Senior Lecturer, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology
Effects of political economy, climate change and land grabbing on food sustainability
The purpose of this research project is to systematically document the processes of the climate change, massive transitional land grabs from a political economy perspective. This research will be guided with the following questions: what are the constructions of ‘power’ and ‘authority’ especially in the context of land rights, access and usage in African societies? What are the crucial issues of conflicts associated with biofuels development, climate change, transnational commercial deals and mechanism of land seizure in Africa? What relevant, proactive and effective strategies for cooperation towards managing these conflicts and changes in climate emerge from the key actors? What policy directions and theoretical perspectives could emerge from such strategies, especially within the context of the agrarian question in peasantry societies subject to globalization and neoliberal capitalism? This study would analyze the varied land issues, tensions, landscapes of resistance and alternative (opportunities) amongst the parties and then through this process, explore productive strategies for mutual cooperation and benefits. In order to interrogate and answer these questions, four African countries – Nigeria, Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Sierra Leone – have been selected for the study. Each has been drawn from a different sub-Saharan region. The mapped sites in these countries include: the Taraba State in the Northern part of Nigeria, where the Italian conglomerate, ENI, operates an Gassol project; the Ethiopian region of Oromiya which hosts the Austria/USA agrofuel concern, Petro Palm Corporation; the Dezeve community in Bilene District of Mozambique in which Canadian Energem Biofuels Resources runs a biofuel project; and the Makeni region of Sierra Leone, where Addax Bioenergy, a Swiss conglomerate, is engaged in a biofuel project. The data collection would be based on purposively selected samples of both written documents gathered from a variety of libraries and resources, and oral evidences from fieldwork. Well-structured questionnaire will be administered to 120 respondent’s focus group discussions (FGDs).
Abstract: Ongoing expansion of large-scale agriculture critically threatens natural habitats and the pollination services they offer. Creating patches with high plant diversity within farmland is commonly suggested as a measure to benefit pollinators. However, farmers rarely adopt such practice, instead removing naturally occurring plants (weeds). By combining pollinator exclusion experiments with analysis of honeybee behaviour and flower-visitation webs, we found that the presence of weeds allowed pollinators to persist within sunflower fields, maximizing the benefits of the remaining patches of natural habitat to productivity of this large-scale crop. Weed diversity increased flower visitor diversity, hence ameliorating the measured negative effects of isolation from natural habitat. Although honeybees were the most abundant visitors, diversity of flower visitors enhanced honeybee movement, being the main factor influencing productivity. Conservation of natural patches combined with promoting flowering plants within crops can maximize productivity and, therefore, reduce the need for cropland expansion, contributing towards sustainable agriculture.
Pub.: 20 Jan '11, Pinned: 28 Aug '17
Abstract: We present a statistical overview of the publications in theoretical high energy physics (HEP), which emerged in Latin America (LA) in the period between 1990 and 2012. Our study captures the eight Latin American nations, which are dominant in this field of research: Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, Uruguay and Cuba. As an intercontinental benchmark, we compare them with India, Canada, South Korea, Belgium and South Africa. We consider the productivity of research papers in specialized high-impact journals, and the corresponding numbers of citations. In addition we investigate how these records are correlated with three socio-economic indices: the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Education Index (EI).
Pub.: 14 Aug '17, Pinned: 28 Aug '17