How might scientific research inform our personal decisions?
Love is a broader concept than many suppose...
How is it that on today's hyper-connected, ultra-social planet, love remains elusive for so many people? This pinboard takes a look at romance and attraction from various scientific standpoints, considering the history of relationships in different cultural contexts alongside present-day studies into love at first sight, adolescent concepts of love, and motivations for infidelity.
The conventional view in biology is that there are three major drives in love – sex drive, attachment, and partner preference. Central dopamine pathways mediate partner preference behavior, while vasopressin in the ventral pallidum and oxytocin in the nucleus accumbens and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus mediate partner preference and attachment behaviors. Sex drive is modulated primarily by activity in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway (comprising the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens). Testosterone and estrogen contribute to these drives by modulating activity within dopamine pathways.
From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, the experiences and behaviors associated with love can be investigated in terms of how they have been shaped by human evolution. For example, it has been suggested that human language has been selected during evolution as a type of "mating signal" that allows potential mates to judge reproductive fitness. Since Darwin's time, there have been speculations about the evolution of human interest in music as a signalling system for attracting and judging the fitness of potential mates. It has been suggested that the human capacity to experience love has been evolved as a signal to potential mates that the partner will be a good parent and be likely to help pass genes to future generations. Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as 'unconditional selflessness', suggesting utterly cooperative instincts developed in modern humans' ancestor, Australopithecus.
Abstract: Authors: Amy Burge Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09589236.2017.1287065?ai=z4&mi=3fqos0&af=R Citation: Journal of Gender Studies Publication Date: 2017-02-13T04:17:19Z Journal: Journal of Gender Studies
Pub.: 13 Feb '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: To explore how youths' perceived relationship self-efficacy following relationship education may vary on the basis of program and youth characteristics.Youth-focused relationship education has been shown to promote attitudes and behaviors that foster healthy romantic relationships. Yet little is known about the factors associated with variations in these program outcomes.Using data collected from a convenience sample of 1,076 youth who participated in the Love U2: Relationship Smarts Plus program, structural equation models and multiple group analysis using chi-square difference tests were examined to assess whether and how various program and youth characteristics are associated with relationship self-efficacy.Youths' romantic relationship self-efficacy was greater when programming was offered within a week or weekly versus monthly, after school rather than in-school, and whether participants were female and had previous dating experiences. Several demographic factors (e.g., race, sex) moderated the influence of programmatic and individual characteristics on self-efficacy.Variability exists in how relationship and marriage education programs are implemented in uncontrolled real-world settings. Our findings suggest that program outcomes may also vary on the basis of certain youth and program characteristics.Practitioners should carefully consider how the tailoring of program content and delivery to meet the needs of diverse audiences maintains program fidelity and can potentially influence program outcomes.
Pub.: 15 Dec '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), most of whom were young adults, self-reported their infidelities. In addition to evidence for previously studied motivations, our data demonstrate additional factors, including lack of love ("I had 'fallen out of love with' my primary partner"), low commitment ("I was not very committed to my primary partner"), esteem ("I wanted to enhance my popularity"), gaining sexual variety ("I wanted a greater variety of sexual partners"), and situational factors ("I was drunk and not thinking clearly"). Our results also show personality correlates with infidelity motivations. Consistent with predictions, attachment insecurity was associated with motivations of anger, lack of love, neglect, low commitment, and esteem, while unrestricted sociosexual orientation was associated with sexual variety. Implicit beliefs (e.g., growth, destiny, romanticism) were differentially associated with sexual desire, low commitment, lack of love, and neglect. These findings highlight multifaceted motivations underlying infidelity, moving beyond relationship deficit models of infidelity, with implications for research and psychotherapy involving people's romantic and sexual relationships.
Pub.: 16 Dec '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: Media content analyses indicate that gender-based differences in sexuality are common and consistent with gender stereotypes. Specifically, women are expected to focus on love and romantic relationships and have sexually objectified bodies, while men are expected to focus on sexual behavior. Although decades of research have documented the presence of these stereotypes in a broad variety of visual media, much less is known about the content of popular music lyrics. Relying on a database of 1250 songs across five decades (the top 50 songs from even-numbered years from 1960 through 2008), we documented the presence or absence of a dating relationship, the word “love” (and its uses), sexual activity, and sexual objectification of females and males (separately). Analyses revealed that the vast majority of songs addressed at least one of these themes, primarily dating relationships. Although female performers were proportionally more likely to address romantic relationships than male performers, raw counts reversed this pattern because male performers substantially outnumbered female performers. Males were proportionally more likely to sing about sexual behavior and to objectify both females and males. References to romantic relationships became less common over time, while references to sexual behavior and objectified bodies became more common. Content varied across genres, with rap being the least likely to reference dating and most likely to reference sexual behavior. Implications for sexual development are discussed.
Pub.: 18 May '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: Most theories about virtue cultivation fall under the general umbrella of the role model approach, according to which virtue is acquired by emulating role models, and where those role models are usually conceived of as superior in some relevant respect to the learners. I argue that although we need role models to cultivate virtue, we also need good and close relationships with people who are not our superiors. The overemphasis on role models is misguided and misleading, and a good antidote draws on the Aristotelian concept of character friendship. Character friendship (a) constitutes a unique form of experience in which we share a substantial way of seeing with a close other; (b) facilitates a unique form of knowledge, the knowledge of a particular person (my-self and the other's self); (c) develops other emotions important for virtue cultivation besides admiration, such as love, shame, trust, and hope; and (d) is a praxis in which cooperative interactions and discussions function as a bridge between habituation of virtue at home and the public life. Character friendship provides necessary elements for human cultivation of virtue that the sole experience of having a role model does not.
Pub.: 22 Nov '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: Romantic relationships and offspring are discussed as anxiety buffers in terror management processes. We examined the relationship between these possible buffers and tested whether romantic relationships reduce existential threat due to reproduction opportunities or if they represent a distinct anxiety buffer. Contrary to our initial expectations, thinking about a positive romantic relationship without (vs. with) own children increased partner affect (Study 1) and commitment (Study 2) and decreased punishment intentions (Study 2) after mortality salience. These effects were mediated by participants' desire for romantic love. Furthermore, thinking about positive nonparental (vs. parental) romantic relationships lowered death-thought accessibility (Study 3). Together, these findings suggest that romantic relationships form a distinct anxiety buffer that is only effective when the cultural (romance) instead of the biological (having children) nature of the relationship is highlighted. We discuss the role of anxiety buffer salience for determining whether offspring concerns buffer or increase existential threat.
Pub.: 22 Nov '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: What makes unique and unrepeatable individuals is their ability to write their own story attributing meaning, sharing it through narration, giving coherence to the information related to the interpersonal motivational systems, and creating alternative hierarchies to those biologically provided by the genetic code. Through clinical narratives and narrative literature, we can observe the recurrence of specific topics, across time and different cultures. Hence, we wondered whether there are some evolutionary suggestions that guide us in the construction of the narrative-autobiographical contents. In this article we proposed a theoretical-clinical hypothesis about the existence of a biological disposition to identify as fundamental six Life Themes (LTs) that contribute to defining the image of the self and the world: Love, Personal Value, Power, Justice, Truth, and Freedom. Besides the innumerable narratives dependent upon context, there may be many ways of telling stories that, instead, would be reported to these few essential themes. A narrative review of the literature about these concepts follows the systematic explanation of the perspective about the LTs as attractors of meaning. The manuscript considers also the process of co-construction of meanings within the interpersonal relationships and the influences of these on the narratives. In particular, we focused on the importance of episodic and autobiographical memory related to the attachment and significant figures, in the construction of the personal story and the LTs. We also explained the possible clinical implications of the theoretical hypothesis of LTs. Within clinical conversations, the LTs could be expressed rigidly or, otherwise, in a confused way. The lack of narrative integration may lead to the dominance of chaos or rigidity that generates suffering. A better comprehension of the LTs in patients' narrations could be useful to identify a narrative profile about the areas of greatest suffering related to the idea of self and the world, as well as to construct an adequate care plan.
Pub.: 23 Nov '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: Love at first sight (LAFS) is a commonly known phenomenon, but has barely been investigated scientifically. Major psychological theories of love predict that LAFS is marked by high passion. However, it could also be a memory confabulation construed by couples to enhance their relationship. We investigated LAFS empirically by assessing feelings of love at the moment participants met potential partners for the first time. Data were collected from an online study, a laboratory study, and three dating events. Experiences of LAFS were marked neither by high passion, nor by intimacy, nor by commitment. Physical attraction was highly predictive of reporting LAFS. We therefore suggest that LAFS is not a distinct form of love, but rather a strong initial attraction that some label as LAFS, either in the moment of first sight or retrospectively.
Pub.: 17 Nov '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: •Sexual economics theory analyzes sexual relationships in economic and market terms.•Women can offer sex or exclusive sexual access to men in exchange for resources.•Women compete by enhancing physical appearance and denigrating rivals’ reputations.•Men compete both individually and in groups to amass resources to exchange for sex.•Because men can compete as groups, male competition is less zero sum than women’s.
Pub.: 01 Jul '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: In this research, we tested hypotheses about the role of oxytocin in adult human bonding. Inspired by revisiting the research on pair bonding in microtine voles that fueled psychologists' interest in the role of oxytocin in social life, we drew on recent theory from affective and relationship science to identify a well-defined bonding context for human romantic relationships. We then paired these behaviors and subjective psychological responses with a measure of naturally circulating oxytocin. In 129 romantically involved adults whose partner expressed gratitude to them in the lab, greater oxytocin over the prior 24 hr was associated with greater perceptions of the expresser's responsiveness and gratitude, as well as greater experienced love, but not general affective reward. Moreover, in this one-time conversation, higher oxytocin acted like rose-colored glasses, attenuating the effect of a partner's behaviorally coded expressive behavior on perceptions of the expresser's responsiveness. These results justify future research on the role of oxytocin in psychological aspects of growth processes.
Pub.: 03 Oct '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas.Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas.ti, focusing on how EAs experience and perceive gender norms in romantic relationships.Across the five sites, only a few respondents described having been in love, the majority of whom were boys. Findings indicate that stereotypical gender norms about romantic relationships prevail across these cultural settings, depicting boys as romantically/sexually active and dominant, and girls as innocent with less (romantic) agency. In spite of the similarities, Nairobi was unique in that respondents referred to how sexual behavior and violence can occur within EA relationships. In all countries, heterosexuality was perceived to be the norm. Nevertheless, there were examples of EAs accepting homosexuality and expressing supportive attitudes toward equality between the sexes.While EAs across five different cultural settings seem to endorse stereotypical gender norms in romantic relationships, a few stories also illustrate more gender-equal attitudes. As stereotypical gender norms have a demonstrated negative effect on adolescent sexual and reproductive health and well-being, additional research is needed to understand which factors-at the interpersonal and structural level-contribute to the construction of these norms among EAs.
Pub.: 17 Sep '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: The present research investigated the roles of identity fusion and impulsiveness in extreme sacrifices for romantic partners. After completing questionnaires assessing identity fusion, inclusion of other in the self, passionate love, and communal orientation, participants responded to the trolley dilemma in which they could save their partner by sacrificing themselves. Participants in the time-pressure condition were given eight-seconds to respond to the dilemma; the other group had no time constraints. Identity fusion was the only variable that significantly predicted ultimate sacrifice. Hurrying participants' response to the dilemma (i.e., inducing impulsive decision-making) increased self-sacrifice in highly fused but not in weakly fused individuals.
Pub.: 13 Sep '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: Divorce rates have dropped in the United States, except for couples over 50 where they are rising steeply, along with rates of late-life recoupling. Both stepcouples and their young adult and adult children in new older stepfamilies are often surprised to find themselves facing many of the same challenges that younger stepfamilies do. Some challenges are even intensified by the decades-long relationships and additional layers of extended family that come with recoupling after mid-life. Stepfamilies formed in later life must also negotiate decisions about estate planning and elder care among stakeholders who often have sharply divergent agendas before there is time to establish trusting relationships. This article describes the "normal" challenges facing stepcouples who come together over age 50. It provides evidence-informed guidance for therapists in meeting these challenges on three levels of clinical work: Psychoeducational, Interpersonal, and Intrapsychic/Intergenerational. As in younger stepfamilies, "family therapy" must usually begin in subsystems-often the adult stepcouple and parent-adult child. The article then describes a particularly fraught subgroup of recouplers: over-50 fathers and their new partners, where the dad's young adult or adult daughter is very unhappy with his new relationship. In these latter stepfamilies, father-daughter repair must precede stepfamily bonding. Stepfamilies that are preceded by a partner's death and those that begin with affairs are also discussed. Finally, some "easy wrong turns" for therapists are described.
Pub.: 10 Sep '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: The effect of free mate choice on the relative magnitude of fitness benefits has been examined among various species. The majority of the data show significant fitness benefits of mating with partners of an individual's own choice, highlighting elevated behavioral compatibility between partners with free mate choice. Similarities between humans and other species that benefit from free mate choice led us to hypothesize that it also confers reproductive benefits in Homo sapiens. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study among three indigenous societies-the Tsimane', Yali, and Bhotiya-who employ natural birth control. In all three samples, we compared the marriages arranged by parents with the non-arranged ones in terms of number of offspring. Here, we show that there were no significant relationships between type of marriage and the total number of alive children and number of dead children among the three sampled groups. The presented study is the first to date to examine the fitness benefits of free mate choice in humans. In discussion we present limitations of our research and discuss the possibility of love having a beneficial influence in terms of the number of offspring.
Pub.: 02 Sep '17, Pinned: 03 Jan '18
Abstract: In “Post-Liberation Feminism,” Ladelle McWhorter raises the question of what practices will be helpful to further feminist goals if we are no longer in a state of domination, but are still oppressed. McWhorter finds resources in Michel Foucault's concept of “practices of freedom” to begin to answer this question. I build upon McWhorter's insight while recalling Angela Davis's Blues Legacies and Black Feminism: namely, that sexual love, as conceived in hoodoo and the blues, became a terrain upon which newly emancipated blacks worked out what their newfound freedom meant. In this essay, I consider what practices of freedom would look like within a life-giving nexus of hoodoo, blues, and sexual love. Not only does the image of the hoodoo woman, prevalent within the blues, emerge through an interaction of race, class, region, gender, sexuality, and spiritualty, but analyzing sexual love within this hoodoo–blues coupling will help us track how sexual love was transformed into a practice of freedom. I will argue that sexual love within this hoodoo–blues coupling reveals an important dimension of emancipatory work that both defies categorization as resistance and is crucial to the development of capacities for resistance.
Pub.: 09 Dec '16, Pinned: 27 Dec '16
Abstract: Luce Irigaray argues that the way to overcome the culture of narcissism in the Western tradition is to recognize sexuate difference and to refigure subjectivity as sexuate. This article is an attempt to unpack how Irigaray's philosophical refiguring of love as an intermediary works in this process of reimagining subjectivity as sexuate. If we trace the moments in Irigaray's philosophy where she engages with Hegel's dialectic, and rethinks this dialectical process via the question of sexual difference and a refiguring of love, a clearer reading of her work as groundbreaking and ultimately refiguring our (Western) ontological structures becomes possible. Consequently, if we do not understand Irigaray's radical reformulation of love, we will miss her larger ontological project and fail to properly appreciate her comments on other types of difference—for example, differences of race, tradition, religion. This article argues that as we begin to appreciate the ways in which Irigaray refigures both love and thought as the intermediary, an intermediary that fundamentally disrupts phallocentric binary logic, we can begin to imagine how refiguring the most intimate human experience of love can lead us toward the realization of an ethical political community in which difference in all forms is nourished.
Pub.: 09 Dec '16, Pinned: 20 Dec '16
Abstract: This is an essay in comparative ethics within the Platonist tradition. Although the primary focus is on Augustine’s account of rightly ordered love of neighbor in De vera religione, it analyzes Augustine’s account of the love of finite goods by comparing it with Plato’s grounding of the love of imperfect creatures within an ontological hierarchy in Symposium. Against the backdrop of the critique by modern readers that neither thinker’s teleological and hierarchical view of love allows for a real love of particular individuals, this essay will show how for Plato and Augustine alike, the love of the One—the Beautiful, for Plato, and God, for Augustine—conditions all other loves. Augustine’s ontological hierarchy of the one eternal God and the many created goods leads him to insist that the love of God, who alone is loved for his own sake, conditions the Christian’s love of neighbors whom she loves not for their own sake but for God’s. The Platonic ontology of Augustine’s theodicy, it will be argued, allows him to explain how use-love is a genuine expression of love for the neighbor in her particularity and yet remains subordinated to one’s highest love of God.
Pub.: 18 Nov '16, Pinned: 19 Dec '16
Abstract: Authors: Mariela Fargas Peñarrocha Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09612025.2016.1250547?ai=z4&mi=3fqos0&af=R Citation: Women's History Review Publication Date: 2016-11-23T07:22:10Z Journal: Women's History Review
Pub.: 23 Nov '16, Pinned: 19 Dec '16
Abstract: The so-called selective two-child policy was introduced on December, 27, 2015 in China to allow Chinese couples nationwide to have up to two children if either parent is an only child. This study aims to explore Chinese women's intention to have a second child.We surveyed women from 16 hospitals in five Chinese provinces from June 1 to August 31, 2015. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the sociodemographic factors related to seven key reasons for entering second pregnancy. All data analyses were performed using SAS (version 9.1). This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chongqing Medical University. All participants submitted written informed consent.2345 women were surveyed; we recruited 590 of these women who were pregnant with their second child for this study. The key reasons for entering second pregnancy among the studied women included: benefits for the first child 153/590 (26·1%), love of children 152 (25·8%), adoption of the two-child policy 68 (11·5%), concerns of losing the first child 44 (7·5%), suggestions from grandparents 44 (7·5%), sex of first child 15 (2·5%), and disability of the first child 8 (1·4%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that pregnant women whose current partner was not the father of their first child had less intention for a second child for the benefits of the older child than did mothers whose partner was the father of the older child (OR 0·33 [95% CI 0·13-0·84]). Parents without siblings were less likely to report having a second child because of love of children than parents who have siblings (women, 0·54 [0·36-0·81]; men, 0·56 [0·38-0·83]). Compared with Han Chinese women, women from minority backgrounds were 2·67 times more likely to have a second child because of the love of children (OR 2·67 [95% CI 1·18-6·04]). Women with higher education level were less likely to be influenced by their parents (0·13 [0·05-0·32]). Women with higher education level were more likely to be influenced by the selective two-child policy (3·185 [1·506-6·735]). Women without siblings and those living in urban areas were less likely to have a second child due to the concerns of losing the first child than those who had siblings (0·37 [0·17-0·81]) or lived in rural areas 0·518 [0·27-0·99]).Women who are better educated are more likely to have a second child to meet personal needs and the two-child policy seems to have less of a determining role. Having siblings, marital and paternity factors, and residency status also influence the decision to have a second child.Medjaden Academy & Research Foundation for Young Scientists (Grant No. MJR20150047) and Summer Social Practice Project of School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University.
Pub.: 15 Dec '16, Pinned: 19 Dec '16
Abstract: This essay explores the impact of Charles Darwin’s often poetic, largely geological travel narratives – the Diary and Voyage of the Beagle – on Elizabeth Bishop’s queered travel poems "Crusoe in England"(1976) and "Vague Poem"(circa 1973), in the context of recent feminist theory’s materialist ecological "turn." I survey Bishop’s shift from her early Freudian, "primordial" rocky landscapes, projecting submerged desires for a seductive mother figure, to her later deliberate materializations of these psychosexual realms in "the real" of geology’s unfolding forces and flows. Adapting Darwin’s similarly haunted, dark, Romantic accounts of his voyaging into crustal earth, Bishop’s "Crusoe" and "Vague Poem" variously enact an immersion in earth’s unfolding volcanic or crystalline ancestral past, which successively opens out "eco-geologically" to enmesh queer human intimacy/the body. Theoretically, Bishop’s Darwinian love poems richly materialize the queer body while redefining our enmeshment in nature as the wellspring of achieved being, intimacy, and desire. Further, Bishop’s poems offer a newly relevant feminist ecology within our so-called Anthropocene era of humanly caused, unnaturally accelerated geology. Bishop effectively inserts a "differently" sexed/gendered relation to geologic forces and materialities, thereby countering the neglectful patriarchal anthropos currently scarring our planet.
Pub.: 03 Dec '16, Pinned: 19 Dec '16
Abstract: Why do we labour so hard to sustain relationships that are fundamentally harmful to our wellbeing? That is the question which lies at the heart of Maja Borg’s poetic and alternatively distributed documentary film, Future My Love (2012). The detrimental bonds on which the film focuses are those that maintain our connection to an economic system that has thrown us into an acute state of crisis and the stillborn emotions that keep us hopefully attached to a romantic partnership that we have already outgrown; this elision imbricates and implicates the personal in the political. Through a prism of painful and, at times, unbearable emotion, and by blurring the boundaries between the public and the private, the real and the fictional, this film urges us to imagine ourselves into a future in which it might be possible to live otherwise; but this requires us to abandon the future we have already imagined and, as the film evinces through archival imagery from the 1950s or golden age of capitalism, imaged ourselves into. By drawing on the work of Lauren Berlant and Sara Ahmed on the cultural politics of emotion, Judith Butler’s work on the act of mourning, and the writing of Eva Illouz, Luce Irigaray and Alain Badiou on love in the age of late capitalism, this article contends that Future My Love pleads with us to abandon, in Ahmed’s words, ‘happiness for life’, to forsake an ideology that is invested in a highly specific notion of what it means to flourish and to thrive, to mourn and name our losses, and to think about the future creatively and without cynicism.
Pub.: 21 Nov '16, Pinned: 12 Dec '16
Abstract: Dominant cultural ideologies of motherhood define the nature of mother love. Recent developments in motherhood studies, and the work of a small number of feminist philosophers and scholars of motherhood, have challenged the tenets of these ideologies by daring to speak the “unspeakable”: that mother love is often and for all mothers, whether consciously or not, permeated by powerful negative and conflicting emotions termed maternal ambivalence. In this essay, relying on recorded personal narratives by Bosnian women who are raising children born of wartime rape, as well as recent studies on empowered motherhood, my aim is to show that maternal love, like love in any other close relationship, encompasses and assimilates healthy ambivalence, and can inform maternal care in a constructive and positive manner. I argue that the acknowledgment of healthy maternal ambivalence as an integral aspect of mother love involves honoring the mother's subjectivity and validates her personhood, and as such it opens up the possibility of redefining mother love in terms that are empowering to mothers.
Pub.: 09 Dec '16, Pinned: 12 Dec '16
Abstract: This qualitative study examines how Latina girls’ understanding of infidelity influences how they approach and interact with romantic partners. In-depth interviews with 24 Mexican American girls, ages 14 to 18, growing up in inner-city neighborhoods, formed the basis of this study. Although cheating was a major concern, most of the girls were more concerned with the emotional ramifications of being cheated on than any physical consequences. Fueled by a belief that most boys are "players," they became adept at identifying "red flags" that might indicate infidelity. The most frequently mentioned red flags were "Putting in the Time," "Adopting a Public Versus Private Persona," "Partner Seems Less Interested," "Being Secretive," and "Flirting with Other Girls." They also relied on electronic surveillance and peer warnings. Although the girls attempted to protect themselves, their reactions and behaviors were often constrained by a larger patriarchal structure outside their immediate control. Implications for gender-specific programs are discussed.
Pub.: 03 Dec '16, Pinned: 12 Dec '16
Abstract: The nurturing that produces love, care, and solidarity constitutes a discrete social system of affective relations. Affective relations are not social derivatives, subordinate to economic, political, or cultural relations in matters of social justice. Rather, they are productive, materialist human relations that constitute people mentally, emotionally, physically, and socially. As love laboring is highly gendered, and is a form of work that is both inalienable and noncommodifiable, affective relations are therefore sites of political import for social justice. We argue that it is impossible to have gender justice without relational justice in loving and caring. Moreover, if love is to thrive as a valued social practice, public policies need to be directed by norms of love, care, and solidarity rather than norms of capital accumulation. To promote equality in the affective domains of loving and caring, we argue for a four-dimensional rather than a three-dimensional model of social justice as proposed by Nancy Fraser (2008). Such a model would align relational justice, especially in love laboring, with the equalization of resources, respect, and representation.
Pub.: 09 Dec '16, Pinned: 12 Dec '16
Abstract: Abstract Parental drug-usage is a risk factor for child neglect. Maternal drug-dependency, in particular, has far reaching implications for the mother, her children, and the grandparents who are left to rear the children when the mother’s drug-dependency prohibits her from doing so. Thus, drug-related maternal incapacity to adequately parent her child/ren places a tri-generational burden on society. This study aimed to broaden understanding of this burden. In this regard, forty-nine custodial grandparent interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Grandparents typically revealed their daughter’s marijuana usage began in early-mid adolescence, progressed to heavy drugs, and led to an early exit from the family home. A teen-aged pregnancy commonly followed. Grandparents when becoming aware of their grandchild/ren’s mother’s continued drug use and repeated instances of child neglect issued the the children’s mother with a ‘go-into-rehab-or-lose-your-custodial-care-of-your-child/ren’ ultimatum. Drug-dependent mothers were often unable to meet this ultimatum and grandparents then transferred their energies into caring for their grandchild/ren. The implications of this grandparent investiture shift are discussed, and future policy considerations are tabled.AbstractParental drug-usage is a risk factor for child neglect. Maternal drug-dependency, in particular, has far reaching implications for the mother, her children, and the grandparents who are left to rear the children when the mother’s drug-dependency prohibits her from doing so. Thus, drug-related maternal incapacity to adequately parent her child/ren places a tri-generational burden on society. This study aimed to broaden understanding of this burden. In this regard, forty-nine custodial grandparent interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Grandparents typically revealed their daughter’s marijuana usage began in early-mid adolescence, progressed to heavy drugs, and led to an early exit from the family home. A teen-aged pregnancy commonly followed. Grandparents when becoming aware of their grandchild/ren’s mother’s continued drug use and repeated instances of child neglect issued the the children’s mother with a ‘go-into-rehab-or-lose-your-custodial-care-of-your-child/ren’ ultimatum. Drug-dependent mothers were often unable to meet this ultimatum and grandparents then transferred their energies into caring for their grandchild/ren. The implications of this grandparent investiture shift are discussed, and future policy considerations are tabled.
Pub.: 01 Dec '16, Pinned: 12 Dec '16
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