Research Fellow, University of Health and Allied Sciences (UHAS), Ho
A shift primarily from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases such as stroke, cardiovascular disease, diabetes is evident. Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for most non-communicable diseases/lifestyle diseases and unhealthy lifestyles such as physical inactivity, poor dietary practices, smoking are associated with obesity and overweight. Though these lifestyle diseases are observed to emerge in old age after long exposure to unhealthy lifestyles, the prevalence of these diseases has been reported amongst the youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to its protracted nature it reduces the quality of life and leads to premature death. It is on the basis of these, that this study was carried out to explore misconceptions about physical activity among youth in Ghana. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussions. Results indicate the need to address misconceptions amongst young Ghanaians if physical inactivity a leading risk factor to non-communicable diseases is to be reduced.
Abstract: To investigate the clustering of risk behaviors for chronic non-communicable diseases and their associated factors among adolescents from Southern Brazil.In 2008, a survey was conducted with 3990 adolescents aged 14-15 years (mean: 14.3; SD: 0.6) from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Clustering was determined by comparing observed (O) and expected (E) prevalence of all possible combinations of the four risk factors investigated (smoking, alcohol intake, low fruit intake, and physical inactivity). We carried out Poisson regression to evaluate the effect of individual characteristics on the presence of at least three risk behaviors.All risk factors tended to cluster together (O/E prevalence=3.0), especially smoking and alcohol intake (odds ratio to present on behavior in the presence of other >5.0). Approximately 15% of adolescents displayed three or more risk behaviors. Females (adjusted OR=1.55), people 15 years and older (OR=1.47), with black skin color (OR=1.23), and of low socioeconomic level (OR=1.29) were more likely to display three or more risk factors.These findings suggest that lifestyle-related risk factors tend to cluster among adolescents. Identifying subgroups at greater risk of simultaneously engaging in multiple risk behaviors may aid in the planning of preventive strategies.
Pub.: 10 Apr '12, Pinned: 19 Jun '17