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This board is owned by Matt Holland, NWAS LKS, Librarian. Contact Matt.Holland@nwas.nhs.uk


Hosts recent articles from research based journals. Pinboard started in September 2016.


Quality of inter-hospital transportation in 431 transport survivor patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome referred to specialist centers

Abstract: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition. In special situations, these critically ill patients must be transferred to specialized centers for escalating treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of inter-hospital transport (IHT) of ARDS patients.We evaluated medical and organizational aspects of structural and procedural quality relating to IHT of patients with ARDS in a prospective nationwide ARDS study. The qualification of emergency staff, the organizational aspects and the occurrence of critical events during transport were analyzed.Out of 1234 ARDS patients, 431 (34.9%) were transported, and 52 of these (12.1%) treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 63.1% of transferred patients were male, median age was 54 years, and 26.8% of patients were obese. All patients were mechanically ventilated during IHT. Pressure-controlled ventilation was the preferred mode (92.1%). Median duration to organize the IHT was 165 min. Median distance for IHT was 58 km, and median duration of IHT 60 min. Forty-two patient-related and 8 technology-related critical events (11.6%, 50 of 431 patients) were observed. When a critical event occurred, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio before transport was significant lower (68 vs. 80 mmHg, p = 0.017). 69.8% of physicians and 86.7% of paramedics confirmed all transfer qualifications according to requirements of the German faculty guidelines (DIVI).The transport of critically ill patients is associated with potential risks. In our study the rate of patient- and technology-related critical events was relatively low. A severe ARDS with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 70 mmHg seems to be a risk factor for the appearance of critical events during IHT. The majority of transport staff was well qualified. Time span for organization of IHT was relatively short. ECMO is an option to transport patients with a severe ARDS safely to specialized centers.Trial registration NCT02637011 (ClinicalTrials.gov, Registered 15 December 2015, retrospectively registered)

Pub.: 15 Jan '18, Pinned: 16 Jan '18

Assessment of Prehospital Hemorrhage and Airway Care Using a Simulation Model.

Abstract: The quality of prehospital care impacts patient outcomes. Military efforts have focused on training revision and the creation of high fidelity simulation models to address potentially survivable injuries. We sought to investigate the applicability of models emphasizing hemorrhage control and airway management to a civilian population.Prehospital healthcare providers (PHPs) undergoing their annual training were enrolled. A trauma scenario was simulated with two modules: hemorrhage control and airway management. Experienced raters used a validated tool to assess performance. Pearson correlation, logistic regression, and chi-square tests were used for analysis.Ninety-five PHPs participated with a mean experience of 15.9 ± 8.3 years, and 7.4% reported past military training. The PHPs' overall execution rate of the six hemorrhage control measures varied from 38.9% to 88.4%. The median blood loss was 1700 mL (IQR, 1043-2000), and the mean global rater score (GRS) was 25.0 ± 7.4 (scale 5-40). There was a significant relationship between PHP profession and past military experience to their consideration of blood transfusion and tranexemic acid. An inverse relationship between blood loss and GRS was found (r = -0.59, n = 88, p = 1.93 x 10). After simulated direct laryngoscope (DL) failure in the airway module, 58% of PHPs selected video laryngoscopy (VL) over placement of a supraglottic airway (SGA). Eighty-six percent of participants achieved bilateral chest rise in the manikin regardless of management method. Participants reported improved comfort with skills after simulation.Our data reveal marginal performance in hemorrhage control regardless of the PHP's prior experience. The majority of PHPs were able to secure an advanced airway if DL was unavailable with a predisposition for VL over SGA. Our findings support the need for continued training for PHPs highlighting hemorrhage control maneuvers and increased familiarity with airway management options. Improved participant confidence post-training gives credence to simulation training.III, prognostic/epidemiological.

Pub.: 16 Jan '18, Pinned: 16 Jan '18

Does Implementation of Biomathematical Models Mitigate Fatigue and Fatigue-related Risks in Emergency Medical Services Operations? A Systematic Review.

Abstract: Work schedules like those of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel have been associated with increased risk of fatigue-related impairment. Biomathematical modeling is a means of objectively estimating the potential impacts of fatigue on performance, which may be used in the mitigation of fatigue-related safety risks. In the context of EMS operations, our objective was to assess the evidence in the literature regarding the effectiveness of using biomathematical models to help mitigate fatigue and fatigue-related risks.A systematic review of the evidence evaluating the use of biomathematical models to manage fatigue in EMS personnel or similar shift workers was performed. Procedures proposed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology were used to summarize and rate the certainty in the evidence. Potential bias attached to retained studies was documented using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool for experimental studies.The literature search strategy, which focused on both EMS personnel and non-EMS shift workers, yielded n = 2,777 unique records. One paper, which investigated non-EMS shift workers, met inclusion criteria. As part of a larger effort, managers and dispatchers of a trucking operation were provided with monthly biomathematical model analyses of predicted fatigue in the driver workforce, and educated on how they could reduce predicted fatigue by means of schedule adjustments. The intervention showed a significant reduction in the number and cost of vehicular accidents during the period in which biomathematical modeling was used. The overall GRADE assessment of evidence quality was very low due to risk of bias, indirectness, imprecision, and publication bias.This systematic review identified no studies that investigated the impact of biomathematical models in EMS operations. Findings from one study of non-EMS shift workers were favorable toward use of biomathematical models as a fatigue mitigation scheduling aid, albeit with very low quality of evidence pertaining to EMS operations. We propose three focus areas of research priorities that, if addressed, could help better elucidate the utility and impact of biomathematical models as a fatigue-mitigation tool in the EMS environment.

Pub.: 13 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Effect of Fatigue Training on Safety, Fatigue, and Sleep in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Other Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Abstract: Fatigue training may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. We aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of fatigue training on fatigue-related outcomes for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and similar shift worker groups.We performed a systematic literature review for studies that tested the impact of fatigue training of EMS personnel or similar shift workers. Outcomes of interest included personnel safety, patient safety, personnel performance, acute fatigue, indicators of sleep duration and quality, indicators of long-term health (e.g., cardiovascular disease), and burnout/stress. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the impact of fatigue training on sleep quality.Of the 3,817 records initially identified for review, 18 studies were relevant and examined fatigue training in shift workers using an experimental or quasi-experimental design. Fatigue training improved patient safety, personal safety, and ratings of acute fatigue and reduced stress and burnout. A meta-analysis of five studies showed improvement in sleep quality (Fixed Effects SMD -0.87; 95% CI -1.05 to -0.69; p < 0.00001; Random Effects SMD -0.80; 95% CI -1.72, 0.12; p < 0.00001).Reviewed literature indicated that fatigue training improved safety and health outcomes in shift workers. Further research is required to identify the optimal components of fatigue training programs to maximize the beneficial outcomes.

Pub.: 13 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Shorter Versus Longer Shift Durations to Mitigate Fatigue and Fatigue-Related Risks in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Related Shift Workers: A Systematic Review.

Abstract: This study comprehensively reviewed the literature on the impact of shorter versus longer shifts on critical and important outcomes for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and related shift worker groups.Six databases (e.g., PubMed/MEDLINE) were searched, including one website. This search was guided by a research question developed by an expert panel a priori and registered with the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews (2016:CRD42016040099). The critical outcomes of interest were patient safety and personnel safety. The important outcomes of interest were personnel performance, acute fatigue, sleep and sleep quality, retention/turnover, long-term health, burnout/stress, and cost to system. Screeners worked independently and full-text articles were assessed for relevance. Data abstracted from the retained literature were categorized as favorable, unfavorable, mixed/inconclusive, or no impact toward the shorter shift duration. This research characterized the evidence as very low, low, moderate, or high quality according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology.The searched yielded n = 21,674 records. Of the 480 full-text articles reviewed, 100 reported comparisons of outcomes of interest by shift duration. We identified 24 different shift duration comparisons, most commonly 8 hours versus 12 hours. No one study reported findings for all 9 outcomes. Two studies reported findings linked to both critical outcomes of patient and personnel safety, 34 reported findings for one of two critical outcomes, and 64 did not report findings for critical outcomes. Fifteen studies were grouped to compare shifts <24 hours versus shifts ≥24 hours. None of the findings for the critical outcomes of patient and personnel safety were categorized as unfavorable toward shorter duration shifts (<24 hours). Nine studies were favorable toward shifts <24 hours for at least one of the 7 important outcomes, while findings from one study were categorized as unfavorable. Evidence quality was low or very low.The quality of existing evidence on the impact of shift duration on fatigue and fatigue-related risks is low or very low. Despite these limitations, this systematic review suggests that for outcomes considered critical or important to EMS personnel, shifts <24 hours in duration are more favorable than shifts ≥24 hours. Key words: Shift duration; fatigue; safety; EMS.

Pub.: 13 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Effects of Caffeine in Fatigued Shift Workers: Implications for Emergency Medical Services Personnel.

Abstract: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers may experience fatigue as a consequence of shift work. We reviewed the literature to determine the impact of caffeine as a countermeasure to fatigue in EMS personnel and related shift workers.We employed the GRADE methodology to perform a systematic literature review and search multiple databases for research that examined the impact of caffeine on outcomes of interest, such as patient and EMS personnel safety. For selected outcomes, we performed a meta-analysis of pooled data and reported the pooled effect in the form of a Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals.There are no studies that investigate caffeine use and its effects on EMS workers or on patient safety. Four of 8 studies in shift workers showed that caffeine improved psychomotor vigilance, which is important for performance. Caffeine decreased the number of lapses on a standardized test of performance [SMD = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.30 to 1.19), p = 0.001], and lessened the slowing of reaction time at the end of shifts [SMD = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.19 to 0.85); p = 0.002]. Finally, 2 studies reported that caffeine reduced sleep quality and sleep duration.Although the quality of evidence was judged to be low to moderate, when taken together, these studies demonstrate that caffeine can improve psychomotor performance and vigilance. However, caffeine negatively affects sleep quality and sleep duration. More systematic, randomized studies need to be conducted in EMS workers in order to address the critical outcomes of health and safety of EMS personnel and patients. The risk/benefit ratio of chronic caffeine use in shift workers is currently unknown.

Pub.: 13 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Effect of Task Load Interventions on Fatigue in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Other Shift Workers: A Systematic Review.

Abstract: Modifying the task load of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel may mitigate fatigue, sleep quality and fatigue related risks. A review of the literature addressing task load interventions may benefit EMS administrators as they craft policies related to mitigating fatigue. We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to address the following question: "In EMS personnel, do task load interventions mitigate fatigue, mitigate fatigue-related risks, and/or improve sleep?" (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016040114).We performed a systematic review of the literature that described use of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and observational study designs. We retained and reviewed research that involved EMS personnel or similar shift worker groups 18 years of age and older. Studies of 'healthy volunteers' and non-shift worker populations were excluded. Studies were included where the methodology of the study implied a theoretical framework of task load (or workload) affecting fatigue, and then fatigue related outcomes. Outcomes of interest included personnel safety, patient safety, personnel performance, acute fatigue, and cost to system. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to summarize findings and assess quality of evidence from very low to high quality.The search strategy yielded 3,394 unique records resulting in 58 records included as potentially eligible. An additional 69 studies were reviewed in full following searches of bibliographies. We detected wide variation in the description and measurement of task load in the retained and excluded research. Among 127 potentially relevant studies reviewed in full, five were judged eligible. None of the retained studies reported findings germane to personnel safety, patient safety, or cost to system. We judged most studies to have serious or very serious risk of bias.The effect of task load interventions on fatigue, fatigue-related risks, and/or sleep quality was not estimable and the overall quality of evidence was judged low or very low. There was considerable heterogeneity in how task load was defined and measured.

Pub.: 13 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Reliability and Validity of Survey Instruments to Measure Work-Related Fatigue in the Emergency Medical Services Setting: A Systematic Review.

Abstract: This study sought to systematically search the literature to identify reliable and valid survey instruments for fatigue measurement in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) occupational setting.A systematic review study design was used and searched six databases, including one website. The research question guiding the search was developed a priori and registered with the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews: "Are there reliable and valid instruments for measuring fatigue among EMS personnel?" (2016:CRD42016040097). The primary outcome of interest was criterion-related validity. Important outcomes of interest included reliability (e.g., internal consistency), and indicators of sensitivity and specificity. Members of the research team independently screened records from the databases. Full-text articles were evaluated by adapting the Bolster and Rourke system for categorizing findings of systematic reviews, and the rated data abstracted from the body of literature as favorable, unfavorable, mixed/inconclusive, or no impact. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to evaluate the quality of evidence.The search strategy yielded 1,257 unique records. Thirty-four unique experimental and non-experimental studies were determined relevant following full-text review. Nineteen studies reported on the reliability and/or validity of ten different fatigue survey instruments. Eighteen different studies evaluated the reliability and/or validity of four different sleepiness survey instruments. None of the retained studies reported sensitivity or specificity. Evidence quality was rated as very low across all outcomes.In this systematic review, limited evidence of the reliability and validity of 14 different survey instruments to assess the fatigue and/or sleepiness status of EMS personnel and related shift worker groups was identified.

Pub.: 13 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Effects of Napping During Shift Work on Sleepiness and Performance in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Similar Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Abstract: Scheduled napping during work shifts may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. This study aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of scheduled naps on fatigue-related outcomes for EMS personnel and similar shift worker groups.A systematic literature review was performed of the impact of a scheduled nap during shift work on EMS personnel or similar shift workers. The primary (critical) outcome of interest was EMS personnel safety. Secondary (important) outcomes were patient safety; personnel performance; acute states of fatigue, alertness, and sleepiness; indicators of sleep duration and/or quality; employee retention/turnover; indicators of long-term health; and cost to the system. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of napping on a measure of personnel performance (the psychomotor vigilance test [PVT]) and measures of acute fatigue.Of 4,660 unique records identified, 13 experimental studies were determined relevant and summarized. The effect of napping on reaction time measured at the end of shift was small and non-significant (SMD 0.12, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.36; p = 0.34). Napping during work did not change reaction time from the beginning to the end of the shift (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -25.0 to 0.24; p = 0.96). Naps had a moderate, significant effect on sleepiness measured at the end of shift (SMD 0.40, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72; p = 0.01). The difference in sleepiness from the start to the end of shift was moderate and statistically significant (SMD 0.41, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72; p = 0.01).Reviewed literature indicated that scheduled naps at work improved performance and decreased fatigue in shift workers. Further research is required to identify the optimal timing and duration of scheduled naps to maximize the beneficial outcomes.

Pub.: 13 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Evidence-Based Guidelines for Fatigue Risk Management in Emergency Medical Services.

Abstract: Administrators of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) operations lack guidance on how to mitigate workplace fatigue, which affects greater than half of all EMS personnel. The primary objective of the Fatigue in EMS Project was to create an evidence-based guideline for fatigue risk management tailored to EMS operations.Systematic searches were conducted from 1980 to September 2016 and guided by seven research questions framed in the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) framework. Teams of investigators applied inclusion criteria, which included limiting the retained literature to EMS personnel or similar shift worker groups. The expert panel reviewed summaries of the evidence based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The panel evaluated the quality of evidence for each PICO question separately, considered the balance between benefits and harms, considered the values and preferences of the targeted population, and evaluated the resource requirements/needs. The GRADE Evidence-to-Decision (EtD) Framework was used to prepare draft recommendations based on the evidence, and the Content Validity Index (CVI) was used to quantify the panel's agreement on the relevance and clarity of each recommendation. CVI scores for relevance and clarity were measured separately on a 1-4 scale to indicate consensus/agreement among panel members and conclusion of recommendation development.The EtD framework was applied to all 7 PICO questions, and the panel created 5 recommendations. PICO1: The panel recommends using fatigue/sleepiness survey instruments to measure and monitor fatigue in EMS personnel. PICO2: The panel recommends that EMS personnel work shifts shorter than 24 hours in duration. PICO3: The panel recommends that EMS personnel have access to caffeine as a fatigue countermeasure. PICO4: The panel recommends that, EMS personnel have the opportunity to nap while on duty to mitigate fatigue. PICO5: The panel recommends that EMS personnel receive education and training to mitigate fatigue and fatigue-related risks. The panel referenced insufficient evidence as the reason for making no recommendation linked to 2 PICO questions.Based on a review of the evidence, the panel developed a guideline with 5 recommendations for fatigue risk management in EMS operations.

Pub.: 13 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Measurement of the potential geographic accessibility from call to definitive care for patient with acute stroke

Abstract: The World Health Organization refers to stroke, the second most frequent cause of death in the world, in terms of pandemic. Present treatments are only effective within precise time windows. Only 10% of thrombolysis patients are eligible. Late assessment of the patient resulting from admission and lack of knowledge of the symptoms is the main explanation of lack of eligibility.The aim is the measurement of the time of access to treatment facilities for stroke victims, using ambulances (firemen ambulances or EMS ambulances) and private car. The method proposed analyses the potential geographic accessibility of stroke care infrastructure in different scenarios. The study allows better considering of the issues inherent to an area: difficult weather conditions, traffic congestion and failure to respect the distance limits of emergency transport.Depending on the scenario, access times vary considerably within the same commune. For example, between the first and the second scenario for cities in the north of Rhône county, there is a 10 min difference to the nearest Primary Stroke Center (PSC). For the first scenario, 90% of the population is 20 min away of the PSC and 96% for the second scenario. Likewise, depending on the modal vector (fire brigade or emergency medical service), overall accessibility from the emergency call to admission to a Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) can vary by as much as 15 min.The setting up of the various scenarios and modal comparison based on the calculation of overall accessibility makes this a new method for calculating potential access to care facilities. It is important to take into account the specific pathological features and the availability of care facilities for modelling. This method is innovative and recommendable for measuring accessibility in the field of health care. This study makes possible to highlight the patients’ extension of care delays. Thus, this can impact the improvement of patient care and rethink the healthcare organization. Stroke is addressed here but it is applicable to other pathologies.

Pub.: 12 Jan '18, Pinned: 14 Jan '18

Epidemiology of unplanned out-of-hospital births attended by paramedics.

Abstract: Over the previous two decades the incidence and number of unplanned out of hospital births Victoria has increased. As the only out of hospital emergency care providers in Victoria, paramedics would provide care for women having birth emergencies in the community. However, there is a lack of research about the involvement of paramedics provide for these women and their newborns. This research reports the clinical profile of a 1-year sample caseload of births attended by a state-wide ambulance service in Australia.Retrospective data previously collected via Victorian Ambulance Clinical Information System (VACIS ®) an in-field electronic patient care record was provided by Ambulance Victoria. Cases were identified via a comprehensive filter, and analysed using SPSS version 19.Over a 12-month period paramedics attended 324 out-of-hospital births including 190 before paramedics' arrival. Most (88.3%) were uncomplicated precipitous term births. However, paramedics documented various obstetric complications including postpartum haemorrhage, breech, cord prolapse, prematurity and neonatal death. Furthermore, nearly one fifth (16.7%) of the women had medical histories that had potential to complicate their clinical management, including taking illicit or prescription drugs. Mothers were more likely to be multiparas. Births were more likely to occur between 2200 and 0600 h. Paramedics performed a range of interventions for both mothers and babies.Paramedics provided emergency care for prehospital out-of-hospital births. Although most were precipitous uneventful births at term, paramedics used complex obstetric assessment and clinical skills. These findings have implications for paramedic clinical practice and education around management of unplanned out of hospital births.

Pub.: 10 Jan '18, Pinned: 12 Jan '18

Intraosseous Vascular Access Is Associated With Lower Survival and Neurologic Recovery Among Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Abstract: We seek to determine the effect of intraosseous over intravenous vascular access on outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.This secondary analysis of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Prehospital Resuscitation Using an Impedance Valve and Early Versus Delayed (PRIMED) study included adult patients with nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrests treated during 2007 to 2009, excluding those with any unsuccessful attempt or more than one access site. The primary exposure was intraosseous versus intravenous vascular access. The primary outcome was favorable neurologic outcome on hospital discharge (modified Rankin Scale score ≤3). We determined the association between vascular access route and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcome with multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, initial emergency medical services-recorded rhythm (shockable or nonshockable), witness status, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, use of public automated external defibrillator, episode location (public or not), and time from call to paramedic scene arrival. We confirmed the results with multiple imputation, propensity score matching, and generalized estimating equations, with study enrolling region as a clustering variable.Of 13,155 included out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, 660 (5.0%) received intraosseous vascular access. In the intraosseous group, 10 of 660 patients (1.5%) had favorable neurologic outcome compared with 945 of 12,495 (7.6%) in the intravenous group. On multivariable regression, intraosseous access was associated with poorer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival (adjusted odds ratio 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.46). Sensitivity analyses revealed similar results.In adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, intraosseous vascular access was associated with poorer neurologic outcomes than intravenous access.

Pub.: 10 Jan '18, Pinned: 12 Jan '18

Prehospital Modified HEART Score Predictive of 30-Day Adverse Cardiac Events.

Abstract: Introduction The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting. Hypothesis A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted. Stopyra JP , Harper WS , Higgins TJ , Prokesova JV , Winslow JE , Nelson RD , Alson RL , Davis CA , Russell GB , Miller CD , Mahler SA . Prehospital modified HEART score predictive of 30-day adverse cardiac events.

Pub.: 11 Jan '18, Pinned: 12 Jan '18

Video-Based Learning vs Traditional Lecture for Instructing Emergency Medicine Residents in Disaster Medicine Principles of Mass Triage, Decontamination, and Personal Protective Equipment.

Abstract: Introduction Great demands have been placed on disaster medicine educators. There is a need to develop innovative methods to educate Emergency Physicians in the ever-expanding body of disaster medicine knowledge. The authors sought to demonstrate that video-based learning (VBL) could be a promising alternative to traditional learning methods for teaching disaster medicine core competencies. Hypothesis/Problem The objective was to compare VBL to traditional lecture (TL) for instructing Emergency Medicine residents in the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP; Irving, Texas USA) disaster medicine core competencies of patient triage and decontamination.A randomized, controlled pilot study compared two methods of instruction for mass triage, decontamination, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emergency Medicine resident learning was measured with a knowledge quiz, a Likert scale measuring comfort, and a practical exercise. An independent samples t-test compared the scoring of the VBL with the TL group.Twenty-six residents were randomized to VBL (n=13) or TL (n=13). Knowledge score improvement following video (14.9%) versus lecture (14.1%) did not differ significantly between the groups (P=.74). Comfort score improvement also did not differ (P=.64) between video (18.3%) and lecture groups (15.8%). In the practical skills assessment, the VBL group outperformed the TL group overall (70.4% vs 55.5%; P<.0001), with significantly better performance in donning PPE and decontamination. Although not part of the original study design, a three-month post-hoc analysis was performed. When comparing the pre-intervention and three-month post-hoc performances, there were no significant differences in knowledge increases between VBL versus TL (P=.41) or in comfort (P=.39).Video modules can be as effective as TL when utilized to train Emergency Medicine residents in the ACEP disaster medicine core competencies of patient triage and decontamination. Curtis HA , Trang K , Chason KW , Biddinger PD . Video-based learning vs traditional lecture for instructing emergency medicine residents in disaster medicine principles of mass triage, decontamination, and personal protective equipment.

Pub.: 11 Jan '18, Pinned: 12 Jan '18

Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients without prehospital return of spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results from a severity stratification analysis.

Abstract: The relationship between duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and post-arrest outcomes based on severity stratification in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients without prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) remains unclear.We analysed 420,959 adult patients without prehospital ROSC in the All-Japan OHCA registry for 4 years. Prehospital CPR duration was defined as the time from CPR initiation by emergency medical service (EMS) providers to hospital arrival. The primary outcome was 1-month neurologically intact survival (cerebral performance category 1 or 2, CPC 1-2).The rate of overall 1-month CPC 1-2 was 0.45% (1,899/420,959). Using recursive partitioning analysis to predict 1-month CPC 1-2, we stratified patients into 4 groups with 3 predictors: patients aged <75 years with initial shockable rhythm (1-month CPC 1-2 rate, 6.15%), those aged ≥75 years with initial shockable rhythm (1.32%), those with EMS-witnessed arrest and initial non-shockable rhythm (1.62%), and those with EMS-unwitnessed arrest and initial non-shockable rhythm (0.15%). Prehospital CPR duration was negatively associated with 1-month CPC 1-2 (adjusted odds ratio 0.94 per 1-minute increment; 95% confidence interval 0.94-0.95). Prehospital CPR durations beyond which the dynamic probability of 1-month CPC 1-2 decreased to <1% were 26 minutes, 10 minutes, 7 minutes, and at all times in above-mentioned stratification, respectively.In OHCA patients without prehospital ROSC, those aged <75 years with initial shockable rhythm had acceptable 1-month CPC 1-2 rate. However, CPR efforts lasting 26 minutes or over before hospital arrival could be futile.

Pub.: 11 Jan '18, Pinned: 12 Jan '18

Prehospital Identification of Patients with a Final Hospital Diagnosis of Stroke.

Abstract: Introduction the early phase of stroke, minutes are critical. Since the majority of patients with stroke are transported by the Emergency Medical Service (EMS), the early handling and decision making by the EMS clinician is important. Problem The study aim was to evaluate the frequency of a documented suspicion of stroke by the EMS nurse, and to investigate differences in the clinical signs of stroke and clinical assessment in the prehospital setting among patients with regard to if there was a documented suspicion of stroke on EMS arrival or not, in patients with a final hospital diagnosis of stroke.The study had a retrospective observational design. Data were collected from reports on patients who were transported by the EMS and had a final diagnosis of stroke at a single hospital in western Sweden (630 beds) in 2015. The data sources were hospital and prehospital medical journals.In total, 454 patients were included. Among them, the EMS clinician suspected stroke in 52%. The findings and documentation on patients with a suspected stroke differed from the remaining patients as follows: a) More frequently documented symptoms from the face, legs/arms, and speech; b) More frequently assessments of neurology, face, arms/legs, speech, and eyes; c) More frequently addressed the major complaint with regard to time and place of onset, duration, localization, and radiation; d) Less frequently documented symptoms of headache, vertigo, and nausea; and e) More frequently had an electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded and plasma glucose sampled. In addition to the 52% of patients who had a documented initial suspicion of stroke, seven percent of the patients had an initial suspicion of transitory ischemic attack (TIA) by the EMS clinician, and a neurologist was approached in another 10%.Among 454 patients with a final diagnosis of stroke who were transported by the EMS, an initial suspicion of stroke was not documented in one-half of the cases. These patients differed from those in whom a suspicion of stroke was documented in terms of limited clinical signs of stroke, a less extensive clinical assessment, and fewer clinical investigations. Andersson E , Bohlin L , Herlitz J , Sundler AJ , Fekete Z , Andersson Hagiwara M . Prehospital identification of patients with a final hospital diagnosis of stroke.

Pub.: 11 Jan '18, Pinned: 12 Jan '18

Patient and case characteristics associated with ‘no paramedic treatment’ for low-acuity cases referred for emergency ambulance dispatch following a secondary telephone triage: a retrospective cohort study

Abstract: Predicting case types that are unlikely to be treated by paramedics can aid in managing demand for emergency ambulances by identifying cases suitable for alternative management pathways. The aim of this study was to identify the patient characteristics and triage outcomes associated with ‘no paramedic treatment’ for cases referred for emergency ambulance dispatch following secondary telephone triage.A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of cases referred for emergency ambulance dispatch following secondary telephone triage between September 2009 and June 2012. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to identify explanatory variables associated with ‘no paramedic treatment’.There were 19,041 cases eligible for inclusion in this study over almost three years, of which 8510 (44.7%) were not treated after being sent an emergency ambulance following secondary triage. Age, time of day, pain, triage guideline group, and comorbidities were associated with ‘no paramedic treatment’. In particular, cases 0–4 years of age or those with psychiatric conditions were significantly less likely to be treated by paramedics, and increasing pain resulted in higher rates of paramedic treatment.This study highlights that case characteristics can be used to identify particular case types that may benefit from care pathways other than emergency ambulance dispatch. This process is also useful to identify gaps in the alternative care pathways currently available. These findings offer the opportunity to optimise secondary telephone triage services to support their strategic purpose of minimising unnecessary emergency ambulance demand and to match the right case with the right care pathway.

Pub.: 10 Jan '18, Pinned: 12 Jan '18

Influence of Prehospital Function and Strength on Outcomes of Critically Ill Older Adults

Abstract: To understand the influence of prehospital physical function and strength on clinical outcomes of critically ill older adults.Secondary analysis of prospective cohort study.Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.Of 3,075 older adult Health ABC participants, we identified 575 (60% white, 61% male, mean age 79) with prehospital function or grip strength measurements within 2 years of an intensive care unit stay.The primary analysis evaluated the association between prehospital walk speed and mortality, and secondary analyses focused on associations between function or grip strength and mortality or hospital length of stay. Function and grip strength were analyzed as continuous and categorical predictors.Slower prehospital walk speed was associated with greater risk of 30-day mortality (for each 0.1 m/s slower, odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.23, P = .004). Grip strength, chair stands, and balance had weaker, non-statistically significant associations with 30-day mortality. Participants with slower prehospital walk speed (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90–0.98, P = .005) and weak grip strength (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.73–0.99, P = .03) were less likely to be discharged from the hospital alive. All function and strength measures were significantly associated with 1-year mortality.Slow prehospital walk speed was strongly associated with greater 30-day mortality and longer hospital stay in critically ill older adults, and measures of function and strength were associated with 1-year mortality. These data add to the accumulating evidence on the relationship between physical function and critical care outcomes.

Pub.: 11 Jan '18, Pinned: 12 Jan '18

A shorter system delay for haemorrhagic stroke than ischaemic stroke among patients who use emergency medical service

Abstract: We compare various aspects in the early chain of care among patients with haemorrhagic stroke and ischaemic stroke.The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and nine emergency hospitals, each with a stroke unit, were included. All patients hospitalised with a first and a final diagnosis of stroke between 15 December 2010 and 15 April 2011 were included. The primary endpoint was the system delay (from call to the EMS until diagnosis). Secondary endpoints were: (i) use of the EMS, (ii) delay from symptom onset until call to the EMS; (iii) priority at the dispatch centre; (iv) priority by the EMS; and (v) suspicion of stroke by the EMS nurse and physician on admission to hospital.Of 1336 patients, 172 (13%) had a haemorrhagic stroke. The delay from call to the EMS until diagnosis was significantly shorter in haemorrhagic stroke. The patient's decision time was significantly shorter in haemorrhagic stroke. The priority level at the dispatch centre did not differ between the two groups, whereas the EMS nurse gave a significantly higher priority to patients with haemorrhage. There was no significant difference between groups with regard to the suspicion of stroke either by the EMS nurse or by the physician on admission to hospital.Patients with a haemorrhagic stroke differed from other stroke patients with a more frequent and rapid activation of EMS.

Pub.: 08 Jan '18, Pinned: 09 Jan '18

When do trauma patients lose temperature? – a prospective observational study

Abstract: The prevalence of hypothermia in trauma patients is high and rapid recognition is important to prevent further heat loss. Hypothermia is associated with poor patient outcomes and is an independent predictor of increased mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in core body temperature of trauma patients during different treatment phases in the pre-hospital and early in-hospital settings.A prospective observational cohort study in severely injured patients. Continuous core temperature monitoring using an epitympanic sensor in the auditory canal was initiated at the scene of injury and continued for 3 h. The degree of patient insulation was photo-documented throughout, and graded on a binary scale. The outcome variable was temperature change in each treatment phase.Twenty-two patients were included with a median injury severity score (ISS) of 21 (IQR 14–29). Most patients (N = 16, 73%) were already hypothermic (< 36°C) on scene at their first measurement. Twenty patients (91%) became colder at the scene of injury; on average, the decline was −1.7°C/h. Full clothing reduced this value to −1.1°C/h. Temperature remained essentially stable during ambulance and emergency department phases.Trauma patients are at risk for hypothermia already at the scene of injury. Lay persons and professionals should focus on early prevention of heat loss. An active, individually tailored approach to counter hypothermia in trauma should begin immediately at the scene of injury and continue during transportation to hospital. Active rewarming during evacuation should be considered.

Pub.: 07 Jan '18, Pinned: 08 Jan '18

Paediatric medical emergency calls to a Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre: a retrospective, observational study

Abstract: Little is known regarding paediatric medical emergency calls to Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centres (EMDC). This study aimed to investigate these calls, specifically the medical issues leading to them and the pre-hospital units dispatched to the paediatric emergencies.We performed a retrospective, observational study on paediatric medical emergency calls managed by the EMDC in the Region of Southern Denmark in February 2016. We reviewed audio recordings of emergency calls and ambulance records to identify calls concerning patients ≤ 15 years. We examined EMDC dispatch records to establish how the medical issues leading to these calls were classified and which pre-hospital units were dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. We analysed the data using descriptive statistics.Of a total of 7052 emergency calls in February 2016, 485 (6.9%) concerned patients ≤ 15 years. We excluded 19 and analysed the remaining 466. The reported medical issues were commonly classified as: “seizures” (22.1%), “sick child” (18.9%) and “unclear problem” (12.9%). The overall most common pre-hospital response was immediate dispatch of an ambulance with sirens and lights with a supporting physician-manned mobile emergency care unit (56.4%). The classification of medical issues and the dispatched pre-hospital units varied with patient age.We believe our results might help focus the paediatric training received by emergency medical dispatch staff on commonly encountered medical issues, such as the symptoms and conditions pertaining to the symptom categories “seizures” and “sick child”. Furthermore, the results could prove useful in hypothesis generation for future studies examining paediatric medical emergency calls.Almost 7% of all calls concerned patients ≤ 15 years. Medical issues pertaining to the symptom categories “seizures”, “sick child” and “unclear problem” were common and the calls commonly resulted in urgent pre-hospital responses.

Pub.: 05 Jan '18, Pinned: 07 Jan '18