DOCTORAL SCHOLAR, THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY OF BARODA, VADODARA,GUJARAT,INDIA
Is the Dietary Intake and Body fat content of the Elite Cricketers up to the mark?
My Research work involves Elite male Cricketers or Cricket players as subjects. Cricket is a sport that requires skill, speed and endurance depending on the player specialty and often involves playing in challenging hot conditions for extended periods. The physical requirements of cricket vary with the format of the match and the player's position in the team.
There is lack of data on nutritional status of cricketers and therefore the study was planned to explore the anthropometry, body composition and dietary intake of the male cricketers 19-23 years of age (n=28). These players under study trained for 4 hours a day for 6 days a week at the academy and had an average 9 years of experience as Cricketers.
Body mass index (BMI) determines a normal acceptable range of weight that a person of particular height should fall into. The formula to calculate BMI is, BMI = Weight (in kg)/Height (m2).The anthropometry data of the cricketers identified 28% as overweight and 11% as obese. This is a matter of grave concern as being out of the weight range can have negative implications on the game of the players and therefore requires immediate intervention.
Higher body fat than the normal range has been linked to compromised performance in athletes. Athletes follow a well-designed training programme to maintain their body fat and muscle mass. Despite this being a fact, as high as 54% of the cricketers in this present study had higher than normal body fat which is an alarming result.
Eating appropriate amount of Iron rich foods is very important for haemoglobin formation which in turn has direct relation to the stamina required for staying physically active. Calcium is essential for maintaining good bone mass and strength. Thus both these micronutrients are crucial for athletes. The study found that the players were consuming enough Daily Iron (19.31mg) and Calcium intake (1572mg) as per the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Iron rich foods consumed daily were whole wheat flour and Lentil while the Calcium rich foods were Milk, Dried dates and Curd.
Overweight and obesity was prevalent even in elite cricketers. It would be interesting to see the correlation between the BMI and the fitness levels and also the game performance of the athletes. Also, studying whether excess body fat is actually resulting in impaired performance in these players can be a significant revelation.
Abstract: It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.
Pub.: 28 Feb '16, Pinned: 21 Sep '17
Abstract: Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, sub-elite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and sub-elite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > 0.05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r(2) = 0.051, p = 0.039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
Pub.: 07 Oct '16, Pinned: 21 Sep '17
Abstract: Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit. The higher the baseline body fat level, the more aggressively the caloric deficit may be imposed. Slower rates of weight loss can better preserve lean mass (LM) in leaner subjects. 4) Diets focused primarily on accruing LM are driven by a sustained caloric surplus to facilitate anabolic processes and support increasing resistance-training demands. The composition and magnitude of the surplus, as well as training status of the subjects can influence the nature of the gains. 5) A wide range of dietary approaches (low-fat to low-carbohydrate/ketogenic, and all points between) can be similarly effective for improving body composition. 6) Increasing dietary protein to levels significantly beyond current recommendations for athletic populations may result in improved body composition. Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg FFM) may be required to maximize muscle retention in lean, resistance-trained subjects under hypocaloric conditions. Emerging research on very high protein intakes (>3 g/kg) has demonstrated that the known thermic, satiating, and LM-preserving effects of dietary protein might be amplified in resistance-training subjects. 7) The collective body of intermittent caloric restriction research demonstrates no significant advantage over daily caloric restriction for improving body composition. 8) The long-term success of a diet depends upon compliance and suppression or circumvention of mitigating factors such as adaptive thermogenesis. 9) There is a paucity of research on women and older populations, as well as a wide range of untapped permutations of feeding frequency and macronutrient distribution at various energetic balances combined with training. Behavioral and lifestyle modification strategies are still poorly researched areas of weight management.
Pub.: 21 Jun '17, Pinned: 21 Sep '17
Abstract: A sophisticated appreciation of the role of nutrition in athletic performance has been made possible by increasing knowledge of the physiology of exercise.The nutritional issues of training are of primary importance, since this occupies most of the athlete’s effort. The nutritional support of an intense daily training programme includes an appropriately high energy intake, predominantly in the form of carbohydrate in order to continually replenish muscle glycogen stores. Recent review of the protein needs of athletes indicates that requirements may be substantially above those of sedentary subjects, to account for the oxidation of amino acids during exercise as well as the retention of nitrogen during periods of muscle building. However, these increased requirements are likely to be met by the generous protein intakes anticipated in a high energy diet. The same would seem to hold true for micronutrient considerations, although there is no evidence that vitamin requirements are considerably increased by exercise. Nevertheless, a high energy diet chosen from a sufficiently varied range of foods should allow micronutrient intakes well in excess of population recommended dietary intake levels. Current interest is focused on the mineral status of athletes, particularly that of iron and calcium. In the case of iron, there is a possibility that the increased level of loss by some endurance athletes will not be met by their usual dietary patterns. Screening for early signs of iron deficiency, and appropriate supplementation and dietary counselling seem warranted in high risk groups.Competition poses the challenge of identifying possible factors limiting performance, and taking steps to delay or reduce these. Of paramount importance is body temperature regulation through the maintenance of hydration levels. This issue has long been recognised, but recent studies of gastric emptying and the benefits of carbohydrate supplementation during exercise have caused an update of the advice to athletes regarding fluid intake during exercise. It now seems possible to simultaneously achieve fluid and carbohydrate requirements for endurance exercise within a wide range of choice of beverages containing up to 10% carbohydrate. Concern about the adequacy of carbohydrate fuel stores in endurance exercise situations is also well known. The recognition that training achieves various physiological adaptations to enhance the lifespan of fuel stores has taken away some of the attention previously focussed on carbohydrate-loading techniques. Athletes preparing for endurance events are now encouraged to use dietary (and exercise) techniques that are more compatible with their normal daily practices. In addition, the intake of supplementary carbohydrate during the event holds great promise to extending the duration of optimum work output.
Pub.: 25 Nov '12, Pinned: 21 Sep '17
Abstract: Abstract Proper nutrition is a key component in the preparation and training of the competitive athlete. The dietary recommendations for sports nutrition are surprisingly conventional, similar to that for the prevention of chronic disease (such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease). Few specialized supplements are required above a well-balanced diet of sufficient protein and carbohydrate. Total caloric requirements, macronutrient composition, and need for electrolyte/micronutrient repletion may vary from one sport to another (and between various positions within a single sport). The type and duration of the sporting event affect the utilization of energy systems, substrate availability, and the training adaptations required to optimize athleticism. Undernutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities can reduce cognition, endurance, thermoregulation, overall performance, and recovery. A properly designed dietary program throughout training, competition, and the off-season should benefit and help protect both the recreational and the elite athlete.AbstractProper nutrition is a key component in the preparation and training of the competitive athlete. The dietary recommendations for sports nutrition are surprisingly conventional, similar to that for the prevention of chronic disease (such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease). Few specialized supplements are required above a well-balanced diet of sufficient protein and carbohydrate. Total caloric requirements, macronutrient composition, and need for electrolyte/micronutrient repletion may vary from one sport to another (and between various positions within a single sport). The type and duration of the sporting event affect the utilization of energy systems, substrate availability, and the training adaptations required to optimize athleticism. Undernutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities can reduce cognition, endurance, thermoregulation, overall performance, and recovery. A properly designed dietary program throughout training, competition, and the off-season should benefit and help protect both the recreational and the elite athlete.
Pub.: 10 Aug '16, Pinned: 21 Sep '17