A pinboard by
Aimon hasan

pharmaceutical student, Jinnah sindh medical university


Prickly pear cactus is a cheap and nutritional plant which can give lots of medicinal benefits

Scientific name: Opuntia ficus indica

English name: Prickly pear cactus

Local name: Naag phani

Family: cactaceae


   Opuntia ficus-indica is currently consumed for their nutritional properties. Since long time, fruits and stems of many Opuntia species have been used in medicine for burns, wounds, edema, bronchial asthma, hypertension, indigestion, and type 2 diabetes. Extracts of Opuntia species have been reported to exhibit hypoglycemic, antiulcer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities. However, less is known regarding inflammatory response properties.

          Nowadays, the cactus is the focus of many studies because they contain bioactive (phytochemicals) compounds, well known for their health related properties. It has been revealing a positive correlation between a diet rich in prickly pear cactus and a reduced risk of diseases associated with oxidativestress, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. 

       So far, there is no report about the diverse/toxic effects on humans. This review will help in understanding better pharmacological effects and therapeutic potential in other diseases. 


       All over the world people are facing aging problems due to the formation of free radicals in body. These free radicals causes aging problem and a person become aged before time. Along with aging other diseases also rises and like this many diseases take control over the population. These problems arises due to the intake of contaminated food and taking excess fats in the body. One can avoid these improper intake of harmful food but it is found difficult for most of the people. Not every disease is caused by the intake of harmful food but some are genetical diseases and some are maybe accidental. 

       The main purpose of this literature review is to become aware of the medicinal values of prickly pear cactus which play very important role in controlling many diseases due to its rich phytochemical constituents. 

(Opuntia ficus-indica) commonly known as prickly pear cactus belongs to the family Cactaceae. This cactaceae family is reported to contain about 130 genera and nearly 1500 all well adapted to arid lands and to a diversity of climates and are naturalized in several areas all over the world.

 Prickly pear cactus plant’s parts are used as edible purpose in many countries and as a traditional medicine. In m

Humoral measurement of type-1 hypersensitivity reactions to a commercial Malassezia allergen.

Abstract: Malassezia pachydermatis is considered to be a contributing factor to canine atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the humoral response to a commercially produced M. pachydermatis extract. Fifteen atopic dogs with Malassezia overgrowth on the skin (MD), 16 atopic dogs without MD, three atopic dogs with overgrowth of Malassezia in the ears only (MO), and 12 normal dogs were intradermally tested with M. pachydermatis extract at 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 PNU mL(-1). All dogs were evaluated cytologically by cutaneous tape strip and bilateral ear exudate sampling to determine presence of MD or MO. Each had serum evaluated for anti-Malassezia IgE using three Malassezia extracts with an ELISA assay. The irritant threshold concentration at which healthy nonatopic dogs ceased to react was 1000 PNU mL(-1). There was a significant difference in intradermal test reactivity between the atopic groups. At this dilution, 93% (14/15) of the atopic MD group, 31% (5/16) of the atopic group without MD or MO, and 100% (3/3) of the atopic MO only group reacted. There were no significant differences in the serum IgE levels as measured by the Greer ELISA assay, between any groups using any of the three extracts. These results support that Greer's M. pachydermatis extract is useful for intradermal testing of dogs with an allergic phenotype, and that atopics with MD are more likely to have a type-1 Malassezia hypersensitivity than those without. The ELISA assay may require further development in order to be useful for the diagnosis of Malassezia hypersensitivity.

Pub.: 17 Aug '05, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Phenotypic characterization and in vitro antifungal sensitivity of Candida spp. and Malassezia pachydermatis strains from dogs.

Abstract: Yeasts of the genera Candida and Malassezia can be found as commensal microorganisms in animals. The main species of importance in veterinary medicine are Malassezia pachydermatis and Candida albicans. The objectives of this study were to conduct a phenotypic characterization and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal sensitivity of strains of C. albicans (n=5), C. tropicalis (n=3) and M. pachydermatis (n=32) isolated from dogs. The phenotyping was based on macro and micromorphological features as well as biochemical analysis. The techniques of microdilution in broth and dilution in agar were used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of Candida spp. and M. pachydermatis, respectively. The tested drugs were ketoconazole (KTC), itraconazole (ITC), fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). The morphological analysis of the strains of Candida spp. and M. pachydermatis did not show any noteworthy alterations when compared to standard strains. On the other hand, in the biochemical tests, 34.4% of the strains of M. pachydermatis were negative for the urease test. Four strains of C. albicans were resistant to FLC with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >64microg/mL and all were resistant to KTC and ITC (MIC>16microg/mL). The MIC for two strains of C. tropicalis were >16microg/mL for KTC and ITC, and >64microg/mL for FLC. It is worth highlighting that all of the strains tested were sensitive to AMB with the MIC varying from 0.25-1.0microg/mL. All strains of M. pachydermatis were sensitive to ITC with a minimum fungistatic concentration (MFC) 0.0075microg/mL. The MIC for 29 strains was the same (MFC0.0075microg/mL) for KTC. The MFCs for FLC varied from 1 to 16microg/mL, and for AMB, the MFC interval was 0.125-8microg/mL. There were no alterations in the classic phenotypic features of the strains of Candida spp. and M. pachydermatis isolated from dogs but, unlike M. pachydermatis, Candida spp. were much more resistant to azole antifungal agents.

Pub.: 26 Dec '06, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Efficacy of medicinal essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia sp. isolates.

Abstract: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the distribution pattern and population size of Malassezia species in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the inhibitory efficacy of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates.The samples were collected from 5 different anatomical sites of 33 atopic dogs and cultured onto modified Dixon agar (MDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation using Clevenger system. Anti-Malassezia efficacy of medicinal essential oils and standard drugs was evaluated using broth microdilution method.A total of 103 yeast colonies were isolated from dogs with AD. Eight different Malassezia species were identified as follows: Malassezia pachydermatis (81.4%), M. globosa (7.8%), M. restricta (3.9%), M. sloofiae (2.9%), M. furfur (1%), M. nana (1%), M. obtusa (1%) and M. sympodialis (1%). The most and least infected sites were: anal (21.2%) and ear (10.6%) respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent Malassezia species isolated from both skin and mucosa of dogs with AD. Antifungal susceptibility test revealed the inhibitory efficacy of essential oils on pathogenic Malassezia isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 30 to 850μg/mL. Among the tested oils, Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus exhibited the highest inhibitory effects (P<0.05).The essential oils of Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus showed strong antifungal activity against pathogenic Malassezia species tested.

Pub.: 26 Nov '15, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Antibacterial activity and interactions of plant essential oil combinations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of several essential oils (EOs) alone and in combination against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria associated with food products. Parsley, lovage, basil, and thyme EOs, as well as their mixtures (1:1, v/v), were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. The inhibitory effects ranged from strong (thyme EO against E. coli) to no inhibition (parsley EO against P. aeruginosa). Thyme EO exhibited strong (against E. coli), moderate (against S. typhimurium and B. cereus), or mild inhibitory effects (against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus), and basil EO showed mild (against E. coli and B. cereus) or no inhibitory effects (against S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus). Parsley and lovage EOs revealed no inhibitory effects against all tested strains. Combinations of lovage/thyme and basil/thyme EOs displayed antagonistic effects against all bacteria, parsley/thyme EOs against B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, and lovage/basil EOs against B. cereus and E. coli. Combinations of parsley/lovage and parsley/basil EOs exhibited indifferent effects against all bacteria. The combination of lovage/basil EO showed indifferent effect against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhimurium, and the combination parsley/thyme EO against S. typhimurium. Thyme EO has the highest percentage yield and antibacterial potential from all tested formulations; its combination with parsley, lovage, and basil EOs determines a reduction of its antibacterial activity. Hence, it is recommended to be used alone as the antibacterial agent.

Pub.: 15 Jul '16, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Comparison of essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.

Abstract: Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), is an annual herb in the Apiaceae family which disperses in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions. The Coriander essential oil has been used in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries for its flavor and odor. In Iran, fruits of Coriander used in pickle, curry powders, sausages, cakes, pastries, biscuits and buns. The aim of this study was to investigate microwave radiation effects on quality, quantity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Coriander fruits. The essential oils were obtained from the Coriander fruits by hydrodistillation (HD) and Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) then, the oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans by microdilution method. The results indicated that the HD and MAHD essential oils (EO) were dominated by monoterpenoids such as linalool, geranyl acetate and γ-terpinene. The major compound in both EO was linalool which its amount in HD and MAHD was 63 % and 66 %, respectively. The total amount of monoterpenes hydrocarbons in HD EO differ significantly with the amount in MAHD EO (12.56 % compare to 1.82 %). HD EO showed greater activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans than MAHD EO. Moreover, their activities against Ecoli and P. aeruginosa were the same with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 0.781 and 6.25 μL mL(-1), respectively. By using MAHD method, it was superior in terms of saving energy and extraction time, although the oil yield and total composition decrease by using this method.

Pub.: 02 Apr '15, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Vapor-phase activities of cinnamon, thyme, and oregano essential oils and key constituents against foodborne microorganisms.

Abstract: The aim of the study presented here was to gain knowledge about the vapor-phase antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils and their major putatively active constituents against a range of foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. In a first step, the vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of three commercially available essential oils (EOs)-cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and oregano (Origanum vulgare)-were evaluated against a wide range of microorganisms, including Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella choleraesuis), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis), molds (Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus), and a yeast (Candida albicans). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were generally lower for oregano EO than for the thyme and cinnamon EOs, especially against the relatively resistant Gram-negative. The persistence of the EOs' antimicrobial activities over time was assessed, and changes in the composition of the atmosphere they generated over time were determined using single-drop microextraction (SDME) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and subsequent analysis of the data by principal component analysis (PCA). More relevant chemicals were selected. In addition, the vapor-phase activities of putatively key constituents of the oils were screened against representative Gram-positive (L. monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (S. choleraesuis) bacteria, a mold (A. flavus), and a yeast (C. albicans). Of the tested compounds, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol showed the strongest antimicrobial effectiveness, so their MICs, defined as the minimum vapor concentrations that completely inhibited detectable growth of the microorganisms, were calculated. To check for possible interactions between components present in the EOs, cinnamon EO was fortified with cinnamaldehyde and thyme EO with thymol, and then the antimicrobial activities of the fortified oils were compared to those of the respective unfortified EOs using fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices and by plotting inhibition curves as functions of the vapor-phase concentrations. Synergistic effects were detected for cinnamaldehyde on A. flavus and for thymol on L. monocytogenes, S. choleraesuis, and A. flavus. In all other cases the fortification had additive effects, except for cinnamaldehyde's activity against S. choleraesuis, for which the effect was antagonistic. Finally, various microorganisms were found to cause slight changes over time to the atmospheres generated by all of the EOs (fortified and unfortified) except the fortified cinnamon EO.

Pub.: 10 May '07, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Alternative treatment of vaginal infections – in vitro antimicrobial and toxic effects of Coriandrum sativum L. and Thymus vulgaris L. essential oils.

Abstract: The aims of study were to examine the antibacterial potential of two commercial essential oils (EOs) from coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) against vaginal clinical strains of bacteria and yeast and their chemical composition.Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils were determined using macro-diffusion (disc, well) and micro-dilution method in 96-well micro plates against twelve clinical strains of bacteria: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp., Staph. aureus ATCC 25923, ATCC 6538 and E. coli 25922 and two clinical Candida albicans strains, including ATTC 10231. Spectrophotometric method was used for determination on C. albicans growth. An antimicrobial effect of EOs was strain specific. Bactericidal activity was higher for coriander EO (minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) 0·4-45·4 μl ml(-1)) against almost all tested bacteria, except multiple resistant strains of Eneterococcus sp. and Proteus sp. Thyme EO showed slightly better fungicidal activity reaching MIC at 0·11 mg ml(-1) for all C. albicans strains. The effect of EOs on biofilm-forming ability was tested for two strains of Staph. aureus and E. coli, as well as on C. albicans filamentation ability. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay revealed thymus oil total toxicity and coriander oil intoxicity (LC50 = 2·25 mg ml(-1)). The chemical composition of oils was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry showing oxygenated monoterepenes as dominant constituents.The results provide in-vitro scientific support for the safety possible use of Coriander EO against E. coli, Staph. aureus and C. albicans vaginal infections in alternative gynaecological treatment.To examine EOs as possible constituent of naturally based antimicrobial agents in vaginaletes for safety gynaecological application.

Pub.: 26 Jun '15, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Action of essential oils from Brazilian native and exotic medicinal species on oral biofilms.

Abstract: Essential oils (EO) obtained from twenty medicinal and aromatic plants were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the oral pathogens Candida albicans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis.The antimicrobial activity of the EO was evaluates by microdilution method determining Minimal Inhibitory Concentration. Chemical analysis of the oils compounds was performed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CG-MS). The most active EO were also investigated as to their actions on the biolfilm formation.The most of the essential oils (EO) presented moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the oral pathogens (MIC--Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations values between 0.007 and 1.00 mg/mL). The essential oil from Coriandrum sativum inhibited all oral species with MIC values from 0.007 to 0.250 mg/mL, and MBC/MFC (Minimal Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentrations) from 0.015 to 0.500 mg/mL. On the other hand the essential oil of C. articulatus inhibited 63.96% of S. sanguis biofilm formation. Through Scanning Eletronic Microscopy (SEM) images no changes were observed in cell morphology, despite a decrease in biofilm formation and changes on biofilm structure. Chemical analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) of the C. sativum essential oil revealed major compounds derivatives from alcohols and aldehydes, while Cyperus articulatus and Aloysia gratissima (EOs) presented mono and sesquiterpenes.In conclusion, the crude oil from C. articulatus exhibited the best results of antimicrobial activity e ability to control biofilm formation. The chemical analysis showed the presence of terpenes and monoterpenes such as a-pinene, a-bulnesene and copaene. The reduction of biofilms formation was confirmed from SEM images. The results of this research shows a great potential from the plants studied as new antimicrobial sources.

Pub.: 20 Nov '14, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils from Iranian aromatic plants against common causes of oral infections.

Abstract: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases.This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections.The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods.The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity.The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens.

Pub.: 21 Mar '15, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Zhumeria majdae, Heracleum persicum and Eucalyptus sp. against some important phytopathogenic fungi.

Abstract: Application of essential oils of medicinal plants is considered a safe and acceptable method for plant disease management to protect plants from pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, in recent study, essential oils (EOs) from Zhumeria majdae, Heracleum persicum (two Iranian endemic plants) and Eucalyptus sp. were assayed for their antifungal potential against ten phytopathogenic fungi, including Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium redolens f.sp. dianthus, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tubingensis, Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium cladosporioides. Chemical composition of these oils was identified by GC-MS analysis. Based on our results, Z. majdae essential oil exhibited the best antifungal activity among tested essential oils, completely inhibiting growth of five fungal species. EOs of Eucalyptus sp. and H. persicum showed moderate and poor antifungal capacity, respectively. GC-MS analysis demonstrated that linalool and camphor were the main components of the essential oils of Z. majdae; furthermore, 1,8-cineole and hexyl ester formed the major portions of Eucalyptus sp. and H. persicum EOs. Due to the significant inhibition of some EOs, additional research about their use for control of plant diseases caused by these fungi is recommended.

Pub.: 02 Aug '17, Pinned: 21 Sep '17

Plant growth and resistance promoted by Streptomyces spp. in tomato.

Abstract: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent an alternative to improve plant growth and yield as well as to act as agents of biocontrol. This study characterized isolates of Streptomyces spp. (Stm) as PGPR, determined the antagonism of these isolates against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb), evaluated the ability of Stm on promoting growth and modulating the defense-related metabolism of tomato plants, and the potential of Stm isolates on reducing soft rot disease in this species. The VOC profile of Stm was also verified. Promotion of plant growth was assessed indirectly through VOC emission and by direct interaction with Stm isolates in the roots. Evaluation of soft rot disease was performed in vitro on plants treated with Stm and challenged with Pcb. Enzymes related to plant defense were then analyzed in plants treated with three selected isolates of Stm, and PM1 was chosen for further Pcb-challenging experiment. Streptomyces spp. isolates displayed characteristics of PGPR. PM3 was the isolate with efficient antagonism against Pcb by dual-culture. Most of the isolates promoted growth of root and shoot of tomato plants by VOC, and PM5 was the isolate that most promoted growth by direct interaction with Stm. Soft rot disease and mortality of plants were significantly reduced when plants were treated with StmPM1. Modulation of secondary metabolism was observed with Stm treatment, and fast response of polyphenoloxidases was detected in plants pretreated with StmPM1 and challenged with Pcb. Peroxidase was significantly activated three days after infection with Pcb in plants pretreated with StmPM1. Results suggest that Streptomyces sp. PM1 and PM5 have the potential to act as PGPR.

Pub.: 02 Aug '17, Pinned: 21 Sep '17