Graduate student, New York University School of Medicine
We investigate and identify the bacteria within gut microbiome that remove a specific toxic molecule
Human gut microbiome is the collection of 'bugs' that reside in the Gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have shown the mutualism relationship between humans and the gut microbiome. The commensal microbiome is beneficial to their host with the effect on host immune system development, metabolism homeostasis. Among those beneficial effect, we focus on one that is greatly understudied - the ability of microbiome to break down circulating toxic compound in human body. More specifically, we are interested in one toxic compound and our research questions are 1) is microbiome is protective to humans against this toxic compound? 2) if yes, what bacteria is performing this function? 3) Through what mechanism is those identified bacteria is getting rid of this toxic compound in human body?
Abstract: Hyperoxaluria is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel diseases, ileal resection and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and is well-known to cause nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. The associated prevalence of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is less clear but may be more consequential than recognized. In this review, we highlight three cases of ESKD due to enteric hyperoxaluria following small bowel resections. We review current information on the pathophysiology, complications and treatment of this complex disease.
Pub.: 24 Feb '15, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Oxalobacter formigenes, a member of the human colonic microbiota with a major role in net colonic oxalate transport and secretion, is protective against the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones. We describe the prevalence, relative abundance and stability of O. formigenes in healthy young adults in the United States.We used HMP (Human Microbiome Project) data on fecal samples from 242 healthy young adults who had 1 to 3 study visits. Samples underwent whole genomic shotgun sequencing and/or 16S rRNA sequencing. Three data sets available from the processed sequence data were studied, including whole genomic shotgun metagenomic analysis by alignment to reference genomes using shotgun community profiling, or MetaPhlAn (http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/metaphlan) or QIIME (http://qiime.org/) analysis of the V1-3 or V3-5 16S sequences.O. formigenes was detected in fecal samples using whole genomic shotgun and 16S rRNA data. Analysis of the whole genomic shotgun data set using shotgun community profiling showed that 29 of 94 subjects (31%) were O. formigenes positive. V1-3 and V3-5 analyses were less sensitive for O. formigenes detection. When present, O. formigenes relative abundance varied over 3 log10 and was normally distributed. All assays agreed in 58 of 66 samples (88%) studied by all 3 methods. Of 14 subjects who were O. formigenes positive at baseline 13 (93%) were positive at the followup visit, indicating the stability of colonization.O. formigenes appears to be stably present in fewer than half of healthy young adults in the United States. It is most sensitively detected by whole genomic shotgun.
Pub.: 21 Aug '15, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Observational studies have suggested a relationship between the plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p -cresyl sulfate (PCS), small gut-derived 'uremic solutes', and the high incidence of uremic cardiomyopathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). IS and PCS are derived from the metabolism of dietary components (tryptophan and tyrosine) by gut bacteria. This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of a poorly absorbable antibiotic (vancomycin) on the plasma concentration of two gut-derived 'uremic solutes', IS and PCS, and on the composition of the gut microbiome.Plasma concentrations of IS and PCS were measured by MS-HPLC. The gut microbiome was assessed in stool specimens sequenced for the 16S rRNA gene targeting the V4 region.The pre-dialysis mean plasma concentrations of both IS and PCS were markedly elevated. Following the administration of vancomycin (Day 0), the IS and PCS concentrations decreased at Day 2 or Day 5 and returned to baseline by Day 28. Following vancomycin administration, several changes in the gut microbiome were observed. Most striking was the decrease in diversity, a finding that was evident on Day 7 and was still evident at Day 28. There was little change at the phylum level but at the genus level, broad population changes were noted. Changes in the abundance of several genera appeared to parallel the concentration of IS and PCS.These findings suggest that alteration of the gut microbiome, by an antibiotic, might provide an important strategy in reducing the levels of IS and PCS in ESRD.
Pub.: 06 Apr '17, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Viruses affect host physiology beyond causing acute disease, thereby giving rise to the concept that the virome is a component of the microbiome. However, the role of the enteric virome is understudied relative to the fast-paced research examining commensal bacteria in the intestine. In this article, I discuss our recent work on murine norovirus indicating that an animal virus in the intestine can provide many of the signals to the host that have been attributed to commensal bacteria. Our findings suggest that the surge in microbiome research should incorporate examination of the enteric virome.
Pub.: 17 Dec '14, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment.
Pub.: 16 Apr '16, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: In the intestine, the microbial genomes and repertoire of biochemical reactions outnumber those of the host and significantly contribute to many aspects of the host's health, including metabolism, immunity, development and behavior, while microbial community imbalance is associated with disease. The crosstalk between the host and its microbiome occurs in part through the secretion of metabolites, which have a profound effect on host physiology. The immune system constantly scans the intestinal microenvironment for information regarding the metabolic state of the microbiota as well as the colonization status. Recent studies have uncovered a major role for microbial metabolites in the regulation of the immune system. In this review, we summarize the central findings of how microbiota-modulated metabolites control immune development and activity.
Pub.: 25 Nov '16, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: The mammalian gastrointestinal tract and associated mucosal immune system harbor a large repertoire of metabolites of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin that play important roles in eukaryotic development and physiology. These often bioactive small molecules originate from nutrition- and environmental-related sources, or are endogenously produced and modulated by the host and its microbiota. A complex network of interactions exists between the intestinal mucosal immune system and the microbiota. This intimate cross-talk may be driven by metabolite secretion and signaling, and features profound influences on host immunity and physiology, including the endocrine, metabolic, and nervous system function in health and disease. Alterations in microbiome-associated metabolite levels and activity are implicated in the pathogenesis of a growing number of illnesses. In this review we discuss the origin and influence of microbiome-modulated metabolites, with an emphasis on immune cell development and function. We further highlight the emerging data potentially implicating metabolite misbalance with host-microbiome-associated disease.
Pub.: 11 Jan '17, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: In addition to the immune system's traditional roles of conferring anti-infectious and anti-neoplastic protection, it has been recently implicated in the regulation of systemic metabolic homeostasis. This cross-talk between the immune and the metabolic systems is pivotal in promoting "metabolic health" throughout the life of an organism and plays fundamental roles in its adaptation to ever-changing environmental makeups and nutritional availability. Perturbations in this intricate immune-metabolic cross-talk contribute to the tendency to develop altered metabolic states that may culminate in metabolic disorders such as malnutrition, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and other features of the metabolic syndrome. Regulators of immune-metabolic interactions include host genetics, nutritional status, and the intestinal microbiome. In this Perspective, we highlight current understanding of immune-metabolism interactions, illustrate differences among individuals and between populations in this respect, and point toward future avenues of research possibly enabling immune harnessing as means of personalized treatment for common metabolic disorders.
Pub.: 09 Mar '17, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: The commensal microbiome constitutes an important modulator of host physiology and risk of disease, including cancer development and progression. Lately, the microbiome has been suggested to modulate the efficacy of anti-cancer treatment. Examples include chemotherapy and total body irradiation-induced barrier function disruption, leading to microbial efflux that drives activation of anti-tumorigenic T cells; Microbiome-driven release of reactive oxygen species contributing to the efficacy of platinum salts; and microbiome-induced immune priming promoting the anti-tumor effects of alkylating chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Furthermore, selected commensals are able to colonize solid tumors. This 'tumor microbiome' may further impact local tumor responses to treatment and potentially be harnessed for tumor-specific targeting and therapeutic delivery. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding of the intricate role of microbiome in modulating efficacy of a number of anti-cancer treatments, and discuss how anti-cancer treatment approaches utilizing the tumor microbiome may enhance oncological treatment efficacy.
Pub.: 23 Apr '17, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: The increasing evidence pointing towards the involvement of the gut microbiome in multiple diseases, as well as its plasticity, renders it a desirable potential therapeutic target. Nevertheless, classical therapies based on the consumption of live probiotic bacteria, or their enrichment by prebiotics, exhibit limited efficacy. Recently, a novel therapeutic approach has been suggested based on metabolites secreted, modulated or degraded by the microbiome. As many of the host-microorganism interactions pertaining to human health are mediated by metabolites, this approach may be able to provide therapeutic efficacy while overcoming caveats of current microbiome-targeting therapies, such as colonization resistance and inter-individual variation in microbial composition. In this Perspective, we will discuss the evidence that supports pursuing the metabolite-based therapeutic approach as well as issues critical for its implementation. In a broader context, we will discuss how recent advances in microbiome research may improve and refine current treatment modalities, and the potential of combining them with metabolite-based interventions as a means of achieving a person-specific, integrated and efficient therapy.
Pub.: 26 May '17, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Bread is consumed daily by billions of people, yet evidence regarding its clinical effects is contradicting. Here, we performed a randomized crossover trial of two 1-week-long dietary interventions comprising consumption of either traditionally made sourdough-leavened whole-grain bread or industrially made white bread. We found no significant differential effects of bread type on multiple clinical parameters. The gut microbiota composition remained person specific throughout this trial and was generally resilient to the intervention. We demonstrate statistically significant interpersonal variability in the glycemic response to different bread types, suggesting that the lack of phenotypic difference between the bread types stems from a person-specific effect. We further show that the type of bread that induces the lower glycemic response in each person can be predicted based solely on microbiome data prior to the intervention. Together, we present marked personalization in both bread metabolism and the gut microbiome, suggesting that understanding dietary effects requires integration of person-specific factors.
Pub.: 08 Jun '17, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Authors: Alexandra E. Livanos, Thomas U. Greiner, Pajau Vangay, Wimal Pathmasiri, Delisha Stewart, Susan McRitchie, Huilin Li, Jennifer Chung, Jiho Sohn, Sara Kim, Zhan Gao, Cecily Barber, Joanne Kim, Sandy Ng, Arlin B. Rogers, Susan Sumner, Xue-Song Zhang, Ken Cadwell, Dan Knights, Alexander Alekseyenko, Fredrik Bäckhed, Martin J. Blaser Article URL: http://feeds.nature.com/~r/nmicrobiol/rss/current/~3/ds_Cy5WB4h0/nmicrobiol2016140 Citation: Nature Microbiology, Published online: 22 August 2016; doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.140 Publication Date: 2016-08-22 Journal: Nature Microbiology
Pub.: 22 Aug '16, Pinned: 28 Jun '17