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Understanding how plasmonic properties of nanomaterials can be exploited in multiple applications.
Nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, phosphorene, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoparticles etc. exhibit physical properties that allow their exploitation for many applications. One of their interesting properites is plasmonic activity generated by a collective motion of the electrons in the material due to external, oscillating electric field and leading to very large field enhancement. Understanding plasmonic properties is an exciting field on its own as fundamental science, but the effects can be exploited in many ways, such as biosensing, photovoltaics, catalysis, etc. The articles presented here try to give a starting point to those interested in this wide field of science.
Abstract: Plasmonic sensors have been used for a wide-range of biological and chemical sensing applications. Emerging nano-fabrication techniques have enabled these sensors to be cost-effectively mass-manufactured onto various types of substrates. To accompany these advances, major improvements in sensor read-out devices must also be achieved to fully realize the broad impact of plasmonic nano-sensors. Here, we propose a machine learning framework which can be used to design low-cost and mobile multi-spectral plasmonic readers that do not use traditionally employed bulky and expensive stabilized light-sources or high-resolution spectrometers. By training a feature selection model over a large set of fabricated plasmonic nano-sensors, we select the optimal set of illumination light-emitting-diodes needed to create a minimum-error refractive index prediction model, which statistically takes into account the varied spectral responses and fabrication-induced variability of a given sensor design. This computational sensing approach was experimentally validated using a modular mobile plasmonic reader. We tested different plasmonic sensors with hexagonal and square periodicity nano-hole arrays, and revealed that the optimal illumination bands differ from those that are 'intuitively' selected based on the spectral features of the sensor, e.g., transmission peaks or valleys. This framework provides a universal tool for the plasmonics community to design low-cost and mobile multi-spectral readers, helping the translation of nano-sensing technologies to various emerging applications such as wearable sensing, personalized medicine, and point-of-care diagnostics. Beyond plasmonics, other types of sensors that operate based on spectral changes can broadly benefit from this approach, including e.g., aptamer-enabled nanoparticle assays and graphene-based sensors, among others.
Pub.: 28 Jan '17, Pinned: 12 Apr '17
Abstract: Fano resonances are central features in the responses of many systems including atoms, molecules, and nanomaterials. They are consequences of interferences between two channels, most frequently associated to two system modes. In plasmonic materials, Fano interferences between optical modes have been shown, experimentally and theoretically, to induce narrow features in their scattering spectra. By investigating individual silver-gold heterodimers, we first experimentally demonstrate that Fano interference is also a key effect in the optical absorption of plasmonic nano-objects, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Conversely to previously investigated systems, the two interacting modes at the origin of absorptive Fano effect are mostly localized on either one or the other dimer component. Experimental results were obtained by selectively monitoring the optical absorption of one dimer component using a two-color nonlinear time-resolved technique. This also opens the way to full optical far-field non-contact investigations of charge or energy exchanges between nano-objects with a spatial resolution much smaller than the optical wavelength.
Pub.: 21 Sep '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) plays a key role in biochemistry, organic photovoltaics, and lighting sources. FRET is commonly used as a nanoruler for the short nanometer distance between donor and acceptor dyes, yet FRET is equally sensitive to the mutual dipole orientation. The orientation dependence complicates the FRET analysis in biological samples and may even lead to the absence of FRET for perpendicularly oriented donor and acceptor dipoles. Here, we exploit the strongly inhomogeneous and localized fields in plasmonic nanoantennas to open new energy transfer routes, overcoming the limitations from the mutual dipole orientation to ultimately enhance the FRET efficiency. We demonstrate that the simultaneous presence of perpendicular near-field components in the nanoantenna sets favorable energy transfer routes that increase the FRET efficiency up to 50 % for nearly perpendicular donor and acceptor dipoles. This new facet of plasmonic nanoantennas enables dipole-dipole energy transfer that would otherwise be forbidden in a homogeneous environment. As such, our approach further increases the applicability of single molecule FRET over diffraction limited approaches, with the additional benefits of higher sensitivities and higher concentration range towards physiological levels.
Pub.: 14 Sep '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: We investigate different dynamic mechanisms, reflection and phase matching, of surface plasmons in a three-dimensional single-crystalline gold taper excited by relativistic electrons. Plasmonic modes of gold tapers with various opening angles from 5° to 47° are studied both experimentally and theoretically, by means of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and finite-difference time-domain numerical calculations, respectively. Distinct resonances along the taper shaft are observed in tapers independent of opening angles. We show that, despite their similarity, the origin of these resonances is different at different opening angles and results from a competition between two coexisting mechanisms. For gold tapers with large opening angles (above ~20°), phase matching between the electron field and that of higher-order angular momentum modes of the taper is the dominant contribution to the electron energy-loss because of the increasing interaction length between electron and the taper near-field. In contrast, reflection from the taper apex dominates the EELS contrast in gold tapers with small opening angles (below ~10°). For intermediate opening angles, a gradual transition of these two mechanisms was observed.
Pub.: 24 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Plasmon based sensors are excellent tools for a label free detection of small biomolecules. An interesting group of such sensors are plasmonic nanorulers which rely on the plasmon hybridization upon modification of their morphology in order to sense nanoscale distances. Sensor geometries based on interaction of plasmons in a flat metallic layer together with metal nanoparticles inherit unique advantages, but need a special optical excitation configuration not easy to miniaturize. Herein we introduce the concept of nanoruler excitation by direct, electrically induced generation of surface plasmons based on the quantum shot noise of tunneling currents. An electron tunneling junction consisting of a metal-dielectric-semiconductor hetero-structure is directly incorporated into the nanorulers basic geometry. By applying voltage on this modified nanoruler, the plasmon modes are directly excited without any additional optical component as a light source. We demonstrate by several experiments that this electrically driven nanoruler possesses similar properties as an optically exited one and confirm its sensing capabilities by the detection of the binding of small biomolecules such as antibodies. This new sensing principle could open the way to a new platform of highly miniaturized, integrated plasmonic sensors compatible to monolithic integrated circuits.
Pub.: 23 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: The refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic fields has been exploited for over 20 years in analytical technologies. While this sensitivity can be used to achieve attomole detection levels, they are in essence binary measurements which sense the presence / absence of a pre-determined analyte. Using plasmonic fields, not to sense effective refractive indices, but to provide more "granular" information about the structural characteristics of a medium, provides a more information rich output, which affords opportunities to create new powerful and flexible sensing technologies not limited by the need to synthesize chemical recognition elements. Here we report a new plasmonic phenomenon that is sensitive to the biomacromolecular structure without relying on measuring effective refractive indices. Chiral biomaterials mediate the hybridization of electric and magnetic modes of a chiral solid-inverse plasmonic structure, resulting in a measureable change in both reflectivity and chiroptical properties. The phenomenon originates from the electric-dipole - magnetic-dipole response of the biomaterial and is hence sensitive to biomacromolecular secondary structure providing unique fingerprints of -helical, -sheet and disordered motifs. The phenomenon can be observed for sub-chiral plasmonic fields (i.e. fields with a lower chiral asymmetry than circularly polarized light) hence lifting constraints to engineer structures that produce fields with enhanced chirality, thus providing greater flexibility in nanostructure design. To demonstrate the efficacy of the phenomenon we have detected and characterized picogram quantities of simple model helical biopolymers and more complex real proteins.
Pub.: 23 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: We present a theoretical framework, based on plasmonic circuit models, for generating a multi-resonant field intensity enhancement spectrum at a single 'hot spot' in a plasmonic device. We introduce a circuit model, consisting of an array of coupled LC resonators, that directs current asymmetrically in the array, and we show that this circuit can funnel energy efficiently from each resonance to a single element. We implement the circuit model in a plasmonic nanostructure consisting of a series of metal bars of differing length, with nearest neighbor metal bars strongly coupled electromagnetically through air gaps. The resulting nanostructure resonantly traps different wavelengths of incident light in separate gap regions, yet funnels the energy of different resonances to a common location, in consistency with our circuit model. Our work is important for a number of applications of plasmonic nanoantennas in spectroscopy, such as in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy.
Pub.: 16 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) is a novel refractory plasmonic material which can sustain high temperatures and exhibits large optical nonlinearities, potentially opening the door for high-power nonlinear plasmonic applications. We fabricate TiN nanoantenna arrays with plasmonic resonances tunable in the range of about 950 nm to 1050 nm by changing the antenna length. We present second-harmonic (SH) spectroscopy of TiN nanoantenna arrays, which is analyzed using a nonlinear oscillator model with a wavelength-dependent second-order response from the material itself. Furthermore, characterization of the robustness upon strong laser illumination confirms that the TiN antennas are able to endure laser irradiation with high peak intensity up to 15 GW/cm(2) without changing their optical properties and their physical appearance. They outperform gold antennas by one order of magnitude regarding laser power sustainability. Thus, TiN nanoantennas could serve as promising candidates for high-power/high-temperature applications such as coherent nonlinear converters and local heat sources on the nanoscale.
Pub.: 06 Aug '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Lanthanoid series are unique in atomic elements. One reason is because they have 4f electronic states forbidding electric-dipole (ED) transitions in vacuum and another reason is because they are very useful in current-day optical technologies such as lasers and fiber-based telecommunications. Trivalent Er ions are well-known as a key atomic element supporting 1.5 μm band optical technologies and also as complex photoluminescence (PL) band deeply mixing ED and magnetic-dipole (MD) transitions. Here we show large and selective enhancement of ED and MD radiations up to 83- and 26-fold for a reference bulk state, respectively, in experiments employing plasmonic nanocavity arrays. We achieved the marked PL enhancement by use of an optimal design for electromagnetic (EM) local density of states (LDOS) and by Er-ion doping in deep subwavelength precision. We moreover clarify the quantitative contribution of ED and MD radiations to the PL band, and the magnetic Purcell effect in the PL-decay temporal measurement. This study experimentally demonstrates a new scheme of EM-LDOS engineering in plasmon-enhanced photonics, which will be a key technique to develop loss-compensated and active plasmonic devices.
Pub.: 20 Jul '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: The ability to image the optical near-fields of nanoscale structures, map their morphology, and concurrently obtain spectroscopic information, all with high spatiotemporal resolution, is a highly sought-after technique in nanophotonics. As a step toward this goal, we demonstrate the mapping of electromagnetic forces between a nanoscale tip and an optically excited sample consisting of plasmonic nanostructures with an imaging platform based on atomic force microscopy. We present the first detailed joint experimental–theoretical study of this type of photoinduced force microscopy. We show that the enhancement of near-field optical forces in gold disk dimers and nanorods follows the expected plasmonic field enhancements with strong polarization sensitivity. We then introduce a new way to evaluate optically induced tip–sample forces by simulating realistic geometries of the tip and sample. We decompose the calculated forces into in-plane and out-of-plane components and compare the calculated and measured force enhancements in the fabricated plasmonic structures. Finally, we show the usefulness of photoinduced force mapping for characterizing the heterogeneity of near-field enhancements in precisely e-beam fabricated nominally alike nanostructures - a capability of widespread interest for precise nanomanufacturing, SERS, and photocatalysis applications.
Pub.: 18 Nov '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Nanoplasmonics allows label-free optical sensing and spectroscopy at the single nanoparticle level by exploiting plasmonic excitations in metal nanoparticles. Nanofluidics offers exclusive possibilities for applying and controlling fluid flow and mass transport at the nanoscale and toward nanosized objects. Here, we combine these two concepts in a single device, by integrating single particle nanoplasmonic sensing with nanofluidics using advanced nanofabrication. The developed devices enable on-chip referenced parallel single particle nanoplasmonic sensing inside multiple individual nanofluidic channels with dimensions down to the 100 nm range. Beyond detailed discussion of the nanofabrication, general device characterization, and parallelized single particle plasmonic readout concepts, we demonstrate device function on two examples: (i) in situ measurements of local buffer concentrations inside a nanofluidic channel; (ii) real time binding kinetics of alkanethiol molecules to a single plasmonic nanonatenna sensor in a single nanochannel. Our concept thus provides a powerful solution for controlling mass transport to and from individual (plasmonic) nanoparticles, which in a long-term perspective offers unique opportunities for label-free detection of analyte molecules at low concentrations and for fundamental studies of fluids in extreme confinement.
Pub.: 15 Nov '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: The plasmonic properties of metal nanostructures have been heavily utilized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), but the direct photoluminescence (PL) from plasmonic metal nanostructures, especially with plasmonic coupling, has not been widely used as much as SERS and MEF due to the lack of understanding of the PL mechanism, relatively weak signals, and the poor availability of the synthetic methods for the nanostructures with strong PL signals. The direct PL from metal nanostructures is beneficial if these issues can be addressed because it does not exhibit photoblinking or photobleaching, does not require dye-labeling, and can be employed as a highly reliable optical signal that directly depends on nanostructure morphology. Herein, we designed and synthesized plasmonic cube-in-cube (CiC) nanoparticles (NPs) with a controllable interior nanogap in a high yield from Au nanocubes (AuNCs). In synthesizing the CiC NPs, we developed a galvanic void formation (GVF) process, composed of replacement/reduction and void formation steps. We unraveled the super-radiant character of the plasmonic coupling-induced plasmon mode which can result in highly enhanced PL intensity and long-lasting PL, and the PL mechanisms of these structures were analyzed and matched with the plasmon hybridization model. Importantly, the PL intensity and quantum yield (QY) of CiC NPs are 31 times and 16 times higher than those of AuNCs, respectively, which have shown the highest PL intensity and QY reported for metallic nanostructures. Finally, we confirmed the long-term photostability of the PL signal, and the signal remained stable for at least 1 h under continuous illumination.
Pub.: 07 Nov '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: We report real-space, time-resolved imaging of coherently excited acoustic phonon modes in plasmonic nanoparticles via femtosecond electron imaging with an ultrafast electron microscope. The particles studied were cetyl trimethylammonium bromide stabilized Au nanorods (40 × 120 nm), and the particular specimen configurations for which photoinduced vibrational modes were visualized consisted of a single, isolated nanocrystal and a cluster of four irregularly arranged and randomly oriented particles, all supported on an amorphous Si3N4 membrane. In both configurations, we are able to resolve discrete intraparticle acoustic phonon modes via diffraction-contrast modulation with bright-field femtosecond electron imaging. For the single nanorod, we spatiotemporally mapped the intraparticle vibrational energy distribution and decay times. With Fourier filtering, acoustic phonons ranging from 4 to 30 GHz (250 to 33 ps periods, respectively) were visualized, corresponding to bending, extensional, and higher-order modes. Furthermore, heterogeneously distributed intraparticle decay times, ranging from 3 to 10 ns, were spatially mapped, indicating a strong dependence on coupling of the mode to the underlying substrate. For a cluster of four randomly oriented nanorods, we are able to image acoustic phonon modes that are strongly localized to particular particle–particle contact regions within the aggregate. A vibrational mode occurring at 27 GHz (37 ps period) was observed to occur at a 10 nm side-to-end contact region, with other intraparticle points at distances of 20 and 50 nm from the region showing no such dynamics, although the initial few-picosecond diffraction-contrast response was observed changing sign in moving from the end to the center of the particle. Excellent agreement is found between the spatiotemporally mapped vibrational-mode symmetries and finite-element simulations of supported modes in a polymer-coated Au nanorod supported on a Si3N4 membrane. This experiment resolves both the structure and dynamic properties of the plasmonic assembly, providing insight into the characteristics of complex plasmonic assemblies that ultimately determine their response to ultrafast excitation.
Pub.: 24 Oct '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Photocatalysis uses light energy to drive chemical reactions. Conventional industrial catalysts are made of transition metal nanoparticles that interact only weakly with light, while metals such as Au, Ag, and Al that support surface plasmons interact strongly with light but are poor catalysts. By combining plasmonic and catalytic metal nanoparticles, the plasmonic "antenna" can couple light into the catalytic "reactor". This interaction induces an optical polarization in the reactor nanoparticle, forcing a plasmonic response. When this "forced plasmon" decays it can generate hot carriers, converting the catalyst into a photocatalyst. Here we show that precisely oriented, strongly coupled Al-Pd nanodisk heterodimers fabricated using nanoscale lithography can function as directional antenna-reactor photocatalyst complexes. The light-induced hydrogen dissociation rate on these structures is strongly dependent upon the polarization angle of the incident light with respect to the orientation of the antenna-reactor pair. Their high degree of structural precision allows us to microscopically quantify the photocatalytic activity per heterostructure, providing precise photocatalytic quantum efficiencies. This is the first example of precisely designed heterometallic nanostructure complexes for plasmon-enabled photocatalysis and paves the way for high-efficiency plasmonic photocatalysts by modular design.
Pub.: 28 Sep '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Their high oscillator strength and large exciton binding energies make single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) highly promising materials for the investigation of strong-light matter interactions in the near-infrared and at room temperature. To explore their full potential, high-quality cavities - possibly with nanoscale field localization - are required. Here, we demonstrate the room temperature formation of plasmon-exciton polaritons in monochiral (6,5) SWCNTs coupled to the sub-diffraction nanocavities of a plasmonic crystal created by a periodic gold nanodisk array. The interaction strength is easily tuned by the number of SWCNTs that collectively couple to the plasmonic crystal. Angle- and polarization resolved reflectivity and photoluminescence measurements combined with the coupled-oscillator model confirm strong coupling (coupling strength ~120 meV). The combination of plasmon-exciton polaritons with the exceptional charge transport properties of SWCNTs should enable practical polariton devices at room temperature and at telecommunication wavelengths.
Pub.: 24 Sep '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Probing nanooptical near-fields is a major challenge in plasmonics. Here, we demonstrate an experimental method utilizing ultrafast photoemission from plasmonic nanostructures that is capable of probing the maximum nanoplasmonic field enhancement in any metallic surface environment. Directly measured field enhancement values for various samples are in good agreement with detailed finite-difference time-domain simulations. These results establish ultrafast plasmonic photoelectrons as versatile probes for nanoplasmonic near-fields.
Pub.: 18 Jan '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: We demonstrate the integration of black phosphorus photodetector in a hybrid, three-dimensional architecture of silicon photonics and metallic nanoplasmonics structures. This integration approach combines the advantages of low propagation loss of silicon waveguides, high field confinement of a plasmonic nanogap, and the narrow bandgap of black phosphorus to achieve high responsivity for detection of telecom-band near-infrared light. Benefitting from an ultrashort channel (~60 nm) and near-field enhancement enabled by the nanogap structure, the photodetector shows an intrinsic responsivity as high as 10 A/W afforded by internal gain mechanisms, and a 3 dB roll-off frequency of 150 MHz. This device demonstrates a promising approach for on-chip integration of three distinctive photonic systems, which, as a generic platform, may lead to future nanophotonic applications for biosensing, nonlinear optics, and optical signal processing.
Pub.: 11 Jan '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Transient changes of the optical response of WS2 monolayers are studied by femtosecond broadband pump-probe spectroscopy. Time-dependent absorption spectra are analyzed by tracking the linewidth broadening, bleaching, and energy shift of the main exciton resonance as a function of time delay after the excitation. Two main sources for the pump-induced changes of the optical response are identified. Specifically, we find an interplay between modifications induced by many-body interactions from photo-excited carriers and by the subsequent transfer of the excitation to the phonon system followed by cooling of the material through the heat transfer towards the substrate.
Pub.: 07 Jan '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: We present a novel plasmonic antenna structure, a split-wedge antenna, created by splitting an ultrasharp metallic wedge with a nanogap perpendicular to its apex. The nanogap can tightly confine gap plasmons and boost the local optical field intensity in and around these opposing metallic wedge tips. This three-dimensional split-wedge antenna integrates the key features of nanogaps and sharp tips, i.e., tight field confinement and three-dimensional nanofocusing, respectively, into a single platform. We fabricate split-wedge antennas with gaps that are as small as 1 nm in width at the wafer scale by combining silicon V-grooves with template stripping and atomic layer lithography. Computer simulations show that the field enhancement and confinement are stronger at the tip–gap interface compared to what standalone tips or nanogaps produce, with electric field amplitude enhancement factors exceeding 50 when near-infrared light is focused on the tip–gap geometry. The resulting nanometric hotspot volume is on the order of λ3/106. Experimentally, Raman enhancement factors exceeding 107 are observed from a 2 nm gap split-wedge antenna, demonstrating its potential for sensing and spectroscopy applications.
Pub.: 22 Nov '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) can significantly modify the optical properties of nearby organic molecules and thus present an attractive opportunity for sensing applications. However, the utilization of PNPs in conventional absorption, fluorescence or Raman spectroscopy techniques is often ineffective due to strong absorption background and light scattering, particularly in the case of turbid solutions, cell suspensions and biological tissues. Here we show that nonmagnetic organic molecules may exhibit magneto-optical response due to binding to a PNP. Specifically, we detect strong magnetic circular dichroism signal from supramolecular J-aggregates - a representative organic dye - upon binding to silver-coated gold nanorods. We explain this effect by strong coupling between the J-aggregate exciton and the nanoparticle plasmon, leading to the formation of a hybrid state in which the exciton effectively acquires magnetic properties from the plasmon. Our findings are fully corroborated by theoretical modeling and constitute a novel magnetic method for chemo- and bio-sensing, which (upon adequate PNP functionalization) is intrinsically insensitive to the organic background and thus offers a significant advantage over conventional spectroscopy techniques.
Pub.: 06 Feb '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: We introduce a new concept that enables sub-wavelength polarization-resolved probing of the second-harmonic near-field distribution of plasmonic nanostructures. As a local sensor this method utilizes aluminum nanoantennas, which are resonant to the second-harmonic wavelength and which allow to efficiently scatter the local second-harmonic light to the far-field. We place these sensors into the second-harmonic near-field generated by plasmonic nanostructures, and carefully vary their position and orientation. Observing the second-harmonic light resonantly scattered by the aluminum nanoantennas provides polarization-resolved information about the local second-harmonic near-field distribution. We then investigate the polarization-resolved second-harmonic near-field of inversion symmetric gold dipole nanoantennas. Interestingly, we find strong evidence that the second-harmonic dipole is predominantly oriented perpendicular to the gold nanoantenna long axis, although the excitation laser is polarized parallel to the nanoantennas. We believe that our investigations will help to disentangle the highly debated origin of the second-harmonic response of inversion symmetric plasmonic structures. Furthermore, we believe that our new method, which enables the measurement of local nonlinear electric fields, will find widespread implementation and applications in nonlinear near-field optical microscopy.
Pub.: 10 Feb '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Optical nanoantennas have a great potential for enhancing light-matter interactions at the nanometer scale, yet fabrication accuracy and lack of scalability currently limit ultimate antenna performance and applications. In most designs, the region of maximum field localization and enhancement (i.e., hotspot) is not readily accessible to the sample since it is buried into the nanostructure. Moreover, current large-scale fabrication techniques lack reproducible geometrical control below 20 nm. Here, we describe a new nanofabrication technique that applies planarization, etch back and template stripping to expose the excitation hotspot at the surface, providing a major improvement over conventional electron beam lithography methods. We present large flat surface arrays of in-plane nanoantennas, featuring gaps as small as 10 nm with sharp edges, excellent reproducibility and full surface accessibility of the hotspot confined region. The novel fabrication approach drastically improves the optical performance of plasmonic nanoantennas to yield giant fluorescence enhancement factors up to 10(4)-10(5) times, together with nanoscale detection volumes in the 20 zeptoliter range. The method is fully scalable and adaptable to a wide range of antenna designs. We foresee broad applications by the use of these in-plane antenna geometries ranging from large-scale ultra-sensitive sensor chips, to microfluidics and live cell membrane investigations.
Pub.: 10 Feb '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: The advancement of nanoscale electronics has been limited by energy dissipation challenges for over a decade. Such limitations could be particularly severe for two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors integrated with flexible substrates or multi-layered processors, both being critical thermal bottlenecks. To shed light into fundamental aspects of this problem, here we report the first direct measurement of spatially resolved temperature in functioning 2D monolayer MoS2 transistors. Using Raman thermometry we simultaneously obtain tempera-ture maps of the device channel and its substrate. This differential measurement reveals the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of the MoS2 interface (14 ± 4 MWm(-2)K(-1)) is an order magnitude larger than previously thought, yet near the low end of known solid-solid inter-faces. Our study also reveals unexpected insight into non-uniformities of the MoS2 transis-tors (small bilayer regions), which do not cause significant self-heating, suggesting that such semiconductors are less sensitive to inhomogeneity than expected. These results provide key insights into energy dissipation of 2D semiconductors and pave the way for the future design of energy-efficient 2D electronics.
Pub.: 09 Apr '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Electronic circuits provide us with the ability to control the transport and storage of electrons. However, the performance of electronic circuits is now becoming rather limited when digital information needs to be sent from one point to another. Photonics offers an effective solution to this problem by implementing optical communication systems based on optical fibers and photonic circuits. Unfortunately, the micrometer-scale bulky components of photonics have limited the integration of these components into electronic chips, which are now measured in nanometers. Surface plasmon-based circuits, which merge electronics and photonics at the nanoscale, may offer a solution to this size-compatibility problem. Here we review the current status and future prospects of plasmonics in various applications including plasmonic chips, light generation, and nanolithography.
Pub.: 18 Jan '06, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Rapid progress in nanophotonics is driven by the ability of optically resonant nanostructures to enhance near-field effects controlling far-field scattering through intermodal interference. A majority of such effects are usually associated with plasmonic nanostructures. Recently, a new branch of nanophotonics has emerged that seeks to manipulate the strong, optically induced electric and magnetic Mie resonances in dielectric nanoparticles with high refractive index. In the design of optical nanoantennas and metasurfaces, dielectric nanoparticles offer the opportunity for reducing dissipative losses and achieving large resonant enhancement of both electric and magnetic fields. We review this rapidly developing field and demonstrate that the magnetic response of dielectric nanostructures can lead to novel physical effects and applications.
Pub.: 20 Nov '16, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: The ability of light to carry and deliver orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the form of optical vortices has attracted much interest. The physical properties of light with a helical wavefront can be confined onto two-dimensional surfaces with subwavelength dimensions in the form of plasmonic vortices, opening avenues for thus far unknown light-matter interactions. Because of their extreme rotational velocity, the ultrafast dynamics of such vortices remained unexplored. Here we show the detailed spatiotemporal evolution of nanovortices using time-resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy. We observe both long- and short-range plasmonic vortices confined to deep subwavelength dimensions on the scale of 100 nanometers with nanometer spatial resolution and subfemtosecond time-step resolution. Finally, by measuring the angular velocity of the vortex, we directly extract the OAM magnitude of light.
Pub.: 18 Mar '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: The self-assembly of colloids is an alternative to top-down processing that enables the fabrication of nanostructures. We show that self-assembled clusters of metal-dielectric spheres are the basis for nanophotonic structures. By tailoring the number and position of spheres in close-packed clusters, plasmon modes exhibiting strong magnetic and Fano-like resonances emerge. The use of identical spheres simplifies cluster assembly and facilitates the fabrication of highly symmetric structures. Dielectric spacers are used to tailor the interparticle spacing in these clusters to be approximately 2 nanometers. These types of chemically synthesized nanoparticle clusters can be generalized to other two- and three-dimensional structures and can serve as building blocks for new metamaterials.
Pub.: 29 May '10, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: A hallmark of graphene is its unusual conical band structure that leads to a zero-energy band gap at a single Dirac crossing point. By measuring the spectral function of charge carriers in quasi-freestanding graphene with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we showed that at finite doping, this well-known linear Dirac spectrum does not provide a full description of the charge-carrying excitations. We observed composite "plasmaron" particles, which are bound states of charge carriers with plasmons, the density oscillations of the graphene electron gas. The Dirac crossing point is resolved into three crossings: the first between pure charge bands, the second between pure plasmaron bands, and the third a ring-shaped crossing between charge and plasmaron bands.
Pub.: 22 May '10, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: The precise manipulation of a propagating wave using phase control is a fundamental building block of optical systems. The wavefront of a light beam propagating across an interface can be modified arbitrarily by introducing abrupt phase changes. We experimentally demonstrated unparalleled wavefront control in a broadband optical wavelength range from 1.0 to 1.9 micrometers. This is accomplished by using an extremely thin plasmonic layer (~λ/50) consisting of an optical nanoantenna array that provides subwavelength phase manipulation on light propagating across the interface. Anomalous light-bending phenomena, including negative angles of refraction and reflection, are observed in the operational wavelength range.
Pub.: 24 Dec '11, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: The ability to manipulate optical fields and the energy flow of light is central to modern information and communication technologies, as well as quantum information processing schemes. However, because photons do not possess charge, a way of controlling them efficiently by electrical means has so far proved elusive. A promising way to achieve electric control of light could be through plasmon polaritons—coupled excitations of photons and charge carriers—in graphene. In this two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms, it is expected that plasmon polaritons and their associated optical fields can readily be tuned electrically by varying the graphene carrier density. Although evidence of optical graphene plasmon resonances has recently been obtained spectroscopically, no experiments so far have directly resolved propagating plasmons in real space. Here we launch and detect propagating optical plasmons in tapered graphene nanostructures using near-field scattering microscopy with infrared excitation light. We provide real-space images of plasmon fields, and find that the extracted plasmon wavelength is very short—more than 40 times smaller than the wavelength of illumination. We exploit this strong optical field confinement to turn a graphene nanostructure into a tunable resonant plasmonic cavity with extremely small mode volume. The cavity resonance is controlled in situ by gating the graphene, and in particular, complete switching on and off of the plasmon modes is demonstrated, thus paving the way towards graphene-based optical transistors. This successful alliance between nanoelectronics and nano-optics enables the development of active subwavelength-scale optics and a plethora of nano-optoelectronic devices and functionalities, such as tunable metamaterials, nanoscale optical processing, and strongly enhanced light–matter interactions for quantum devices and biosensing applications.
Pub.: 23 Jun '12, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
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