Quantcast


CURATOR

I am a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University.

PINBOARD SUMMARY

Applications of Modern Medical Imaging Techniques for Quantitative​ Engineering Flow Measurements

Engineering flow measurements are essential for numerous industrial and scientific applications, especially in analyzing a thermal-fluids process within an energy system to improve its performance, reliability, and efficiency. Conventional engineering flow measurement techniques, which are limited to providing measurements at a discrete point or plane, provide accurate information, but are either intrusive or require direct optical access. Obtaining full-field engineering flow measurements using existing techniques is difficult and seldom done. For complex engineering flows, an accurate and detailed full-field understanding of its flow characteristics is needed to optimize performance and/or test computational models. Modern medical imaging techniques offer the capability of providing non-intrusive detailed three-dimensional full-field quantitative measurements of engineering flow properties. X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Ultrasonography are the most commonly used modern medical imaging modalities. They provide detailed non-invasive structural and function information about tissue and organ physiology and have been instrumental in diagnosing and monitoring pathological progression or treatments of patients. Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of using X-ray CT and MRI to investigate engineering fluid flows.

6 ITEMS PINNED

Effect of measurement volume size on turbulent flow measurement using ultrasonic Doppler method

Abstract: This paper presents the results of an investigation on the effects of measurement volume size on the mean velocity profile and the Reynolds stress for fully developed turbulent pipe flows. The study employs the ultrasonic velocity profile method, which is based on the ultrasonic Doppler method. The ultrasonic Doppler method offers many advantages over conventional methods for flow rate measurement in the nuclear power plant piping system. This method is capable of measuring the instantaneous velocity profile along the measuring line and is applicable for opaque liquids and opaque pipe wall materials. Furthermore, the method has the characteristic of being non-intrusive. Although it is applicable to various flow conditions, it requires a relatively large measurement volume. The measurement volume of the present method has a disk-shape determined by the effective diameter of the piezoelectric element and the number of the wave cycles of the ultrasonic pulse. Considering this disk-shaped measurement volume and expressing the time-averaged velocity in a truncated Taylor series expansion around the value at the center of the measuring control volume, the value of the velocity can be obtained. The results are then compared with the data obtained from DNS and LDA measurements. The result shows that the effect of the measurement volume size appears in the buffer region and viscous sublayer.

Pub.: 28 Oct '03, Pinned: 29 Jun '17

Magnetic resonance velocimetry: applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the measurement of fluid motion

Abstract: Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) is a non-invasive technique capable of measuring the three-component mean velocity field in complex three-dimensional geometries with either steady or periodic boundary conditions. The technique is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and works in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets used for clinical imaging. Velocities can be measured along single lines, in planes, or in full 3D volumes with sub-millimeter resolution. No optical access or flow markers are required so measurements can be obtained in clear or opaque MR compatible flow models and fluids. Because of its versatility and the widespread availability of MRI scanners, MRV is seeing increasing application in both biological and engineering flows. MRV measurements typically image the hydrogen protons in liquid flows due to the relatively high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Nonetheless, lower SNR applications such as fluorine gas flows are beginning to appear in the literature. MRV can be used in laminar and turbulent flows, single and multiphase flows, and even non-isothermal flows. In addition to measuring mean velocity, MRI techniques can measure turbulent velocities, diffusion coefficients and tensors, and temperature. This review surveys recent developments in MRI measurement techniques primarily in turbulent liquid and gas flows. A general description of MRV provides background for a discussion of its accuracy and limitations. Techniques for decreasing scan time such as parallel imaging and partial k-space sampling are discussed. MRV applications are reviewed in the areas of physiology, biology, and engineering. Included are measurements of arterial blood flow and gas flow in human lungs. Featured engineering applications include the scanning of turbulent flows in complex geometries for CFD validation, the rapid iterative design of complex internal flow passages, velocity and phase composition measurements in multiphase flows, and the scanning of flows through porous media. Temperature measurements using MR thermometry are discussed. Finally, post-processing methods are covered to demonstrate the utility of MRV data for calculating relative pressure fields and wall shear stresses.

Pub.: 23 Oct '07, Pinned: 29 Jun '17

Measurement of turbulence statistics in single-phase and two-phase flows using ultrasound imaging velocimetry

Abstract: Ultrasound imaging velocimetry (UIV) has received considerable interest as a tool to measure in non-transparent flows. So far, studies have only reported statistics for steady flows or used a qualitative approach. In this study, we demonstrate that UIV has matured to a level where accurate turbulence statistics can be obtained. The technique is first validated in laminar and fully developed turbulent pipe flow (single-phase, with water as fluid) at a Reynolds number of 5300. The flow statistics agree with the literature data. Subsequently, we obtain similar statistics in turbulent two-phase flows at the same Reynolds number, by adding solid particles up to volume fraction of 3 %. In these cases, the medium is completely opaque, yet UIV provides useable data. The error in the measurements is estimated using an ad hoc approach at a volume load up to 10 %. For this case, the errors are approximately 1.9 and 0.3 % of the centerline velocity for the streamwise and radial velocity components, respectively. Additionally, it is demonstrated that it is possible to estimate the local concentration in stratified flows. Ultrasound imaging velocimetry (UIV) has received considerable interest as a tool to measure in non-transparent flows. So far, studies have only reported statistics for steady flows or used a qualitative approach. In this study, we demonstrate that UIV has matured to a level where accurate turbulence statistics can be obtained. The technique is first validated in laminar and fully developed turbulent pipe flow (single-phase, with water as fluid) at a Reynolds number of 5300. The flow statistics agree with the literature data. Subsequently, we obtain similar statistics in turbulent two-phase flows at the same Reynolds number, by adding solid particles up to volume fraction of 3 %. In these cases, the medium is completely opaque, yet UIV provides useable data. The error in the measurements is estimated using an ad hoc approach at a volume load up to 10 %. For this case, the errors are approximately 1.9 and 0.3 % of the centerline velocity for the streamwise and radial velocity components, respectively. Additionally, it is demonstrated that it is possible to estimate the local concentration in stratified flows.

Pub.: 22 Oct '16, Pinned: 29 Jun '17

Ultrasound Imaging Velocimetry: a review

Abstract: Abstract Whole-field velocity measurement techniques based on ultrasound imaging (a.k.a. ‘ultrasound imaging velocimetry’ or ‘echo-PIV’) have received significant attention from the fluid mechanics community in the last decade, in particular because of their ability to obtain velocity fields in flows that elude characterisation by conventional optical methods. In this review, an overview is given of the history, typical components and challenges of these techniques. The basic principles of ultrasound image formation are summarised, as well as various techniques to estimate flow velocities; the emphasis is on correlation-based techniques. Examples are given for a wide range of applications, including in vivo cardiovascular flow measurements, the characterisation of sediment transport and the characterisation of complex non-Newtonian fluids. To conclude, future opportunities are identified. These encompass not just optimisation of the accuracy and dynamic range, but also extension to other application areas.AbstractWhole-field velocity measurement techniques based on ultrasound imaging (a.k.a. ‘ultrasound imaging velocimetry’ or ‘echo-PIV’) have received significant attention from the fluid mechanics community in the last decade, in particular because of their ability to obtain velocity fields in flows that elude characterisation by conventional optical methods. In this review, an overview is given of the history, typical components and challenges of these techniques. The basic principles of ultrasound image formation are summarised, as well as various techniques to estimate flow velocities; the emphasis is on correlation-based techniques. Examples are given for a wide range of applications, including in vivo cardiovascular flow measurements, the characterisation of sediment transport and the characterisation of complex non-Newtonian fluids. To conclude, future opportunities are identified. These encompass not just optimisation of the accuracy and dynamic range, but also extension to other application areas.

Pub.: 15 Dec '16, Pinned: 29 Jun '17