Faculty at Neurology Department, Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
Stroke in young adults has rare and unique etiologies and improvement depends on its early detection
“Ischemic stroke in young adults”. Stroke is one of the reason for the disabilty for all ages patients, but young patients suffer more, because they are reliable nucleus of each government. In my observation I included young patients, suffered from stroke because of different reasons, and most of them were not typical for older patients. Kyrgyzstan is a high-mountainous country, so I also study stroke types on high and low altitudes and compare the etiologies. When we find the reason, we can make very specific treatment and our young patients can prevent further strokes and disabilities.
Abstract: Optimal diagnosis and management of stroke in young adults benefit from a multidisciplinary team, including a vascular neurology specialist. In addition to the "standard" vascular risk factors including smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, one needs to consider alternative etiologies including substance abuse, carotid/vertebral artery dissections, and rare genetic conditions among others. Once a young patient is determined to have had a stroke, the next question a clinician should ask is why did this patient have a stroke? A "heart to head" diagnostic approach is recommended. A thorough history is performed, including a detailed family history with specific annotations on each family member. A thorough physical examination is necessary including a careful evaluation of the patient's general appearance, noting any joint laxity, and/or abnormalities of the skin, eyes, and heart. Findings across multiple organ systems in the patient and/or their family may indicate a genetic etiology. After an initial head CT rules out hemorrhagic stroke, additional testing should include a brain MRI, neck and cerebral vascular imaging (e.g., CTA for head and neck), transthoracic echocardiogram with a bubble study, telemetry monitoring, basic risk factor blood work (e.g., lipid panel, hemoglobin A1c, TSH, ESR, CRP, RPR, HIV, and toxicology screen), and, when appropriate, sickle screen and pregnancy test. There should be a low threshold to obtain blood cultures or a lumbar puncture. The acute treatment of ischemic stroke in young adult patients does not differ from treatment of older adults, using intravenous alteplase within 4.5 h, assuming no contraindications. In suspected proximal large artery occlusive disease, interventional clot extraction procedures should be employed in patients deemed eligible. Long-term secondary prevention strategies aimed to reduce recurrent stroke risk by targeting and modifying vascular risk factors should be instituted. The mainstay of preventative therapy is aspirin for most etiologies; however, for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation is recommended. Statin therapy is another pharmacologic intervention recommended in most stroke patients. Other measures employed are blood pressure reduction, smoking cessation, optimal glucose control in diabetic patients, the initiation of a healthy diet and regular exercise, and lastly, substance abuse counseling in appropriate patients.
Pub.: 28 Sep '17, Pinned: 31 Oct '17
Abstract: The authors have analyzed the causes of ischemic stroke (IS) in more than 600 young patients examined in the cerebrovascular department of the Neurological Research Center (Moscow) during the period 2003-2016 years. It has been suggested that a wider use of high-resolution MRI and T1 weighted db-fs images as well as intracranial CTA will help to verify more often intracranial dissection and primary cerebral vasculitis that will result in a decrease of cryptogenic IS frequency.
Pub.: 06 Oct '17, Pinned: 31 Oct '17
Abstract: The incidence of stroke is on the rise in young adults in high-income countries. However, there is a gap of knowledge about trends in stroke incidence in young adults from low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to measure trends in incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (IH) in young people from 2005 to 2015 in Joinville, Brazil.We retrospectively ascertained all first-ever IS subtypes and IH that occurred in Joinville in the periods of 2005 to 2006, 2010 to 2011, and 2014 to 2015. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios of all strokes, IS, and IH. We also compared the prevalence of risk factors and extension of diagnostic work-up across the 3 periods.For 10 years, we registered 2483 patients (7.5% aged <45 years). From 2005 to 2006 to 2014 to 2015, overall stroke incidence significantly increased by 62% (incidence rate ratios, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.40) in subjects <45 years and by 29% in those <55 years (incidence rate ratios, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.60). Incidence of IS increased by 66% (incidence rate ratios, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.54), but there was no significant change in incidence of IH in subjects <45 years. Smoking rates decreased by 71% (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.68).Stroke incidence is rising in young adults in Joinville, Brazil, because of increase in rates of ischemic but not hemorrhagic strokes. We urgently need better policies of cardiovascular prevention in the young.
Pub.: 08 Oct '17, Pinned: 31 Oct '17
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