PhD student, the university of Sydney
How dis-regulation of protein complexes onset cancer
Gene regulation is a key mechanism in cancer onset and progression and various protein complexes are involved in this process like NuRD complex. It is our hypothesis that elucidation of the functional basis for NuRD complex activity will provide mechanistic insights into gene regulation and the likely causes underlying the association of NuRD with cancer biology.
Abstract: Although it is apparent that chromosome complement mediates sexually dimorphic expression patterns of some proteins that lead to functional differences, there has been insufficient evidence following the manipulation of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) gene expression during neural development. In this study, we profiled the expression of 23 MSY genes and 15 of their X-linked homologues during neural cell differentiation of NTERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cell line (NT2) cells in three different developmental stages using qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. The expression level of 12 Y-linked genes significantly increased over neural differentiation, including RBMY1, EIF1AY, DDX3Y, HSFY1, BPY2, PCDH11Y, UTY, RPS4Y1, USP9Y, SRY, PRY, and ZFY. We showed that siRNA-mediated knockdown of DDX3Y, a DEAD box RNA helicase enzyme, in neural progenitor cells impaired cell cycle progression and increased apoptosis, consequently interrupting differentiation. Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics based on a spectral counting approach was then used to characterize the proteomic profile of the cells after DDX3Y knockdown. Among 917 reproducibly identified proteins detected, 71 proteins were differentially expressed following DDX3Y siRNA treatment compared with mock treated cells. Functional grouping indicated that these proteins were involved in cell cycle, RNA splicing, and apoptosis, among other biological functions. Our results suggest that MSY genes may play an important role in neural differentiation and demonstrate that DDX3Y could play a multifunctional role in neural cell development, probably in a sexually dimorphic manner.
Pub.: 07 Jul '15, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: The human Y chromosome has an inevitable role in male fertility because it contains many genes critical for spermatogenesis and the development of the male gonads. Any genetic variation or epigenetic modification affecting the expression pattern of Y chromosome genes may thus lead to male infertility. In this study, we performed isoform-level gene expression profiling of Y chromosome genes within the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions, their X chromosome counterparts, and few autosomal paralogues in testicular biopsies of 12 men with preserved spermatogenesis and 68 men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) (40 Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS) and 28 premiotic maturation arrest (MA)). This was undertaken using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) at the transcript level and Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) at the protein level. We profiled the expression of 41 alternative transcripts encoded by 14 AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc region genes (USP9Y, DDX3Y, XKRY, HSFY1, CYORF15A, CYORF15B, KDM5D, EIF1AY, RPS4Y2, RBMY1A1, PRY, BPY2, DAZ1, and CDY1) as well as their X chromosome homologue transcripts and a few autosomal homologues. Of the 41 transcripts, 18 were significantly down-regulated in men with NOA when compared with those of men with complete spermatogenesis. In contrast, the expression of five transcripts increased significantly in NOA patients. Furthermore, to confirm the qPCR results at the protein level, we performed immunoblotting and IHC experiments (based on 24 commercial and homemade antibodies) that detected 10 AZF-encoded proteins. In addition, their localization in testis cell types and organelles was determined. Interestingly, the two missing proteins, XKRY and CYORF15A, were detected for the first time. Finally, we focused on the expression patterns of the significantly altered genes in 12 MA patients with successful sperm retrieval compared to those of 12 MA patients with failed sperm retrieval to predict the success of sperm retrieval in azoospermic men. We showed that HSFY1-1, HSFY1-3, BPY2-1, KDM5C2, RBMX2, and DAZL1 transcripts could be used as potential molecular markers to predict the presence of spermatozoa in MA patients. In this study, we have identified isoform level signature that can be used to discriminate effectively between MA, SCOS, and normal testicular tissues and suggests the possibility of diagnosing the presence of mature sperm cell in azoospermic men to prevent additional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) surgery.
Pub.: 15 Jul '15, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: One of the major objectives of the Human Y Chromosome Proteome Project is to characterize sets of proteins encoded from the human Y chromosome. Lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5D (KDM5D) is located on the AZFb region of the Y chromosome and encodes a JmjC-domain-containing protein. KDM5D, the least well-documented member of the KDM5 family, is capable of demethylating di- and trimethyl H3K4. In this study, we detected two novel splice variants of KDM5D with lengths of 2650bp and 2400bp that correspond to the 100 and 80 kDa proteins in the human prostate cancer cell line, DU-145. The knockdown of two variants using the short interfering RNA (siRNA) approach increased the growth rate of prostate cancer cells and reduced cell apoptosis. To explore the proteome pattern of the cells after KDM5D downregulation, we applied a shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics approach. Of 820 proteins present in all four replicates of two treatments, the abundance of 209 proteins changed significantly in response to KDM5D suppression. Of these, there were 102 proteins observed to be less abundant and 107 more abundant in KDM5D knockdown cells compared with control cells. The results revealed that KDM5D knockdown altered the abundance of proteins involved in RNA processing, protein synthesis, apoptosis, the cell cycle, and growth and proliferation. In conjunction, these results provided new insights into the function of KDM5D and its splice variants. The proteomics data are available at PRIDE with ProteomeXchange identifier PXD000416.
Pub.: 29 Jul '15, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex remodels the genome in the context of both gene transcription and DNA damage repair. It is essential for normal development and is distributed across multiple tissues in organisms ranging from mammals to nematode worms. In common with other chromatin‐remodeling complexes, however, its molecular mechanism of action is not well understood and only limited structural information is available to show how the complex is assembled. As a step towards understanding the structure of the NuRD complex, we have characterized the interaction between two subunits: the metastasis associated protein MTA1 and the histone‐binding protein RBBP4. We show that MTA1 can bind to two molecules of RBBP4 and present negative stain electron microscopy and chemical crosslinking data that allow us to build a low‐resolution model of an MTA1‐(RBBP4)2 subcomplex. These data build on our understanding of NuRD complex structure and move us closer towards an understanding of the biochemical basis for the activity of this complex.
Pub.: 18 May '16, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
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