Ph.D. Candidate, University of Manitoba
An Innovative Medical Imaging Technique for Monitoring Breast Cancer Treatment
The diagnosis and treatment of cancer has been a major focus of medical research for decades. As technology and methodologies advance, we continue to improve medical imaging practices by increasing the resolution and sensitivity of images, while attempting to make imaging techniques less harmful and more comfortable for patients. Microwave Tomography (MWT) is a low-cost, portable alternative to conventional imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and X-ray mammography. Using safe, non-ionizing radiation makes MWT ideal for the diagnosis of breast cancer and the monitoring of its treatment. We aim to design a pre-clinical procedure for breast cancer imaging which is an effective tool for monitoring tumour response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. This imaging technology will provide us with valuable information for diagnosing the tumour type, and allow us to track changes in size during treatment. The goal is to push this emerging science forward, and contribute in making it a safe and affordable technology, clinically available in the near future.
Abstract: We present a pilot study using a microwave tomography system in which we image the forearms of 5 adult male and female volunteers between the ages of 30 and 48. Microwave scattering data were collected at 0.8 to 1.2 GHz with 24 transmitting and receiving antennas located in a matching fluid of deionized water and table salt. Inversion of the microwave data was performed with a balanced version of the multiplicative-regularized contrast source inversion algorithm formulated using the finite-element method (FEM-CSI). T1-weighted MRI images of each volunteer's forearm were also collected in the same plane as the microwave scattering experiment. Initial "blind" imaging results from the utilized inversion algorithm show that the image quality is dependent on the thickness of the arm's peripheral adipose tissue layer; thicker layers of adipose tissue lead to poorer overall image quality. Due to the exible nature of the FEM-CSI algorithm used, prior information can be readily incorporated into the microwave imaging inversion process. We show that by introducing prior information into the FEM-CSI algorithm the internal anatomical features of all the arms are resolved, significantly improving the images. The prior information was estimated manually from the blind inversions using an ad hoc procedure.
Pub.: 12 Sep '13, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Effective imaging of human tissue with microwave tomography systems requires a matching fluid to reduce the wave reflections at the tissue boundary. Further, in order to match the idealized mathematical model used for imaging with the complicated physical measurement environment, loss must be added to the matching fluid. Both too little and too much loss result in low-quality images, but due to the nonlinear nature of the imaging problem, the exact nature of loss-to-image quality cannot be predicted a priori. Possible optimal loss levels include a single, highly sensitive value, or a broad range of acceptable losses. Herein, the authors outline a process of determining an appropriate level of loss inside the matching fluid and attempt to determine the bounds for which the images are the highest quality.Our biomedical microwave tomography system is designed for 2D limb imaging, operating from 0.8 to 1.2 GHz. Our matching fluid consists of deionized water with various levels of loss introduced by the addition of table salt. Using two homogeneous tissue-mimicking phantoms, and eight different matching fluids of varying salt concentrations, the authors introduce quantitative image quality metrics based on L-norms, mean values, and standard deviations to test the tomography system and assess image quality. Images are generated with a balanced multiplicative regularized contrast source inversion algorithm. The authors further generate images of a human forearm which may be analyzed qualitatively.The image metrics for the phantoms support the claim that the worst images occur at the extremes of high and low salt concentrations. Importantly, the image metrics show that there exists a broad range of salt concentrations that result in high-quality images, not a single optimal value. In particular, 2.5-4.5 g of table salt per liter of deionized water provide the best reconstruction quality for simple phantoms. The authors argue that qualitatively, the human forearm data provide the best images at approximately the same salt concentrations.There exists a relatively large-range of matching fluid losses (i.e., salt concentrations) that provide similar image quality. In particular, it is not necessary to spend time highly optimizing the level of loss in the matching fluid.
Pub.: 08 Feb '13, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: In this paper, we describe a 2-D wideband microwave imaging system intended for biomedical imaging. The system is capable of collecting data from 3 to 6 GHz, with 24 coresident antenna elements connected to a vector network analyzer via a 2 x 24 port matrix switch. As one of the major sources of error in the data collection process is a result of the strongly coupling 24 coresident antennas, we provide a novel method to avoid the frequencies where the coupling is large enough to prevent successful imaging. Through the use of two different nonlinear reconstruction schemes, which are an enhanced version of the distorted born iterative method and the multiplicative regularized contrast source inversion method, we show imaging results from dielectric phantoms in free space. The early inversion results show that with the frequency selection procedure applied, the system is capable of quantitatively reconstructing dielectric objects, and show that the use of the wideband data improves the inversion results over single-frequency data.
Pub.: 26 Nov '09, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Although Krylov subspace methods provide fast regularization techniques for the microwave imaging problem, they cannot preserve the edges of the object being imaged and may result in an oscillatory reconstruction. To suppress these spurious oscillations and to provide an edge-preserving regularization, we use a multiplicative regularizer which improves the reconstruction results significantly while adding little computational complexity to the inversion algorithm. We show the inversion results for a real human forearm assuming the 2-D transverse magnetic illumination and a cylindrical object assuming the 2-D transverse electric illumination.
Pub.: 29 Jul '09, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Join Sparrho today to stay on top of science
Discover, organise and share research that matters to you