PhD Student, Wenzhou Medical University
The central nervous system (CNS) is critical for the body. During the differentiation of CNS, there is an essential process called “neurite outgrowth”. When CNS suffers from damage, neurite regrowth is essential for repair. However, adult CNS axons are unable to regenerate, unlike the immature ones. So far, CNS regeneration is still a big challenge for clinics. Effective therapeutic methods are demanded. Magnetic field has been found to associate with nerve regeneration. For example, transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) technique has been widely used as a noninvasive brain stimulation technique. TMS used electromagnetic field to affect the excitability of the underlying neurons. But TMS induced many side effects due to its strong magnetic fields (generally more than 0.3T). These include transient headache, local pain, neck pain, toothache, paresthesias, transient hearing changes and so on. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel and saver magnetic stimulation system with weaker magnetic field (less than 0.03T).
Abstract: To review novel techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS), which may have value in assessment and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI).Review of the following techniques: transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, low-level laser therapy, and transcranial Doppler sonography. Furthermore, we provide a brief overview of TMS studies to date.We describe the rationale for the use of these techniques in TBI, discuss their possible mechanisms of action, and raise a number of considerations relevant to translation of these methods to clinical use. Depending on the stimulation parameters, NBS may enable suppression of the acute glutamatergic hyperexcitability following TBI and/or counter the excessive GABAergic effects in the subacute stage. In the chronic stage, brain stimulation coupled to rehabilitation may enhance behavioral recovery, learning of new skills, and cortical plasticity. Correlative animal models and comprehensive safety trials seem critical to establish the use of these modalities in TBI.Different forms of NBS techniques harbor the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic utility, particularly to guide processes of cortical reorganization and enable functional restoration in TBI. Future lines of safety research and well-designed clinical trials in TBI are warranted to determine the capability of NBS to promote recovery and minimize disability.
Pub.: 22 Jun '11, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains one of the greatest challenges of neurosurgery, as functional recover is rarely satisfactory in these patients. Recently, biodegradable nerve guides have shown great potential for enhancing nerve regeneration. A major advantage of these nerve guides is that no foreign material remains after the device has fulfilled its task, which spares a second surgical intervention. Recently, we studied peripheral nerve regeneration using chitosan-γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (chitosan-GPTMS) porous hybrid membranes. In our studies, these porous membranes significantly improved nerve fiber regeneration and functional recovery in rat models of axonotmetic and neurotmetic sciatic nerve injuries. In particular, the number of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers and myelin thickness were significantly higher in rat treated with chitosan porous hybrid membranes, whether or not they were used in combination with mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord. In this review, we describe our findings on the use of chitosan-GPTMS hybrids for nerve regeneration.
Pub.: 24 Jul '14, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
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