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CURATOR
A pinboard by
Menghan Liu

Graduate student, New York University School of Medicine

PINBOARD SUMMARY

We investigate and identify the bacteria within gut microbiome that remove a specific toxic molecule

Human gut microbiome is the collection of 'bugs' that reside in the Gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have shown the mutualism relationship between humans and the gut microbiome. The commensal microbiome is beneficial to their host with the effect on host immune system development, metabolism homeostasis. Among those beneficial effect, we focus on one that is greatly understudied - the ability of microbiome to break down circulating toxic compound in human body. More specifically, we are interested in one toxic compound and our research questions are 1) is microbiome is protective to humans against this toxic compound? 2) if yes, what bacteria is performing this function? 3) Through what mechanism is those identified bacteria is getting rid of this toxic compound in human body?

12 ITEMS PINNED

The Presence of Oxalobacter formigenes in the Microbiome of Healthy Young Adults.

Abstract: Oxalobacter formigenes, a member of the human colonic microbiota with a major role in net colonic oxalate transport and secretion, is protective against the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones. We describe the prevalence, relative abundance and stability of O. formigenes in healthy young adults in the United States.We used HMP (Human Microbiome Project) data on fecal samples from 242 healthy young adults who had 1 to 3 study visits. Samples underwent whole genomic shotgun sequencing and/or 16S rRNA sequencing. Three data sets available from the processed sequence data were studied, including whole genomic shotgun metagenomic analysis by alignment to reference genomes using shotgun community profiling, or MetaPhlAn (http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/metaphlan) or QIIME (http://qiime.org/) analysis of the V1-3 or V3-5 16S sequences.O. formigenes was detected in fecal samples using whole genomic shotgun and 16S rRNA data. Analysis of the whole genomic shotgun data set using shotgun community profiling showed that 29 of 94 subjects (31%) were O. formigenes positive. V1-3 and V3-5 analyses were less sensitive for O. formigenes detection. When present, O. formigenes relative abundance varied over 3 log10 and was normally distributed. All assays agreed in 58 of 66 samples (88%) studied by all 3 methods. Of 14 subjects who were O. formigenes positive at baseline 13 (93%) were positive at the followup visit, indicating the stability of colonization.O. formigenes appears to be stably present in fewer than half of healthy young adults in the United States. It is most sensitively detected by whole genomic shotgun.

Pub.: 21 Aug '15, Pinned: 28 Jun '17

Microbiome perturbation by oral vancomycin reduces plasma concentration of two gut-derived uremic solutes, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, in end-stage renal disease.

Abstract: Observational studies have suggested a relationship between the plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p -cresyl sulfate (PCS), small gut-derived 'uremic solutes', and the high incidence of uremic cardiomyopathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). IS and PCS are derived from the metabolism of dietary components (tryptophan and tyrosine) by gut bacteria. This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of a poorly absorbable antibiotic (vancomycin) on the plasma concentration of two gut-derived 'uremic solutes', IS and PCS, and on the composition of the gut microbiome.Plasma concentrations of IS and PCS were measured by MS-HPLC. The gut microbiome was assessed in stool specimens sequenced for the 16S rRNA gene targeting the V4 region.The pre-dialysis mean plasma concentrations of both IS and PCS were markedly elevated. Following the administration of vancomycin (Day 0), the IS and PCS concentrations decreased at Day 2 or Day 5 and returned to baseline by Day 28. Following vancomycin administration, several changes in the gut microbiome were observed. Most striking was the decrease in diversity, a finding that was evident on Day 7 and was still evident at Day 28. There was little change at the phylum level but at the genus level, broad population changes were noted. Changes in the abundance of several genera appeared to parallel the concentration of IS and PCS.These findings suggest that alteration of the gut microbiome, by an antibiotic, might provide an important strategy in reducing the levels of IS and PCS in ESRD.

Pub.: 06 Apr '17, Pinned: 28 Jun '17