injury (fracture or cord). Immobilization techniques used by EMS professionals, patient demographics, injury characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes were compared before (1/1/12-6/30/14) and after (7/1/14-12/31/15) implementation of the Spinal Precautions Protocol using bivariate and multivariate analyses.Of 15,063 adult trauma patients admitted to nine trauma centers, 7,737 (51%) were ≥60 years. Of those, 237 patients had cervical spine injury and were included in the study; 123 (51.9%) and 114 (48.1%) were transported before and after protocol implementation, respectively. There was a significant shift in the immobilization methods used after protocol implementation, with less full immobilization (59.4% to 28.1%, p < 0.001) and an increase in the use of both a cervical collar only (8.9% to 27.2%, p < 0.001) and not using any immobilization device (15.5% to 31.6%, p = 0.003) after protocol implementation. While the proportion of patients who only received a cervical collar increased after implementing the Spinal Precautions Protocol, the overall proportion of patients who received a cervical collar alone or in combination with other immobilization techniques decreased (72.4% to 56.1%, p = 0.01). The presence of a neurological deficit (6.5% vs. 5.3, p = 0.69) was similar before and after protocol implementation; in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.24-1.30, p = 0.18) was similar post-protocol implementation after adjusting for injury severity.There were no differences in neurologic deficit or patient disposition in the older adult patient with cervical spine trauma despite changes in spinal restriction protocols and resulting differences in immobilization devices.

Pub.: 07 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

The pediatric resuscitative thoracotomy during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan - A retrospective cohort study.

Abstract: Combat zone trauma poses a unique set of challenges and injury patterns not seen in the civilian setting. The role of the pediatric resuscitative thoracotomy in combat zones remains unclear given a paucity of data regarding procedure outcomes in this setting. We compare outcomes among children in traumatic arrest undergoing resuscitative thoracotomy versus cardiopulmonary (CPR) resuscitation only.We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) from 2007 to 2016 for all pediatric subjects that underwent a resuscitative thoracotomy or CPR in the prehospital or emergency department setting during operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. We removed CPR subjects with mechanisms of injury not matched in the thoracotomy cohort.During the study period, there were 3439 pediatric encounters. We identified 13 subjects who underwent a resuscitative thoracotomy and 66 subjects who underwent CPR without thoracotomy with matching mechanisms of injury. When comparing the two cohorts those in the thoracotomy group had higher median thorax body region scores (median 3 versus 0, p = .001), but a trend towards higher rates of survival to discharge (31% versus 9%, p = .108). The youngest survivor in the thoracotomy cohort was less than 1 year old.We observed a trend towards higher survival among subjects that underwent a resuscitative thoracotomy survived to hospital discharge compared to subjects undergoing CPR without thoracotomy. The literature will benefit from further data to confirm an association between this procedure and a survival benefit among pediatric subjects in the resource limited setting. Furthermore, improvements in documentation will guide equipping and training providers expected to care for pediatric trauma patients.

Pub.: 08 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Acute Crisis Care for Patients with Mental Health Crises: Initial Assessment of an Innovative Prehospital Alternative Destination Program in North Carolina.

Abstract: Emergency Departments (ED) are overburdened with patients experiencing acute mental health crises. Pre-hospital transport by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to community mental health and substance abuse treatment facilities could reduce ED utilization and costs. Our objective was to describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of acute mental health crises patients who were transported by EMS to an acute crisis unit at WakeBrook, a North Carolina community mental health center.We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients diverted to WakeBrook by EMS from August 2013-July 2014. We abstracted data from WakeBrook medical records and used descriptive statistics to quantify patient characteristics, diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), and 30-day recidivism.A total of 226 EMS patients were triaged at WakeBrook. The median age was 38 years, 55% were male, 58% were white, and 38% were uninsured. The most common chief complaints were suicidal ideation or self-harm (46%) and substance abuse (19%). The most common diagnoses were substance-related and addictive disorders (42%), depressive disorders (32%), and schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders (22%). Following initial evaluation, 28% of patients were admitted to facilities within WakeBrook, 40% were admitted to external psychiatric facilities, 18% were stabilized and discharged home, 5% were transferred to an ED within 4 hours for further medical evaluation, and 5% refused services. The median LOS at WakeBrook prior to disposition was 12.0 hours (IQR 5.4-21.6). Over a 30-day follow-up period, 60 patients (27%) had a return visit to the ED or WakeBrook for a mental health issue.A dedicated community mental health center is able to treat patients experiencing acute mental health crises. LOS times were significantly shorter compared to regional EDs. Successful broader programmatic implementation could improve care quality and significantly reduce the volume of patients treated in the ED for acute mental health disorders.

Pub.: 08 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Prehospital Analgesia for Pediatric Trauma Patients in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Abstract: Previous studies have evaluated prehospital analgesia during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, but were limited to the adult population. However, a significant portion of the casualties of those conflicts were children. We describe the prehospital analgesia administered to wartime pediatric trauma patients.We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric patients (<18 years of age) admitted to United States and Coalition fixed-facility hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016. We divided pediatric patients into 2 groups: those that had documentation of receipt of analgesic drugs in the prehospital setting (n = 618) and those who had not received analgesia before reaching a fixed-facility (n = 2,821). For characterization of drug administration, we grouped patients into those receiving acetaminophen, NSAID, fentanyl, ketamine, morphine, or other analgesics (e.g., hydromorphone, tramadol, etc.).During the study period, there were 3,439 pediatric encounters with documentation of 703 instances of analgesia administrations to 618 patients (17.9% of total pediatric encounters). Of the subjects receiving analgesic agents, 46.2% (n = 325) received morphine, 30.4% (n = 214) received fentanyl, 17.4% (n = 122) received ketamine, 1.8% (n = 13) received acetaminophen, and 2.8% (n = 20) received a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The remaining 9 administrations consisted of methoxyflourane (1), nalbuphine (2), hydromorphone (3), and tramadol (3). An injury severity score (ISS) >15 increased the odds of receiving an analgesic agent (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.56). Additionally, there was an association between analgesia administration and the following prehospital interventions: wound dressing, tourniquet, intravenous (IV) line placement, intraosseous line placement, IV fluids, intubation, and external warming.Overall, a low proportion of pediatric trauma subjects within this population received analgesia in the prehospital environment. The most common analgesic medication administered was morphine. Those receiving analgesic agents had more severe injuries and higher rates of concomitant interventions. These results highlight the potential need for Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines specifically providing recommendations for analgesia administration among pediatric patients.

Pub.: 08 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Epidemiology and outcome of paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: A paediatric sub-study of the Pan-Asian resuscitation outcomes study (PAROS).

Abstract: The Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) is a retrospective study of out- of-hospital cardiac arrest(OHCA), collaborating with EMS agencies and academic centers in Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and UAE-Dubai. The objectives of this study is to describe the characteristics and outcomes, and to find factors associated with survival after paediatric OHCA.We studied all children less than 17 years of age with OHCA conveyed by EMS and non-EMS transports from January 2009 to December 2012. We did univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the factors associated with survival-to-discharge outcomes.A total of 974 children with OHCA were included. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates ranged from 53.5% (Korea), 35.6% (Singapore) to 11.8% (UAE). Overall, 8.6% (range 0%-9.7%) of the children survived to discharge from hospital. Adolescents (13-17 years) had the highest survival rate of 13.8%. 3.7% of the children survived with good neurological outcomes of CPC 1 or 2. The independent pre-hospital factors associated with survival to discharge were witnessed arrest and initial shockable rhythm. In the sub-group analysis, pre-hospital advanced airway [odds ratio (OR) = 3.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-9.13] was positively associated with survival-to-discharge outcomes in children less than 13 years-old. Among adolescents, bystander CPR (OR = 2.74, 95%CI = 1.03-7.3) and initial shockable rhythm (OR = 20.51, 95%CI = 2.15-195.7) were positive factors.The wide variation in the survival outcomes amongst the seven countries in our study may be due to the differences in the delivery of pre-hospital interventions and bystander CPR rates.

Pub.: 09 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Meta-evaluation of published studies on evaluation of health disaster preparedness exercises through a systematic review.

Abstract: Exercise evaluation is one of the most important steps and sometimes neglected in designing and taking exercises, in this stage of exercise, it systematically identifying, gathering, and interpreting related information to indicate how an exercise has fulfilled its objectives. The present study aimed to assess the most important evaluation techniques applied in evaluating health exercises for emergencies and disasters.This was meta-evaluation study through a systematic review. In this research, we searched papers based on specific and relevant keywords in research databases including ISI web of science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Wiley, Google Scholar, and Persian database such as ISC and SID. The search keywords and strategies are followed; "simulation," "practice," "drill," "exercise," "instrument," "tool," "questionnaire," " measurement," "checklist," "scale," "test," "inventory," "battery," "evaluation," "assessment," "appraisal," "emergency," "disaster," "cricise," "hazard," "catastrophe,: "hospital", "prehospital," "health centers," "treatment centers," were used in combination with Boolean operators OR and AND.The research findings indicate that there are different techniques and methods for data collection to evaluate performance exercises of health centers and affiliated organizations in disasters and emergencies including debriefing inventories, self-report, questionnaire, interview, observation, shooting video, and photographing, electronic equipment which can be individually or collectively used depending on exercise objectives or purposes.Taking exercise in the health sector is one of the important steps in preparation and implementation of disaster risk management programs. This study can be thus utilized to improve preparedness of different sectors of health system according to the latest available evaluation techniques and methods for better implementation of disaster exercise evaluation stages.

Pub.: 09 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Prediction of massive bleeding in a prehospital setting: validation of six scoring systems.

Abstract: To validate the diagnostic ability of six different scores to predict massive bleeding in a prehospital setting.Retrospective cohort.Prehospital attention of patients with severe trauma.Subjects with more than 15 years, a history of severe trauma (defined by code 15 criteria), that were initially assisted in a prehospital setting by the emergency services between January 2010 and December 2015 and were then transferred to a level one trauma center in Madrid.To validate: 1. Trauma Associated Severe Haemorrhage Score. 2. Assessment of Blood Consumption Score. 3. Emergency Transfusión Score. 4. Índice de Shock. 5. Prince of Wales Hospital/Rainer Score. 6. Larson Score.548 subjects were studied, 76,8% (420) were male, median age was 38 (interquartile range [IQR]: 27-50). Injury Severity Score was 18 (IQR: 9-29). Blunt trauma represented 82,5% (452) of the cases. Overall, frequency of MB was 9,2% (48), median intensive care unit admission days was 2,1 (IQR: 0,8 - 6,2) and hospital mortality rate was 11,2% (59). Emergency Transfusión Score had the highest precisions (AUC 0,85), followed by Trauma Associated Severe Haemorrhage score and Prince of Wales Hospital/Rainer Score (AUC 0,82); Assessment of Blood Consumption Score was the less precise (AUC 0,68).In the prehospital setting the application of any the six scoring systems predicts the presence of massive hemorrhage and allows the activation of massive transfusion protocols while the patient is transferred to a hospital.

Pub.: 09 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Associations of Distance to Trauma Care, Community Income, and Neighborhood Median Age With Rates of Injury Mortality.

Abstract: Rural, low-income, and historically underrepresented minority communities face substantial barriers to trauma care and experience high injury incidence and mortality rates. Characteristics of injury incident locations may contribute to poor injury outcomes.To examine the association of injury scene characteristics with injury mortality.In this cross-sectional study, data from trauma center and emergency medical services provided by emergency medical services companies and designated trauma centers in the state of Maryland from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, were geocoded by injury incident locations and linked with injury scene characteristics. Participants included adults who experienced traumatic injury in Maryland and were transported to a designated trauma center or died while in emergency medical services care at the incident scene or in transit.The primary exposures of interest were geographic characteristics of injury incident locations, including distance to the nearest trauma center, designation level and ownership status of the nearest trauma center, and land use, as well as community-level characteristics such as median age and per capita income.Odds of death were estimated with multilevel logistic regression, controlling for individual demographic measures and measures of injury and health.Of the 16 082 patients included in this study, 8716 (52.4%) were white, and 5838 (36.3%) were African American. Most patients were male (10 582; 65.8%) and younger than 65 years (12 383; 77.0%). Odds of death increased by 8.0% for every 5-mile increase in distance to the nearest trauma center (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15; P = .03). Compared with privately owned level 1 or 2 centers, odds of death increased by 49.9% when the nearest trauma center was level 3 (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06-2.11; P = .02), and by 80.7% when the nearest trauma center was publicly owned (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.39-2.34; P < .001). At the zip code tabulation area level, odds of death increased by 16.0% for every 5-year increase in median age (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30; P = .02), and decreased by 26.6% when the per capita income was greater than $25 000 (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.99; P = .05).Injury scene characteristics are associated with injury mortality. Odds of death are highest for patients injured in communities with higher median age or lower per capita income and at locations farthest from level 1 or 2 trauma centers.

Pub.: 09 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Association between the mode of transport and in-hospital medical complications in trauma patients: findings from a level-I trauma center in Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: In Saudi Arabia, injury is the leading cause of death. Even if nonfatal, the impact of injuries on population health is enormous, as thousands of young patients suffer permanent disabilities every year. Unlike in developed countries, private transportation (PT) is a common means to transport trauma patients. Outcome differences between patients transported via PT relative to emergency medical services (EMS) has not been previously explored.To evaluate the association between transportation mode and in-hospital complications among trauma patients.Retrospective.Tertiary care center.The study included all patients (>=16 years), who were admitted following trauma.The main outcome in the study was the occurrence of any medical complications including stroke, sepsis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and cardiac arrest.The 493 patients were relatively young (over two-thirds of the sample were 45 years old or younger) and over half the population sustained injuries due traffic crashes. More than half (58%) of patients arrived via private transportation. Regression analyses revealed that in-hospital complications following injuries were significantly lower among those who arrived via PT. However, after incorporating propensity score matching, we found no difference in hospital complications (OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.25-1.17).Multiple factors may influence this unexpected finding, such as distance to health care set.tings, the belief that PT is faster or lack of knowledge of the EMS contact number. Further efforts are needed to raise awareness of the importance of using EMS to transport trauma patients to hospitals. Prevention programs to reduce traffic crashes may facilitate reduction in traumatic injuries and associated complications.Retrospective and conducted in one center only.

Pub.: 09 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Emergency Medicine in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Abstract: It has been more than a decade since emergency medicine became recognized as a specialty in the Kingdom of Bahrain. In the last fifteen years emergency medicine has widely established itself and developed rapidly in the Kingdom. The three main emergency departments are: Salmanyia Medical Complex (SMC), Royal Medical Services of Bahrain Defence Force (RMS-BDF) and King Hamad University Hospital (KHUH) are now fully equipped and operated by a majority of board certified emergency physicians.Standardized protocols, and the Central National Ambulance will be established in the near future, and the ambulances will offer both basic and advanced life support by trained nurses and paramedics.Emergency Medicine residency training programs were established in the main three hospitals in Bahrain for the Arab Board Certification initially, while currently only two hospitals, BDF hospital and KHUH are recognized as training centers for the Saudi Board Residency Program.This article will focus on many aspects related to emergency medicine in the Kingdom of Bahrain including: history of health care systems in Bahrain, hospitals and primary care, disaster management, Emergency medical services (EMS), hospital-based emergency care, training in emergency medicine and universities. We aim to present Bahrain’s past and existing emergency medicine experience, our perspective about the existing challenges faced by the specialty, and the future plans for the advancement of emergency medicine in the Kingdom.

Pub.: 08 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Barriers to the medication error reporting process within the Irish National Ambulance Service, a focus group study.

Abstract: Incident reporting is vital to identifying pre-hospital medication safety issues because literature suggests that the majority of errors pre-hospital are self-identified. In 2016, the National Ambulance Service (NAS) reported 11 medication errors to the national body with responsibility for risk management and insurance cover. The Health Information and Quality Authority in 2014 stated that reporting of clinical incidents, of which medication errors are a subset, was not felt to be representative of the actual events occurring. Even though reporting systems are in place, the levels appear to be well below what might be expected. Little data is available to explain this apparent discrepancy.To identify, investigate and document the barriers to medication error reporting within the NAS.An independent moderator led four focus groups in March of 2016. A convenience sample of 18 frontline Paramedics and Advanced Paramedics from Cork City and County discussed medication errors and the medication error reporting process. The sessions were recorded and anonymised, and the data was analysed using a process of thematic analysis.Practitioners understood the value of reporting errors. Barriers to reporting included fear of consequences and ridicule, procedural ambiguity, lack of feedback and a perceived lack of both consistency and confidentiality. The perceived consequences for making an error included professional, financial, litigious and psychological.Staff appeared willing to admit errors in a psychologically safe environment. Barriers to reporting are in line with international evidence. Time constraints prevented achievement of thematic saturation. Further study is warranted.

Pub.: 10 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Combining spatial information and optimization for locating emergency medical service stations: A case study for Lower Austria.

Abstract: Emergency medical services have been established in many countries all over the world. Good first care improves the outcome of patients in terms of hospital stay duration, chances of full recovery and of treatment costs. In this paper, we present an integrated approach combining spatial information and integer optimization for emergency medical service location planning. The research is motivated by a recent call for bids to restructure the location of emergency medical services in the Austrian federal state of Lower Austria by the local state government.Our framework allows for constraints on the places where an emergency care physician is stationed, accounting for the fact that - for economical reasons - it might not be feasible to arbitrarily place emergency care physicians. We use maximum coverage linear programs to get accurate solutions for the problem instances (depending on the maximum allowed number of emergency care physicians and the constraints of their placement). We optimize for the maximum number of covered residents given certain parameters. The travelling distances are calculated by means of a digital road graph. Moreover we analyze the coverage of the day population as there are significant shifts in the number of persons present at daytime. For every problem instance we have calculated the ten best solutions and examined the variance among them. For the demand point aggregation we have used a cell grid.Using our method we can show that with less emergency care physicians more residents can be covered. This is highly applicable to low populated areas where the coverage becomes better. There is little variance from the best to the second best solution: There are only small changes (usually only one cell is shifted) between the best and the second best solution. The coverage of the day population - except for a few problem instances - is always better than the coverage of the residents (reflecting the fact that many residents commute to more densely populated areas).In our study, we show that our solutions provide better coverage of residents with fewer emergency care physicians than the current status quo.

Pub.: 10 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Acute Effects of Ambient PM2.5 on All-Cause and Cause-Specific Emergency Ambulance Dispatches in Japan.

Abstract: Short-term health effects of ambient PM2.5 have been established with numerous studies, but evidence in Asian countries is limited. This study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of PM2.5 on acute health outcomes, particularly all-cause, cardiovascular, respiratory, cerebrovascular and neuropsychological outcomes. We utilized daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) data from eight Japanese cities (2007-2011). Statistical analyses included two stages: (1) City-level generalized linear model with Poisson distribution; (2) Random-effects meta-analysis in pooling city-specific effect estimates. Lag patterns were explored using (1) unconstrained-distributed lags (lag 0 to lag 7) and (2) average lags (lag: 0-1, 0-3, 0-5, 0-7). In all-cause EAD, significant increases were observed in both shorter lag (lag 0: 1.24% (95% CI: 0.92, 1.56)) and average lag 0-1 (0.64% (95% CI: 0.23, 1.06)). Increases of 1.88% and 1.48% in respiratory and neuropsychological EAD outcomes, respectively, were observed at lag 0 per 10 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5. While respiratory outcomes demonstrated significant average effects, no significant effect was observed for cardiovascular outcomes. Meanwhile, an inverse association was observed in cerebrovascular outcomes. In this study, we observed that effects of PM2.5 on all-cause, respiratory and neuropsychological EAD were acute, with average effects not exceeding 3 days prior to EAD onset.

Pub.: 10 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Improvement in Door-to-Needle Time in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke via a Simple Stroke Activation Protocol.

Abstract: In acute ischemic stroke (AIS), treatment with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is time-sensitive. All stroke centers make continual efforts to reduce door-to-needle time (DNT) with varying success. We present the impact of modifications to our stroke activation protocol on DNT.We included 404 consecutive patients with AIS receiving IV-tPA between January 2014 and December 2016. First changes in stroke activation protocol were made in March 2015 in the form of prenotification by paramedics, direct transfer from ambulance to computed tomography (CT) scanner, and rapid en route neurological assessment by an emergency physician and neurologist. In March 2016, a second amendment was made where a stroke nurse accompanied the patient to expedite various steps in the treatment pathway, including endovascular treatment in eligible cases.Both protocol amendments resulted in improvement in DNT and door-to-CT time from 84 ± 47 minutes before intervention to 69 ± 33 minutes after protocol amendment 1 to 59 ± 37 minutes after protocol amendment 2. In particular, the second amendment (144 patients) showed significant shortening of DNT compared with the 137 patients before (59 ± 37 minutes versus 69 ± 33 minutes, P = .020), with a higher percentage achieving the target of 60 minutes (68.1% versus 48.2%, P < .001). This finding was attributed to a reduction in both door-to-CT time and CT-to-needle time. This improvement remained consistent over subsequent months.The application of a simple systems-based, multidisciplinary stroke activation protocol may help in significant reduction in DNT. Encouraging increased patient ownership by stroke nurses appeared to be a promising approach for timely administration of definitive acute therapies.

Pub.: 10 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

The quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) identifies septic patients in the out-of-hospital setting.

Abstract: Recently a multispecialty, multinational task force convened to redefine the criteria for organ dysfunction, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. The study recommended the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score to identify sepsis patients. The qSOFA is felt to be the initial screen to prompt a more in-depth sepsis workup. This may be particularly true in resource-limited environments such as the prehospital arena.The goal of this study was to identify whether emergency medical services (EMS) patients who met all three qSOFA criteria correlated with an emergency department (ED) identification of sepsis.This was a retrospective chart review of adult patients≥18years of age, meeting qSOFA criteria and presenting to the emergency department between 1/01/2014 and 6/30/2016. Subjects were identified through an electronic query of the EMS record repository.72 subjects were included in the final analysis. Subjects in the septic group tended to be older with a mean age of 72years vs 64years. There was no observed discrepancy relating to gender. 48 of the subjects (67%) were identified as septic and 24 (33%) were identified as non-septic after review of the ED chart. This yielded a positive predictive value of the prehospital qSOFA as 66.67% (95% CI 55.8-77.6).EMS patients with positive qSOFA screens were more likely to be septic upon disposition to the ED.

Pub.: 11 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18

Clinical benefit of improved Prehospital stroke scales to detect stroke patients with large vessel occlusions: results from a conditional probabilistic model

Abstract: Clinical scales to detect large vessel occlusion (LVO) may help to determine the optimal transport destination for patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The clinical benefit associated with improved diagnostic accuracy of these scales has not been quantified.We used a previously reported conditional model to estimate the probability of good outcome (modified Rankin scale sore ≤2) for patients with AIS and unknown vessel status occurring in regions with greater proximity to a primary than to a comprehensive stroke center. Optimal rapid arterial occlusion evaluation (RACE) scale cutoff scores were calculated based on time-dependent effect-size estimates from recent randomized controlled trials. Probabilities of good outcome were compared between a triage strategy based on these cutoffs and a strategy based on a hypothetical perfect LVO detection tool with 100% diagnostic accuracy.In our model, the additional benefit of a perfect LVO detection tool as compared to optimal transport-time dependent RACE cutoff scores ranges from 0 to 5%. It is largest for patients with medium stroke symptom severity (RACE score 5) and in geographic environments with longer transfer time between the primary and comprehensive stroke center.Based on a probabilistic conditional model, the results of our simulation indicate that more accurate prehospital clinical LVO detections scales may be associated with only modest improvements in the expected probability of good outcome for patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke and unknown vessel status.

Pub.: 10 Feb '18, Pinned: 25 Feb '18