Postdoc, Univeristy of Pittsburgh
ACAD10 knockout mice have fasting hypoglycemia
We study a gene(ACAD10) which was identified in type II diabetes susceptible population: Pima Indians. A mouse model of the gene depletion was used to study the metabolism compared to normal mouse. Understanding the function of this gene may provide a therapeutic target for metabolism diseases.
Abstract: A prior genome-wide association study in Pima Indians identified a variant within the ACAD10 gene that is associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes. Acylcoenzyme A dehydrogenase 10 (ACAD10) catalyses mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, which plays a pivotal role in developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, ACAD10 was analysed as a positional and biological candidate for type 2 diabetes.Twenty-three SNPs were genotyped in 1,500 Pima Indians to determine the linkage disequilibrium pattern across ACAD10. Association with type 2 diabetes was determined by genotyping four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a population-based sample of 3,501 full-heritage Pima Indians; two associated SNPs were further genotyped in a second population-based sample of 3,723 American Indians. Associations with quantitative traits were assessed in 415 non-diabetic full heritage Pima individuals who had been metabolically phenotyped.SNPs rs601663 and rs659964 were associated with type 2 diabetes in the full-heritage Pima Indian sample (p=0.04 and 0.0006, respectively), and rs659964 was further associated with type 2 diabetes in the second American Indian sample (p=0.04). Combination of these two samples provided the strongest evidence for association (p=0.009 and 0.00007, for rs601663 and rs659964, respectively). Quantitative trait analyses identified nominal associations with both lower lipid oxidation rate and larger subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size, which is consistent with the known physiology of ACAD10, and also identified associations with increased insulin resistance.We propose that ACAD10 variation may increase type 2 diabetes susceptibility by impairing insulin sensitivity via abnormal lipid oxidation.
Pub.: 15 Apr '10, Pinned: 16 Aug '17
Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of methacrylic acid or methacrylic esters, comprising the process steps of IA) preparation of 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid by a process comprising the process step of bringing a cell which has been genetically modified in comparison with its wild type in such a way that it is capable of forming more 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid, or polyhydroxyalkanoates based on 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid in comparison with its wild type, into contact with a nutrient medium comprising, as carbon source, carbohydrates, glycerol, carbon dioxide, methanol, L-valine or L-glutamate under conditions under which 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid or polyhydroxyalkanoates based on 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid are formed from the carbon source, if appropriate, isolation of the 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid from the nutrient medium and also, if appropriate, neutralization of the 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid, IB) dehydration of the 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid with formation of methacrylic acid and also, where appropriate, esterification methacrylic acid. The invention also relates to a process for the preparation of polymethacrylic acid or polymethacrylic esters.
Pub.: 18 Nov '10, Pinned: 16 Aug '17
Abstract: Metformin has utility in cancer prevention and treatment, though the mechanisms for these effects remain elusive. Through genetic screening in C. elegans, we uncover two metformin response elements: the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member-10 (ACAD10). We demonstrate that biguanides inhibit growth by inhibiting mitochondrial respiratory capacity, which restrains transit of the RagA-RagC GTPase heterodimer through the NPC. Nuclear exclusion renders RagC incapable of gaining the GDP-bound state necessary to stimulate mTORC1. Biguanide-induced inactivation of mTORC1 subsequently inhibits growth through transcriptional induction of ACAD10. This ancient metformin response pathway is conserved from worms to humans. Both restricted nuclear pore transit and upregulation of ACAD10 are required for biguanides to reduce viability in melanoma and pancreatic cancer cells, and to extend C. elegans lifespan. This pathway provides a unified mechanism by which metformin kills cancer cells and extends lifespan, and illuminates potential cancer targets. PAPERCLIP.
Pub.: 17 Dec '16, Pinned: 16 Aug '17
Abstract: Antipsychotic Induced Weight Gain (AIWG) is a common and severe side effect of many antipsychotic medications. Mitochondria play a vital role for whole-body energy homeostasis and there is increasing evidence that antipsychotics modulate mitochondrial function. This study aimed to examine the role of variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in conferring risk for AIWG. We selected 168 European-Caucasian individuals from the CATIE sample based upon meeting criteria of multiple weight measures while taking selected antipsychotics (risperidone, quetiapine or olanzapine). We tested the association of 670 nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes with weight change (%) using MAGMA software. Thirty of these genes showed nominally significant P-values (<0.05). We were able to replicate the association of three genes, CLPB, PARL, and ACAD10, with weight change (%) in an independent prospectively assessed AIWG sample. We analyzed mtDNA variants in a subset of 74 of these individuals using next-generation sequencing. No common or rare mtDNA variants were found to be significantly associated with weight change (%) in our sample. Additionally, analysis of mitochondrial haplogroups showed no association with weight change (%). In conclusion, our findings suggest nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes play a role in AIWG. Replication in larger sample is required to validate our initial report of mtDNA variants in AIWG.
Pub.: 12 Jul '17, Pinned: 16 Aug '17
Abstract: The Native American Pima population has the highest incidence of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of any reported population, but the pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown. Genetic studies in Pima Indians have linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 10 (ACAD10) gene polymorphisms, among others, to this predisposition. The gene codes for a protein with a C-terminus region that is structurally similar to members of a family of flavoenzymes-the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs)-that catalyze α,β-dehydrogenation reactions, including the first step in mitochondrial FAO (FAO), and intermediary reactions in amino acids catabolism. Dysregulation of FAO and an increase in plasma acylcarnitines are recognized as important in the pathophysiology of IR and T2DM. To investigate the deficiency of ACAD10 as a monogenic risk factor for T2DM in human, an Acad-deficient mouse was generated and characterized. The deficient mice exhibit an abnormal glucose tolerance test and elevated insulin levels. Blood acylcarnitine analysis shows an increase in long-chain species in the older mice. Nonspecific variable pattern of elevated short-terminal branch-chain acylcarnitines in a variety of tissues was also observed. Acad10 mice accumulate excess abdominal adipose tissue, develop an early inflammatory liver process, exhibit fasting rhabdomyolysis, and have abnormal skeletal muscle mitochondria. Our results identify Acad10 as a genetic determinant of T2DM in mice and provide a model to further investigate genetic determinants for insulin resistance in humans.
Pub.: 26 Jan '17, Pinned: 16 Aug '17
Abstract: In this issue of Cell, Wu et al. employed C. elegans and human cell experiments to identify a pathway through which metformin increases lifespan and inhibits growth. A key transcriptional target, ACAD10, is activated when metformin induces nuclear exclusion of the GTPase RagC, thereby inhibiting mTORC1 through an unexpected mechanism.
Pub.: 17 Dec '16, Pinned: 16 Aug '17
Abstract: We performed exome-wide association studies to identify genetic variants that influence systolic or diastolic blood pressure or confer susceptibility to hypertension in Japanese. The exome-wide association studies were performed with the use of Illumina HumanExome-12 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 BeadChip arrays and with 14,678 subjects, including 8215 individuals with hypertension and 6463 controls. The relation of genotypes of 41,843 single nucleotide polymorphisms to systolic or diastolic blood pressure was examined by linear regression analysis. After Bonferroni's correction, 44 and eight polymorphisms were significantly (P < 1.19 × 10-6) associated with systolic or diastolic blood pressure, respectively, with six polymorphisms (rs12229654, rs671, rs11066015, rs2074356, rs3782886, rs11066280) being associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Examination of the relation of allele frequencies to hypertension with Fisher's exact test revealed that 100 of the 41,843 single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly (P < 1.19 × 10-6) associated with hypertension. Subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and sex showed that five polymorphisms (rs150854849, rs202069030, rs139012426, rs12229654, rs76974938) were significantly (P < 1.25 × 10-4) associated with hypertension. The polymorphism rs12229654 was thus associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and with hypertension. Six polymorphisms (rs12229654 at 12q24.1, rs671 of ALDH2, rs11066015 of ACAD10, rs2074356 and rs11066280 of HECTD4, and rs3782886 of BRAP) were found to be associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with those at 12q24.1 or in ACAD10 or BRAP being novel determinants of blood pressure in Japanese.
Pub.: 01 Jun '17, Pinned: 16 Aug '17